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Cooper  County 













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I  readily  undertook  to  write  the  history  of  Cooper  County.  Until  I 
had  begun  to  gather  the  material  and  data,  I  did  not  comprehend  the  work 
involved,  nor  the  difficulties  to  be  encountered. 

One  who  from  afar  looks  upon  a  mountain  towering  high,  which  he 
must  approach  and  ascend  by  a  devious,  winding  way,  cannot  afford  to 
weaken  his  courage  by  vain  repining,  or  dissipate  his  energies  by  fretful 
anticipations.  Starting  at  once  upon  his  journey,  he  reaches  the  foot- 
hills, and  to  his  surprise,  the  mountain  seems  not  nearly  so  high.  Pur- 
suing his  way  by  a  gradual  incline  up  the  foot-hills,  he  leisurely  keeps  his 
course  around  and  up  the  mountain,  and  arrives  at  the  summit.  As  he 
stands  there,  comfortably  wearied,  and  inhaling  the  fragrance  of  the  wild 
flowers,  which  he  has  gathered  on  his  way,  he  looks  back  over  his  journey 
as  a  summer  outing. 

Having  completed  my  undertaking,  though  not  to  my  satisfaction,  I 
look  back  upon  my  labor  as  one  of  love  and  pleasure.  No  literary  merit 
is  claimed  for  this  story  of  Cooper  County.  It  has  not  been  written  but 
merely  spoken,  and  at  night,  extending  often  into  the  small  hours  of  the 
morning.  The  Ediphone  has  been  used,  and  from  the  records  the  typist 
has  transcribed  the  spoken  words.  This  has  been  at  a  saving  of  labor, 
but  doubtless  at  the  expense  of  diction.  It  is  hoped,  however,  that  it  has 
the  merit  of  being  in  the  parlance  of  the  street  and  home,  and  that  the 
average  citizen,  with  even  a  limited  vocabulary,  can  read  and  understand, 
without  the  frequent  use  of  the  lexicon. 

History  is  but  a  selection  of  happenings  and  events.  Each  individual, 
every  family,  house  and  farm  has  its  history.  I  have  therefore  attempted 
to  give  only  those  events  which  have  been  of  some  importance  to  the 
county  or  a  particular  neighborhood. 

Of  that  which  has  been  prepared,  I  have  been  compelled  to  eliminate 
much  by  reason  of  want  of  space;  and  it  may  be  that  many  things  of 
interest  to  some  will  not  be  found  in  these  pages.  Errors  have  doubtless 
occurred,  by  reason  of  transcribing,  typesetting  and  proof-reading,  as  it 
is  too  much  to  expect  perfection.  Again,  much  of  the  history  that  has 
been  written  herein  has  been  handed  down  by  word  of  mouth;  and  real- 

izing  the  frailty  of  human  memory,  I  have  attempted  to  arrive  at  the 
truth  as  best  I  could. 

Especial  attention  is  directed  to  the  biographical  sketches  which  form 
a  large  part  of  this  volume.  In  these  sketches  will  be  found  much  inter- 
esting and  valuable  reading,  from  which  the  future  historian  may  well 
compile  a  history  of  Cooper  County.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  many 
others  have  not  availed  themselves  of  this  opportunity  to  perpetuate  the 
history  of  their  families  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  come  after  them. 
However,  this  is  no  fault  of  the  editor,  as  the  pages  of  this  volume  have 
been  open  to  all  who  cared  to  respond  to  the  invitations  of  the  solicitors. 

I  have  followed  the  rule  of  saying  the  pleasant  things,  rather  than 
the  evil,  because  the  good  can  be  found  with  more  pleasure  to  the  seeker. 


Boonville,  Mo.,  July  12,  1919. 


Allen,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry 480 

Andrews,  C.  E.   388 

Andrewls,    /David    396 

Atkinson,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  W 936 

Barron,  Walter    512 

Bell  Air  Rural  School 240 

Bell,  Charles  C.  372 

Blank,  Frank  N.   552 

Boonville,    Main    Street 256 

Bowmer,  George   E.  and   Family 688 

Brandes,  John  A.  and  Wife 616 

Brandes,  Theodore  and  Wife 576 

Bridge,  M.  K.  &  T. 128 

Bridge,  Vine   Clad    208 

Bunceton,    High    School 224 

Bunceton,    Residence    Scene    224 

Bunceton,    Patriotic    Parade 240 

Burrus,  John   and   Amanda 504 

Carey,  Geo.  W.  and  Matilda 556 

Carlos,  H.  D.,  Sr.  540 

Case,   H.   Earl   1008 

Cochran,  O.  W.  and  Wife 548 

Cochran,  W.   J.   680 

Cook,   C.   C.   and   Family 684 

Cosgrove,  John    364 

Court  House,  Old   48 

Court  House,  Present  33 

Davin,  Andrew    888 

Davin.  Family  Residence   888 

Davin,  Michael    888 

Debo,  P.  L.,   Family  Residence 720 

Derendinger,  Mr.  and   Mrs.   Edward  432 
Doerrie,  Charles    400 

Drechsel,   Mr.  and   Mrs.   Charles   H._.  744 
Drennen,   Mrs.   E.   E 440 

Eager,  Charles  L.  492 

Eager,  Mrs.  Charles  L. 492 

Eldridge,  Charles  C.  and  Wife 544 

"Elrod  of  Greenbush" 288 

Fahrenbrink,  C.  W.  and  Family 696 

Fairfax,  C.   P.   1048 

Ferry    Boat,    Boonville   112 

Fricke,   Henry    464 

Friedrich,  Charles  A.  and  Family 648 

Friedrich,  H.  C.  and  Family 408 

Gerhardt,  Joseph  and  Family 660 

Gmelich,  J.  F.  354 

Gorrell,   Amos   and   Family 788 

Grathwohl,  Charles  T. 624 

Gronstedt,   Heinrich   472 

Groom,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  C. 484 

Harlan,  George   C.   976 

Harriman,  Robert  L.   1040 

Harris,  Edward  H.  824 

Harris,  Thomas   A.    756 

Harris,  Judge  T.  A. 560 

Haun,  William  H.,  Residence 816 

Hazell,  J.  I. 452 

Hickam,  Samuel   L.    564 

Hickam,  Mrs.   Samuel  L.  564 

High  School,  Boonville 192 

Hite,  Ernest  L.  and  Family 904 

Howlett,  Robert   E.    984 

Jacobs,  A.   C.   —  508 

Jaeger,  Albert   and    Family 428 

Jeffress,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  James 1088 

Jeffress,  John  W.  and  Family 1092 

Johnson,  C.   B.  728 

Johnson,  Mrs.  C.  B. 728 

Johnson,  Newton  H.   728 

Johnson,  Mrs.    Newton    H.    and    Chil- 
dren    728 

Johnston,  T.  A.  360 

Johnson,  W.  F.  Frontispiece 

Kaiser,  Herman  and  Family 488 

Kemper  Military  School 176 


Kickashear,  Joseph  484 

Kickashear,  Mrs.   Margaret 484 

King,  John 448 

Krohn,  John   F.   652 

[Crohn,  Mrs.  John  F.  652 

Krohn.  Residence  of  John  F. 652 

Leonard,  N.  Nelson   928 

Lohse,  Mrs.   Annie   468 

Lohse,  Fred    468 

Lieber,   Joseph    416 

Lone  Elm   School 272 

McCarty,  M.    M.   1064 

McFarland.  A.    W.   516 

McFarland,  Mrs.  Mary 516 

McNeil,  Peter  P. 992 

Mann,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  J. 440 

Marshall,  F.  M.   800 

Mayfield,  William  A.  896 

Mayfield.  Mrs.   William   A.   896 

Meisenheimer,  Peter  G.  and  Family___  840 

Melkersman.  Ed  and  Wife 632 

Mellor,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  W. 760 

Mellor  Homestead    764 

Mellor.  Thomas     764 

Meyer,  George  H.  and  Family 460 

Meyer   Homestead    456 

Meyer,  William   and   Family 708 

Missouri   Pacific  Depot 144 

Moehle,  E.  L.  and   Family 412 

Muntzel,  Christian   and   Wife 780 

Muntzel,  Robert  J.   664 

Neef,  Philip  P.  and  Family 748 

Nelson,  A.   W.   920 

Nuckols.  Powhatan  C. 524 

Oerly,  Ernest  C.  and  Wife 496 

(  leriy,   Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  and  Fam- 
ily   _-- 500 

Ohlendorf,   Christ   568 

O'Neal,  Amos  — 796 

Parrish,  John   S.   856 

I'atriotic   Parade,   Boonville 336 

Patterson,   Ed  536 

Pens,  From  Oscar  Spieler's 304 

Pilot  Grove,  View  of . 160 

Potter,   Abraham   1000 

Putter,  Mrs.    Nancy   644 

Prairie   Home  Fair 304 

Prize   Herd.   A 288 

Ravenswood   Farm   288 

Reavis,  W.  W.  584 

Renken,  Henry   A.    520 

Renken,  Mrs.  Henry  A.   520 

Rissler,  William  B. 848 

Robertson,  John  644 

Robertson,  Mrs.  Mary  644 

Roe.  Robert  S. 1032 

Roe,  Mrs.  Robert  S. 1032 

Rossen,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  C. 432 

Rudolph,  John    W.    420 

Schlotzhauer,  Christopher    880 

Schlotzhauer,  James  H..  Residence 864 

Schlotzhauer,  John    836 

Schlotzhauer,  John    W.,    Residence 832 

Schupp,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George 872 

Schuster.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Adam 792 

Schuster,  August  R.  and  Family 772 

Schuster,  Benjamin    E.    776 

Schuster,  Mrs.  Benj.   E.   776 

Schuster.   Mr.    and    Mrs.    Henry 1056 

Schuster,  William   808 

Sieckman,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Fritz 480 

Sites.  L.  T.   948 

Smith.  Christ   and   Wife 532 

Smith,  George   W.    944 

Smith,  Jeremiah    and    Wife 608 

Smith.  John   H.  and  Wife 608 

Sombart,  C.    A.    356 

Sombart,  Henry  E. 368 

Spieler,  Mrs.   Elizabeth   404 

Spieler,  Frederick   E.   404 

Steamboating  on  the  Missouri 64 

Starke,  John   D.  960 

Steigleder.  Andrew  and   Family 640 

Stephens,  J.   M.   -  912 

St.  Joseph's  Church  and  School 272 

St.  Joseph's  Hospital-- 208 

Taliaferro,   George   T.    and    Family 700 

Tevis.   Nestor   C.    740 

Tevis,  Mrs.   Xestor  C.  740 


Tevis.  Robert   S.   740 

Tevis,  Simeon   P.    740 

Thornton,   Samuel   Y.   —  784 

Tornado,  Devastation   of    a 320 

Transportation,   Overland  80 

Turley.  William  H.  and   Wife 752 

Wear,  George  H.  and  Wife 592 

Weekley.  Martin    Luther    768 

Wendleton,  David  and  Wife 676 

Weyland,  George  A. 384 

Williams,  William  M.   380 

Windsor,  Eugene   A.    736 

Windsor,  John   H. 732 

Windsor,  Horace  G.  656 

Windsor,  R  .L.   and   Family 424 

Wyan.  Robert  F.  528 

Wyan's,  R.  F.,  Residence 256 

Zollinger.  Augustus    L.    968 

















—ROAD    IMPROVEMENT    79-98 



DENTS  -1 99-122 


FROM  1815  TO  1819. 

EARLY   CHURCHES— A.    FULLER'S    LETTER    123-140 


FROM  1819  TO  1821. 

cooper  County  formed— first  circuit  court— first  record  of  circuit 
court— march  term,  1819— first  judge  of  election— first  con- 
stable— july  term,  1819— first  letters  of  administration — first 
jury  case— proceedings  to  divide  property  on  which  boonville 
is  located  141-153 



FROM  1821  TO  1834. 



FROM  1834  TO  1847. 



CONTINUATION  OF  1834-1847  AND  UP  TO  1861 





COUNTY    185-202 













TUTE    250-264 
















FLOODS  OF  1785,  1811  AND  1826— FLOOD  OF  1844— GREAT  DAMAGE  CAUSED — DEVAS- 







TION      344-353 




Allen,    Henry    A 480 

Ambrose,    Ernest   H.    1097 

Amick,    Eugene    E 370 

Anderson,    Benjamin    F 663 

Anderson,   Rollie   L 447 

Andrews,   Charles   E 388 

Andrews,    David 396 

Apperson,   W.  F 1081 

Armour    and    Company 959 

Atkinson,    Clarence    W 936 

Bail,    George 950 

Bane,    James    S 907 

Barnert,    Edgar   L.    1020 

Barnett,   John    A.    451 

Barnhart,    George 894 

Barnhart,    John    C 535 

Barron,    Walter 512 

Bates,    A.    B.    986 

Baughman,    Charles    A , 1084 

Bauman,     Edward    L 443 

Bechtold,     Frank 1145 

Bechtold,    William 1151 

Beck,    Anton 910 

Bell,  Charles  C.  372 

Bernard,  Louis  D 1158 

Bestgen,    L.    A 1113 

Betteridge,   Frederick  C 790 

Betteridge,   William   A 871 

Biltz,    H.    C 1106 

Black,    Frank    N 552 

Blakey,    Albert    G 570 

Blank,  Frank  N.  552 

Blank,    Nicholas   J 1091 

Blythe,    James    N 886 

Bodamer,    Arthur 1089 

Bodamer,   Charles   H 786 

Boiler,    Gustav    F 821 

Boonville    Mercantile    Company 629 

Bomhauser,   F.   H.   1060 

Bowmer,    George   E.   688 

Boyce,    George    T 1043 

Bozarth,   Alvin  J.   650 

Bozarth,    J.    W 1022 

Brandes,    Albert 1073 

Brandes,    Chris    J 751 

Brandes,    Christian 631 

Brandes,    H.    G 1066 

Brandes,  John  A 616 

Brandes,    Theodore 576 

Brandes,   Theodore   L 1071 

Braun,  Louis 1083 

Brengarth,    Albert 1095 

Brickey,    Frank    C 938 

Brickey,    Paul    A 941 

Brickner,  William  L. 499 

Broe,    Morgan 876 

Brokamp,    Henry 723 

Brokmeyer,  C.  H 940 

Brosius,   Frank  C 379 

Brownfield,   David 865 

Brownfield,    George    D.    925 

Brownfield,   Gideon   A.   450 

Brubaker,    Daniel    R 890 

Brubaker,    Elmer   J 956 

Brueckner,    August 487 

Brummel,   Henry  E 1144 

Bryan,    William    L 965 

Buescher,    Hugo    H 1050 

Burge,    Robert    P 1139 

Burge,   William   O 823 

Burrus,   John   M 504 

Burrus  and   Sons,  T.  J 1090 

Byler,    Robert    T.    666 

Carey,  George  W 556 

i  "airy.    Robert    A , 557 

Carl,    George   W 713 

Carlos,  H.  D.  — 540 

Carlos,  Jr.,  H.  D. 540 


Carpenter,    S.    Alvin - 738 

Carpenter,  Edgar  A 742 

Carpenter,    George   A 1159 

Carpenter,    Homer   L.    1070 

Carpenter,  James  F 717 

Carpenter,   Warren   E 733 

Carpenter,    William    F 765 

Carpenter,    William    H 735 

Cartner,   Charles   R 588 

Case,  Hiram   D 1008 

Case,    Oscar    F 987 

Chamberlin,   Albert   S 575 

Chamberlin,    George    W- 1152 

Chamberlin,    Homer   L 526 

Chamberlin,    Homer    L 518 

Chilton,    Joseph    W 635 

Chilton.    Louis    L 635 

Chrane,   Curtis   E 918 

Cleary,    Matthew    489 

Clark,    Joseph    M 1140 

Clayton,   James   A 625 

Cochran,    O.    W 548 

Cochran,  William  J 680 

Cole,    George    T 1103 

Cole,    William    D 878 

Coleman,    John 1151 

Coleman,  Stonewall  J 853 

Coleman,   Walter   L 561 

Collins,    Findlay    A 1094 

Collins,   Howard    B 797 

Cook.  Charles  C 684 

Cordry,   Joseph   C.   897 

Cordry,    Leslie    F 879 

Cordry,   Oliver  L 953 

Cordry,    William    F 887 

Cordry.   William   H 898 

Cordry,   W.   L 436 

Corson,    James    M 899 

Cosgrove,    John 364 

Crain,    J.    D 1066 

Cramer,  Otto  H. 567 

Cramer,    Ray    P. 934 

Crawford,'  George  K 971 

Creagan,  Harry  A 943 

Crutchfield,  William  E 410 

Cully.  David  R._ 794 

Darby.    Patrick 1027 

Dauwalter,    Fred 523 

Davin,    Andrew 888 

Davin.    Michael    888 

Davis.   Dan   G 597 

Davis,   Jeff   L 430 

Davis,    John    T 847 

Davis,  Joseph  A 726 

Debo,    Grover   E.    1060 

Debo,    Luther    C.._. 693 

Debo,    P.    Lee 720 

Deck,   Jacob 427 

Deck,  William   H 827 

Derendinger,    Edward 432 

Derendinger,   John    E 1098 

Deuschle,    Fred 966 

Deuel,   Frank   H 994 

Devine,    Peter    J 913 

Doerrie,    Charles 400 

Donahew,   Ace   O 549 

Downing,  Robert  E 881 

Draffen,   James   W.    391 

Draffen,    Robert    T 754 

Drechsel,    Charles    H 744 

Drennen,  Elizabeth  E 441 

Dugan,  Walter  L 469 

Dunn.    Robert    L 857 

Dunnavant,   Charles  H 1026 

Durr,    Charles 409 

Eager,   Charles   L 492 

Eager,    Clarence    L 773 

Edson.  D.  L. - -1017 

Edwards,   Louis   S 378 

Eldredge,    Charles    C.    544 

Elliot.  John  S 473 

Elliot,    William    H 1150 

Ellis.  Roy  H 457 

English,  Henry  H 589 

Eppstein,    Viet    C 578 

Ervine,    L.    R 802 

Evans,   Robert   L 463 

Fahrenbrink,    Christian    W 696 

Fahrenbrink.    Henry 702 

Fahrenbrink,    Herman    H 737 

Fairchild,   S.   Hamilton 628 

Fairfax,    Commodore    P 1048 

Fairfax,   Thomas  L 951 

Farris,    Archie    L 1051 


Farrjs,    W.    A 1011 

FassM    M.    J 1013 

Felton,    Frank   J 471 

Felton,   Michael  J.   537 

Fischer,  John  A. 642 

Fitzpatrick,    Patrick    F 1154 

Fluke,    George    F 972 

Fray,   Henry  G 821 

Fray,   John    H 1137 

Fredmeyer,  Benjamin  F 525 

Fricke,    Henry 464 

Fricke,    William 689 

Friedrich,    Charles    A 648 

Friedrich,  Henry  C 408 

Frost,    Aubrey    W.    449 

Fulton,    Samuel   T... 1007 

Funkhauser,  James   S 1131 

Fuser,    Henry    E 1160 

Gantner,  Edward 1020 

Gantner,  Joseph  1020 

Gantner,    Louis    988 

Garthoffner,  Edward  J , 455 

Gehringer,    Calvin 911 

Gentry,  Amos   B 687 

Gentry,    M.    K 789 

George,    Elmer 724 

George,    Frank 413 

Gerhardt,    Joseph 660 

Gibson,   Henry   C 509 

Gibson,  Thomas  B 815 

Gibson,    William    T 459 

Gilbreath,    W.    G 932 

Gilman,   J.    R 1035 

Glasgow,    Clayton    S 893 

Glasgow,    William    H 891 

Glazier,    John    P.    609 

Gmelich,   Jacob    F.    354 

Goodman,  John  H 434 

Gorrell,  Amos 788 

Gott,  John   N 437 

Gramlich,    Andrew   F.    1129 

Grathwohl,  Charles  T 624 

Grathwohl,    Thomas    F 558 

Green,  Joseph   M 505 

Gronstedt,    Heinrich 472 

Groom,   Colbey  C 484 

Groom,    Joseph    H 1006 

Gross,  Charles  E. 1165 

Gross,    George 846 

Gross,  Jacob  1123 

Groves,  Samuel  H. 1107 

Gunn,    James    H 900 

Guyer,    Williamson 1078 

Hack,  John    F 466 

Hagemeier,  Emil mi 

Hale,    C.    E 773 

Hale,   Edgar   T 481 

Hale,   Frank    I 787 

Hale,  O.  M 773 

Haley,  James   M 860 

Haller,    John    M 502 

Hanna,    C.    S 982 

Hansberger,    Alfred    G 908 

Harlan,    George    W 976 

Harned,     Benjamin    791 

Harned,    Edwin    P 901 

Harness,    George   C 582 

Harriman,   R.   L.   1040 

Harriman,  William   P 962 

Harris,  Edward  H 824 

Harris,  Judge  T.  A 560 

Harris,    Thomas    A 756 

Harris,    William    P 814 

Hasenbach,    Edward 1047 

Haun,    William    H 816 

Hawkins,   Herbert  L 563 

Hays,    Jesse    T 926 

Hazell,    Joseph    I 452 

Heiberger,   John   J 511 

Hem,    John 607 

Herfurth,   H.    F.   980 

Hesel,  A.  H 655 

Hews,   Abe   L.   633 

Hickam,   James   T.   613 

Hickam,    Samuel    L.    365 

Hickman,    Crockett    383 

Higginbotham,    John    R 826 

Hilden,    Everett 539 

1 1  in-,    Ernest    L 904 

Hockenberry,    Aaron   T 714 

Hoefer,  William  A. 986 

Hoff.    Frank    J H24 

Hoff.    Herbert   J 852 

Hoff.  Louis   N 1130 

Hoflander,   John    G 975 

Hoflander,  Paul   .1164 


Hogan,  Thomas 518 

Holman,     Riley    S 806 

HoiK'rbrink,   George   C 1037 

Honcrbrink,    H.    C 1055 

Hooper,    W.    E 989 

Hopkins,    Farris    B 626 

Hosford,  J.    L 461 

Howlett,  Robert  E. 984 

Huber,    E.   J 405 

Hudson.    Charles    P 803 

Huffman.    M.    R 1121 

Hurt,    Acrey    B 1047 

Hurt,    Boone 1136 

Hurt.   B.   F 671 

Hurt,  D.  D 1102 

Hurt,   Henry   G 961 

Hurt,  James  M 716 

Hurt.   T.  Edgar  1082 

Hurt.    William    A 604 

Hurt,    Willis 990 

Hutchison.  Thomas  G 894 

Immelc.  John  B 841 

Irvin,    V.    S 804 

Irvine.    George    T.    1025 

Jacobs,    Mark 508 

Jaeger,  Albert 428 

Jaeger,   P.   R.   1029 

Jeffress,  James  T 1088 

Jeffress.  John   W 1092 

Jeffress,    Robert  H 862 

Jenry,   Henry 993 

Jewett,   Gilman   W 774 

Johnmeyer,    William    F.    514 

Johnson,  William  F 728 

Johnson,    William   M 421 

Johnston,    Col.    T.    A 360 

Johnston,    H.    C.    1045 

Johnston,   Rea   A.   957 

Jones,    Caleb    C 1072 

Jones.    George    C 915 

Jones,   George  C,  Jr 828 

Jones,   James  W 402 

Jones.    Woodson    T 946 

KnemptYr,    Robert 778 

Kahle,    William 701 

Kaiser   Sr„    Herman 488 

Kaiser.    John    1086 

Kalvelage,    F.    J.    950 

Karm,    William 777 

Kehr.    Irvin    J 1015 

Kinisey.  Jackson  W 1077 

Kincaid,    A.    L 813 

Kincheloe.    Jesse    L 820 

King.    Christian    F 725 

King,   H.  M 1069 

King,   Henry  O 672 

King.    John 448 

King,    John    W 673 

Kirchner,  John  E 546 

Klekamp,  Frank 582 

Knosp,    Henry 1100 

Knosp,   Henry  H 1101 

Koenig,  William  L 482 

Koonse,    Theodore 837 

Koontz,    Joseph    R 884 

Kramer.    Henry   B 974 

Kraus.    Henry 858 

Kraus.   Walter  J 854 

Krohn,    John    F 652 

Kuhn.    Herman    F 1005 

Kussman.    Theodore 399 

Lacy.   William  J 759 

Lammers,    Clemens    A.    835 

Lammers,   H.    G.   855 

Lang,     Belthasar 538 

Langkop.    Daniel 1115 

Langkop,    Leonard 699 

Lauer,    Chas.   F.    1046 

Lauer.    William    G.    1030 

Laws.   Luther   B 1087 

Layne,    Benjamin   F 593 

Lebing,    Theodore    F 942 

Lee,    Holman 622 

Leonard.  Nathaniel  N 928 

Lester.    B.    M 923 

Lieber,    Joseph 416 

Lionberger,    Frank    E 1143 

I.oesing,    Peter    W 719 

Loesing.   William 1068 

Lohse.  Fred 468 

Lohse.    Fred    G 401 

Lohse.    Henry 683 

Lohse.    John    C 1052 

Lovell,    Thomas    J 757 

I.usk.    Hamilton 830 


Lusk,  Sid  A 623 

Lymer,   James 668 

McCarty,  Milton  M 1064 

McClain,   Peter   D.   1128 

McCoy,  J.  J. 1166 

McFarland,   A.   W 516 

McFarland,   William   J 675 

McGuire,    Archibald 836 

McGuire,    Homer 943 

McMahan.    William    E.    809 

McNeil,  Peter  P 992 

McPhatridge,  Henry  P 739 

Manger,    Julius 917 

Manger,    William \ 917 

Manion,    Harry    T 419 

Mann,    F.    Joseph 440 

Marshall,  Fleming  Miles 800 

Ma>el,     Sylvanus     1 861 

Mauck,    Sam    T 615 

Mayfield,   William   A 896 

Meisenheimer,    Peter    G 840 

Melkersman,    Edward 632 

Mellor,    George    W 760 

Mellor.    John    P -  764 

Menefee,   Charles    N 731 

Meredith,    A.    L 997 

Meredith,  George 659 

Meredith,  Louis  M. 998 

Meredith,  Walter 659 

Mersey,    Henry 685 

Meyer,   C.   C 1023 

Meyer.    Daniel    J 1125 

Meyer,    F.    A.    1036 

Meyer,  George  A 1126 

Meyer.  George  H 456 

Meyer.  George  H 460 

Meyer,  J.  H 1036 

Meyer,   Lawrence   C.   679 

Meyer.    William    708 

Miller.    Charles    G 379 

Miller,    Harry    J 973 

Miller,  James   R 454 

Miller,  Robert  L 1138 

Miller.    William   R 423 

Million,    Guy    C 939 

Mills.   Erie  S 677 

Mills,    Robert    W 1054 

Mills,   Vivian  H.   678 

Minter,    Joseph 905 

Mittelbach.    William 386 

Mitzel,  Charles  P 868 

Moehle,    Ernest   L.   412 

Moore,    Boz    L 627 

Moore.     George    H 550 

Moore,    Lafayette    M 585 

Moore,  Lorenzo  H 574 

Morgan,    Harry    C 612 

Morris,     Benjamin    L i 746 

Morris,    George   W.   761 

Morris,    John    W 1118 

Morris,    Truman    H 749 

Morris,  W.   H 1075 

Morton,   Wallace   L 1028 

Mueller,    Emil    H 486 

Muessig,   Jacob   F.    859 

Muntzel,    Edward   J 637 

Muntzel,    Frederick    H.    975 

Muntzel,    Harry   J 1059 

Muntzel,   Henry   L 780 

Muntzel,    Herman     P 664 

Muntzel,    John    C.    949 

Muntzel,    Peter    L 868 

Myer.    Albert    H 931 

Myer,    Michael 870 

Myers,  Henry  Lee 1001 

Neal,    William    W 643 

Neal,    Z.    R.    618 

Neef,    Philip    P 748 

Nelson,    Arthur    W 920 

Nelson,  Clyde  T 1157 

Nelson,  Edgar  C 1016 

Nelson,    Joseph    O 1110 

Nelson,    Lewis    B 991 

\   Nelson,    Thomas    A 598 

T  Nelson,  William  I 1024 

Niebruegge,    Henry    J 595 

Nixon,  A.  F.   978 

Nixon,     Charles 397 

Norris,   Homer  E 1134 

Nuckols,    Powhatan    C 524 

Nurseries,    The    Boonville 101S 

Oak,    George 577 

Odneal,    G.    C 995 

(  lerlv,    Ernest   C 496 



Oerly,    Henry    W 782 

Oerly,   Samuel 500 

Oerly,  W.  A 654 

Oglesby,    Charles    W 874 

Ohlendorf,    Christ 568 

O'Neal,  Amos 796 

Oswold,  Joseph   A 1141 

Painter,    James    L 867 

Parrish,   John    S 856 

Patrick,  N.  D 1093 

Patterson,    Ed 536 

Pealer,    Rolla    D 924 

Pendleton,    Thomas    O 831 

Pendleton,    William    G 493 

Peyton   &   Sons,   T.   R 979 

Phillips,    Charles    S 885 

Phillips,  William   R 889 

Pigott.   John    T 395 

Poage,   William    S 1133 

Poertner,  William  F.  722 

Popper,   Joseph 562 

Potter,    Abraham 1000 

Putnam,   John   M 883 

Quigg,    H.    D 533 

Reavis,    Walter    W 584 

Reed,   Benjamin   F 1122 

Renfrow,    W.    C 651 

Rethemeyer,    J.    H 697 

Renken,   Henry  A.   v...  520 

Reynolds,    George 1109 

Richey,    Henry   L 863 

Richey,  John   W 863 

Richey,   John   W 1116 

Rissler,    William    B 848 

Ritchie.   Andrew    A 769 

Roberts,  Elijah  H.  646 

Roberts,    Samuel    W 541 

Robertson,    Charles    E 644 

Robertson,  Warner  W 644 

Robien,   Henry   P 555 

Robien,    William    G 545 

Rodgers,    E.    H 927 

Roe,    Robert    S 1032 

Roeschel,    William    E.    522 

Rossen,   Sonneck  C.  433 

Roth,    Charles    E.— 947 

Rothgeb,    Richard 955 

Rowles,   W.    H.   H.    782 

Rudolph,  John  W 420 

Ruskin,    Harry 429 

Russell,   George   A 470 

Sappington,   John   C.   649 

Sauter,   Augustus    H 406 

Sauter,  Frank  S 473 

Sauter,   Joseph   L 639 

Schaumburg,  LaRoy  O 371 

Schieberl,   Martin 638 

Schilb,    Enslie    I 839 

Schilb,   Fred   L 1010 

Schilb,   Frederick 766 

Schler,   Antun   H 970 

Schleuter,    William 600 

Schlotzhaucr,    Christopher 880 

Schlotzhauer,   George  H.   879 

Schlotzhauer,  James  H.  864 

Schlotzhauer,  John   836 

Schlotzlmier,  John  W. 832 

Schmalieldt,   William  F 704 

Schmidt,    Herman   A 495 

Schmidt.    Maximillian     E.    418 

Schmidt,  Otto  G 617 

Schnack,    Herman 475 

Schnuck,    John    H 1034 

Schnuck,    H.    E 519 

Scholle,   George  H 941 

Schrader,     Henry 534 

Schubert,  Charles  W 690 

Schubert,   Irene 658 

Schupp,    Curry    1080 

Schupp,    George 872 

Schuster,    Adam    792 

Schuster,  August   R 772 

Schuster,  Benjamin  E 776 

Schuster,   Frank 822 

Schuster,    Henry 1056 

Schuster,    William 808 

Schwitzky,   Robert 606 

Scott,    Edward    G 4<>2 

Scott,   Joshua   B 1112 

Scott.   William    A 829 

Scott,  William  R 981 

Sells.    Joseph 794 

Shannon,   Eliza  B 661 

Shannon,    Fleming 930 


Shannon,    Robert    A 1053 

Shears,    Clarence 653 

Shepherd,  Charles  M 833 

Shepherd,   James   B 1042 

Shirley,    Charles    D 692 

Shouse,    Charles    Q 805 

Shouse,    Walter    H.    799 

Sieckman,    Fritz    476 

Simrall,    Thomas    S 922 

Sims    Brothers    1122 

Sims,    John    N 807 

Sites,   L.   T 948 

Sloan,   Marie   R.    1155 

Smith,    Andrew    C 706 

Smith,    Anthony 477 

Smith,  Benjamin  N 1062 

Smith,    Chris 532 

Smith,    Edward    D 819 

Smith,    Edwin    K 695 

Smith,    Fountain    D.    818 

Smith,   Francis    M.    426 

Smith,    Henry 709 

Smith,   John    H 608 

Smith,  John  R 743 

Smith,    Peter 596 

Smith,    Peter    F 944 

Smith,    Robert    B 712 

Smith,   Thomas   H 770 

Smith,    Urban    A 636 

Smith,  William  A 1003 

Snider,    Robert 967 

Sombart,    Charles    A ; 356 

Sombart.   Henry  E.   368 

Spahr,   Andrew  J 645 

Spahr,    Lawrence 1105 

Spahr,  William  L 1104 

Sparkman,    James    M 958 

Spieler,   Oscar 404 

Spillers,   John  L 903 

Staebler,   J.   Louis 554 

Stahl,    William    H 1132 

Starke,    Dryden    L 952 

Starke,  H.  Roger 906 

Starke,    John    D 960 

Steele,   Charles  E 798 

Stegner,   August 566 

Stegner,    Edward 630 

Stegner,    Feoder    963 

Stegner,    Frank    C. 877 

Stegner,   Fred  C 1148 

Stegner,   Marion 589 

Stegner,    Otto ^.1153 

Steigleder,    G.    H 640 

Steigleder,    W.    F 640 

Steinmetz,  George  T.  1148 

Stephens    Jr.,    A.    H 937 

Stephens,  Henry  S 1012 

Stephens,    John    M 912 

Stites,    Charles    A 866 

Stoecklein,   John   1127 

Stoecklein,    Otto    1126 

Strickfaden,    Peter    J 99g 

Stretz,  J.  H. 1038 

Swap,  Charles 445 

Sweeney,    John 914 

Talbott,   William   B 515 

Taliaferro,   George   T 700 

Talley,  James   P 844 

Tally,   William   T 849 

Tanner,    William    L 498 

Tevis,    Robert   S 740 

Thomas,    Charles    L 954 

Thomas,   Millard   E 1135 

Thornton,  Samuel  Y 784 

Toellner,  Christ  1157 

Toler,   Grover  C 710 

Toler,    O.    K 710 

Torbeck.   Ernest  W 591 

Torbeck,  Henry  F 964 

Trigg,    William    W 601 

Tucker,   Martin 502 

Turley.    William    H 752 

Tutt,    Charles    P 669 

Underwood,  John  S 466 

Victor,   Felix 935 

Viertel,   George 1057 

Vieth,    Berend 755 

Viertel,  John   F.   611 

Vollmer,    Anthony 852 

Vollrath,  Charles  L 850 

Wagner,   Charles   F 641 

Walden,    Charles    J 359 

Wallace,    Wilbur    B 1146 

Wallery,  Joseph  W._ 1147 

Walker,   James  W 909 


Walther,  John  J. 507 

Walterscheid,  John  E. 491 

Walz,  John   E.  444 

Waterman,    Henry 530 

Wear,    Emmett    E 600 

Wear,    George    H 592 

Weekley,  Martin  L 768 

Wendleton,    David 676 

Wendleton,   Lon   V.   553 

West.    Walter   C 873 

Weyland,    George   A 384 

White,  A.  J 703 

White,    Arthur    F 778 

White,   Frank   B 1120 

Whitlow,  John  N 706 

Whitlow.   R.  W 1161 

Williams,    Harry 1119 

Williams,    Porter   E 917 

Williams,    Roy    D 382 

Williams,   William   M 380 

Wilson,    Charles    E 871 

Windsor,    Andrew    H 1067 

Windsor,   Edward   B 875 

Windsor,    Eugene   A 736 

Windsor,   John    H 732 

Windsor,  Horace  G 656 

Windsor,  Richard  L. 424 

Windsor,  Richard  N— 425 

Windsor,    Walter    B 393 

Wing,   Henry   M 811 

Winterbower,  T.   H 937 

Wolfe,   William    E 762 

Wolfrum,    John    G.    1014 

Wood,  Arthur  H. 1127 

Woodroof.  Charles  E 810 

Wooldridge,    William   J 621 

Woolery,  Joseph   W.   1147 

Worts,  Willard  A 812 

Wyan,   Robert   F 528 

Yancey,  Henry  J 745 

Yancey,   L.   C 1076 

Zeigle,   Lester   O 845 

Zollinger,  Conrad  M 968 



History  of  Cooper  County 




History  is  speculative,  inferential,  and  actual;  speculative  when  it 
records  conclusions  based  on  hypothesis  founded  on  facts,  far  removed; 
inferential  when  conclusions  are  reasonably  based  on  facts;  actual,  when 
facts  alone  are  recorded.  The  historian  deals  with  all  three,  more  or 
less,  in  combination  one  with  the  other.  This  chapter  is  purely  specula- 
tive. The  editor  is  not  an  archaeologist,  and  does  not  attempt  herein  to 
arrive  at,  or  lead  the  reader  to  a  conclusion.  Houck,  in  his  "History  of 
Missouri,"  claims  to  have  located  through  investigators  something  like 
twenty-eight  thousand  mounds  in  the  state.  These  mounds  are  usually 
called  Indian  mounds,  and  he  does  not  assert  that  all  that  existed  in  the 
state  were  discovered  by  his  investigators.  He  mentions  nine  in  Cooper 
county.  There  are  doubtless  more  than  ninety  and  nine,  and  probably 
many  more  leveled  with  the  plow. 

The  only  purpose  to  be  conserved  throughout  this  chapter  is  to  open 
up  the  vista  to  inquiring  minds,  that  their  observations  and  discoveries 
may  be  preserved  for  the  future.  The  casual  observer  sees  an  elevation 
of  ground.  The  geologist,  or  archaeologist,  if  you  please,  by  close  and 
careful  examination,  determines  to  a  certainty,  or  thinks  he  does,  that 


this  is  not  caused  by  erosion,  or  by  an  internal  upheaval  of  the  earth. 
He  concludes,  therefore,  that  it  has  been  raised  by  man.  Here  geology, 
paleontology,  and  archaeology,  the  three  sister  sciences,  begin  their  labors 
hand  in  hand,  "And  the  mind  recoils  dismayed  when  it  undertakes  the 
computations  of  thousands  of  years  which  have  elapsed  since  the  creation 
of  man." 

As  our  feet  grope  in  darkness,  irresistably  down  the  ages  to  the  night 
of  the  unknown,  these  three  sister  sciences  hold  aloft  a  torch  that  illumi- 
nates, in  part  at  least,  our  darkened  pathway  through  the  dim  vista  of 
the  vanished  past. 

Contents  of  Mounds. — By  excavating  these  mounds  we  find  peculiar 
instruments  of  the  chase  and  hunt,  vessels,  bowls  and  statuary,  some 
with  peculiar  markings  and  engravings.  Such  mounds  have  been  dis- 
covered throughout  the  country  in  almost  countless  thousands,  and  they 
were  here  when  the  white  man  first  set  foot  on  American  soil.  The 
articles  found  in  them  were  unlike  those  used  by  the  Indians,  known  at 
the  time  of  the  first  white  men.  The  same  Indians  lay  no  claim  to  having 
built  these  peculiar  structures  of  earth,  and  hold  no  tradition  that  those 
who  preceded  them  had  built  them,  and  some  of  the  tribes  claim  tradi- 
tions running  back  thousands  of  years,  prior  to  their  acquaintance  with 
the  white  man. 

Origin  of  Mounds. — The  scientists  reason  thus:  first,  the  mounds  are 
not  of  natural  formation ;  second,  they  were  built  by  man ;  third,  the  white 
man  did  not  build  them;  fourth,  the  Indians  did  not  build  them;  there- 
fore, it  follows  as  a  logical  conclusion  that  they  were  built  by  a  race 
inhabiting  our  country  long  before  the  red  man.  This,  in  fact,  is  the 
consensus  of  scientific  opinion,  yet  not  all  agree.  Dr.  C.  A.  Peterson, 
former  president  of  the  Missouri  Historical  Society,  and  a  student  of 
Missouri  antiquities,  uses  this  forcible  language:  "Credulity  has  been 
taxed  to  the  utmost,  and  columns  of  crude  ideas  and  inane  arguments 
have  been  published  by  half-baked  archaeologists,  who  established  great 
antiquity  for  the  mounds  and  an  advanced  civilization  for  their  builders, 
and  the  extreme  and  ridiculous  flights  which  the  imagination  has  been 
allowed  to  take  in  building  up  the  stories  of  the  mythical  mound  builders 
may  be  well  illustrated  by  this  case.  About,  thirty  years  ago  an  amateur 
archaeologist  in  exploring  quite  a  modern  Indian  mound  reported  that  he 
had  found  the  skeletons  buried  beneath  it  to  be  a  proper  complement  in 
numbers  and  arranged  in  proper  order  and  position  to  represent  the  three 
principal  officers  of  the  Masonic  Lodge  at  work,  each  officer  being  equipped 


with  the  implement  and  insignia  of  his  respective  office.  To  those  at- 
tracted to  a  contemplation  of  mystery,  and  to  revelers  of  the  occulet,  it 
was  the  most  marvelous  and  entertaining  discovery  ever  reported  in 
American  archaeology,  but  there  were  a  few  incredulous,  unfeeling  scof- 
fers, who  would  not  accept  the  story  as  true,  because  the  discoverer  did 
not  produce  the  bones  of  the  candidate  and  the  goat.  In  conclusion,  let 
it  be  reiterated  that  there  was  never  an  iota  of  evidence  in  existence 
tending  to  establish  the  contention  that  some  people,  other  than  the 
American  Indian,  erected  the  mounds  and  other  earthworks  found  in 
connection  with  them,  and  the  physical  condition  of  the  abandoned  works 
and  their  contents  could  not  justify  a  belief  that  any  of  them  were  erected 
more  than  one  thousand  years  ago." 

The  Indian  mounds  are  especially  numerous  along  the  Missouri  River, 
in  the  townships  of  Saline,  Boonville,  and  Lamine,  and  are  found  in  vary- 
ing numbers  in  other  sections  of  Cooper  County.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  more  attention  has  not  been  paid  to  them  in  the  past  to  the  end 
that  what  found  therein  would  have  been  preserved  for  investigation  and 
study.  It  is  said  that  on  the  old  Hopkins  farm  in  Saline  township  there 
are  five  of  these  mounds.  It  is  related  on  reliable  authority  that  in  the 
early  seventies  a  young  physician,  fresh  from  college  in  Kentucky,  and 
with  budding  honors,  debonair  and  faultlessly  attired,  located  in  Saline 
township.  He  was  smaii  of  stature,  willowy  in  form,  a  Beau  Brummel, 
polite  and  obliging.  Visiting  at  the  Hopkins  home  one  Sunday,  a  balmy 
spring  day,  where  were  gathered  a  few  of  the  local  beauties  of  the  neigh- 
borhood, his  attention  was  directed  to  a  large  mound  of  earth  in  the  yard. 
He  thought  it  strange,  and  had  never  before  seen  such  an  elevation  of 
earth  in  a  yard.  Being  deeply  interested,  he  asked  one  of  the  youn? 
ladies  present  what  it  was  for.  She  replied  that  it  was  an  Indian  mound, 
and  that  an  Indian  who  had  been  killed  was  buried  there.  The  young 
doctor  was  greatly  interested.  She  told  him  that  if  he  would  stand  on 
top  of  the  mound,  and  say  in  a  loud  voice,  "Indian,  poor  Indian,  what  did 
they  kill  you  for?"  the  Indian  would  say,  "Nothing  at  all."  The  doctor 
valiantly  essayed  the  mound,  ascending  to  the  top,  and  in  a  stentorian 
voice  cried,  "Indian,  poor  Indian,  what  did  they  kill  you  for?"  He  waited 
a  few  minutes  for  the  response,  and  finally  realized  that  the  young  lady 
was  right,  for  the  Indian  said  nothing  at  all.  The  young  doctor  felt 
completely  sold  out.  Following  his  motto  of  evening  up  old  scores,  he 
set  out  energetically  to  do  so.  He  courted  the  young  lady,  and  eventu- 
ally married  her,  thus  evening  the  score. 

The   following,   which   is   a   collation   of  authorities   and   brief   com- 


ments  of  scientists,  pro  and  con,  we  take  from  Houck's  "History  of 

"The  pre-historic  works  of  Missouri  attracted  attention  from  the 
earliest  settlement  of  the  country.  Stoddard  says,  'It  is  admitted  on  all 
hands  that  they  have  endured  for  centuries.  The  trees  in  their  ram- 
parts, from  the  number  of  their  annulae,  or  radii,  indicate  an  age  of 
mort  than  four  hundred  years.'  Holmes  says  that  the  manufacture  of 
the  pottery-ware  found  in  the  mounds  'began  many  centuries  before 
the  advent  of  the  white  race.'  The  Indians  found  by  the  first  white 
explorers  did  not  recognize  these  mounds  as  belonging  to  them,  either 
by  occupying  them  or  using  them,  or  by  their  traditions,  although  the 
surprising  number  of  such  mounds  in  some  sections  of  the  country,  many 
of  them  very  large,  singular  in  form,  and  conspicuous  in  the  landscape, 
must  have  attracted  the  attention  of  the  most  thoughtless  of  them. 
Marquis  de  Nadailic  says  that  these  'mounds  in  North  America  are 
among  the  most  remarkable  known.'  Featherstonehaugh  was  so  im- 
pressed by  these  historic  remains  in  Missouri  that  he  concluded  that  they 
were  to  the  tribes  that  built  them  what  the  pyramids  were  to  the  ancient 

Probable  Race  of  Mound-Builders. — To  what  particular  race  the 
mound-builders  belonged  has  been  a  subject  of  much  discussion.  Abbe 
Brasseur  de  Bourbourg  declares  that  the  pre-Aztec  Mexicans  and  Toltecs 
were  a  people  identical  with  the  mound-builder.  It  is  also  said  that  the 
mound-builders  were  of  the  same  cranial  type  as  the  ancient  Mexicans, 
Peruvians,  and  the  natives  of  the  Pacific  slope  as  far  north  as  Sitka;  that 
is  to  say,  brachycephalic ;  and  Winchell  thinks  that  'the  identity  of  the 
race  of  mound-builders  with  the  races  of  Anahuac  and  Peru  will  become 
generally  recognized.  'Squier  supposes  that  they  belonged  to  an  'extinct 
race.'  Atwater  gives  it  as  his  opinion  that  the  'lofty  mounds' — ancient 
fortifications  and  tumuli — 'which  cost  so  much  labor  in  their  structure.' 
owe  their  'origin  to  a  people  much  more  civilized  than  our  Indian' ;  and 
Atwater  was  familiar  with  the  capabilities  and  characteristics  of  the 
American  Indian.  Others,  again,  suppose  that  they  were  the  same  people 
who  afterward  came  from  the  northeast  into  Mexico.  Bancroft  says 
that  the  'claims  in  behalf  of  the  Nahua  traces  in  the  Mississippi  region 
are  much  better  founded  than  those  which  have  been  urged  in  other 
parts  of  the  country.'  He  asserts  that  the  remains  in  the  Mississippi 
valley  'are  not  the  works  of  the  Indian  tribes  found  in  the  country,  nor 
of  any  tribes  resembling  them  in  their  institution,  and  that  the  'best 


authorities  deem  it  impossible  that  the  mound-builders  were  even  remote 
ancestors  of  the  Indian  tribes.'  In  his  opinion,  there  was  an  actual  con- 
nection, either  through  origin,  war,  or  commerce,  between  the  mound- 
builders  and  the  Nahuas.  This  he  infers  from  the  so-called  temple 
mounds,  a  strongly  resembling  the  pyramids  of  Mexico,  implying  a  simi- 
larity of  religious  ideas;  the  use  of  obsidian  implements;  the  Nahua  tra- 
dition of  the  arrival  of  civilized  strangers  from  the  northeast.  And 
Baldwin,  in  reviewing  the  various  traditions  recorded  by  many  of  the 
earliest  Spanish  chroniclers  of  Mexico,  concludes  by  saying  that  it  seems 
not  improbable  that  the  Huehue,  or  'Old  Tlapalan'  of  their  tradition,  was 
'the  country  of  our  mound-builders'  on  the  Mississippi.  Albert  Gallatin 
thinks  that  the  works  erected  indicate  'a  dense  agricultural  population,' 
a  population  'eminently  agricultural,'  a  state  essentially  different  from 
that  of  the  Iroquois  or  Algonquin  Indians.  Yet,  he  also  expressed  the 
opinion  that  the  earthworks  discovered  might  have  been  executed  by  a 
'savage  people.'  Brinton  also  thinks  that  these  earthworks  were  not 
the  production  'of  some  mythical  tribe  of  high  civilization  in  remote 
antiquity  but  of  the  identical  nations  found  by  the  whites  residing  in 
these  regions.'  Schoolcraft  says  that  the  Indian  predecessors  of  the 
existing  race  'could  have  executed'  these  works.  Lewis  Cass  believed 
that  the  forefathers  of  the  present  Indian  'no  doubt'  erected  these  works 
as  places  of  refuge  and  security.  Jones  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  old 
idea  that  the  mound-builders  were  a  people  distinct  from  the  Indians  is 
'unfounded  in  fact,  and  fanciful.'  Lucian  Carr  in  an  elaborate  article 
says  there  is  no  reason  'why  the  red  Indians  of  the  Mississippi  valley, 
judging  from  what  we  know  historically  of  their  development,  coukl  not 
have  thrown  up  these  works.'  Dr.  C.  A.  Peterson,  in  a  paper  read  before 
the  Missouri  Historical  Society  in  1902,  concludes  that  'there  never  was 
an  iota  of  evidence  in  existence  tending  to  establish  the  contention  that 
some  people,  other  than  the  American  Indian,  erected  the  mounds  and 
earthworks  found  in  connection  with  them ;  and  the  physical  condition 
does  not  justify  the  belief  that  any  of  them  were  erected  more  than  one 
thousand  years  ago.  In  support  of  this  view  he  says,  'an  immense  memo- 
rial earthwork  over  the  body  of  a  popular  Osage  chief  was  erected  by 
his  tribe,  citing  Beck's  Gazeteer.  But  J.  F.  Snyder  asserts  that  the 
Osages  'built  no  earthen  mounds,'  and  that  the  mound  mentioned  by  Dr. 
Beck  as  having  been  built  by  them  near  the  head-waters  of  the  Osage 
was  the  result  of  glacial  action.  Snyder  also  quotes  Holcomb,  who  states 
that  'the  mysterious  races  of  beings,  termed  mound-builders  never  dwelt 


in  Vernon  County,'  and  that  no  fragments  of  pottery  have  ever  been 
found  there,  nor  noteworthy  archaeological  specimens,,  and  few,  if  any 
flint,  arrow-heads,  lance-heads,  stone-heads,  etc.,  although  he  admits  that 
the  Osages  erected  stone  heaps  occasionally  over  the  bodies  of  their  dead 
to  preserve  them  from  the  ravages  of  wild  beasts. 

One  remarkable  discovery  made  by  Mr.  Thomas  Beckwith,  who  has 
devoted  many  years  to  the  careful  and  intelligent  exploration  of  the 
mounds  of  the  Mississippi  country,  would  seem  to  tend  to  support  the 
contention  that  the  more  ancient  mound-builders  of  the  Mississippi  valley, 
at  least,  belonged  to  the  Nahual  race  of  Mexico.  It  should  be  observed 
that  in  making  his  explorations  Mr.  Beckwith  always  proceeds  with  the 
greatest  circumspection,  not,  like  so  many  others,  hastily  digging  and 
burrowing  into  mounds,  looking  only  for  perfect  pottery  ware,  carelessly 
overlooking  and  throwing  everything  else  away;  on  the  contrary,  nothing 
is  too  small  for  his  notice,  and  it  is  his  invariable  practice  to  gather  up 
and  preserve  every  fragment,  small  and  insignificant  though  it  may 
appear.  The  exploration  of  the  mound  does  not  always  satisfy  him.  In 
some  instances  where  the  surrounding  country  seems  to  warrant  it,  he 
also  explores  the  soil  for  several  feet  below  the  surface  at  present  sur- 
rounding the  mound.  In  making  such  sub-surface  explorations  Mr.  Beck- 
with, at  a  depth  three  feet  below  the  present  surface,  in  a  number  of 
instances,  found  pottery  balls  imbedded  in  the  clay,  near  mounds  ex- 
plored by  him.  During  his  various  explorations  of  mounds,  he  has  col- 
lected in  this  way  perhaps  a  half-bushel  of  such  pottery  balls  of  various 
forms,  some  ovoids,  some  round,  about  the  size  of  a  walnut,  others  again 
lenticular;  the  ovoids  being  in  the  form  of  Roman  glandes,  as  described 
by  Evans  ;that  is,  fusiform,  or  pointed.  Such  pottery  balls  of  various 
shapes  were  in  use  as  sling-stones  among  the  Charrus  of  South  America. 
The  Marquis  de  Nadailicc  says  that  the  Chimecs,  who  were  of  the  Nahuatl 
race,  in  their  wars  used  bows  and  arrows  and  'slings  with  which  they 
flung  little  pottery  balls  which  caused  dangerous  wounds.'  Such  artificial 
pottery  sling-stones,  being  uniform  in  size  and  weight,  gave  a  greater 
precision  of  aim,  an  advantage  which  is  recognized  by  the  barbarous 
tribes  of  New  Caledonia  today,  where  sling-stones  made  out  of  steatite 
are  used  by  the  natives.  The  sling  was  an  offensive  weapon  of  the  Aztecs, 
and  the  stones  thrown  with  great  force  and  accuracy.  Among  the  Mayas 
of  Yucatan  slings  were  also  extensively  used.  But  as  an  offensive  weapon 
it  was  unknown  among  the  North  American  Indians." 

The  chroniclers  of  the  past,  delving  into  ancient  lore,  have  pronounced 


Egypt  to  have  the  oldest  written  history.  Man,  calling  to  his  aid  the 
hieroglyphic  records  of  Egypt,  as  well  as  the  inscribed  bricks  and  cylin- 
ders of  Assyria,  can  trace  back  the  annals  of  man's  history  no  further 
than  fifty  centuries.  Egypt  was  schooled  in  the  sciences  and  nobler  arts, 
and  rich  in  knowledge  when  Remus  and  Romulus  were  unborn  and  Italy 
inhabited  by  uncouth  and  barbarous  savages,  when  Athens  was  not 
spoken,  nor  Greece  begun ;  when  Europe,  now  teeming  with  her  millions, 
was  wilderness  and  sparsely  inhabited  by  races  unlettered  and  unlearned, 
yet  Egypt  has  her  ruins  of  unnamed  cities  where  a  people  of  a  forgotten 
civilization  trafficked  and  traded,  pushed  and  jostled. 

The  prehistoric  remains  of  Egypt  are  a  never-ending  source  of  his- 
torical revelation  to  the  student  of  archaeology.  Even  the  supposed  myth 
of  Troy  vanished  in  the  face  of  these  established  facts ;  yet  more  wonder- 
ful— beneath  the  ruins  of  discovered  Troy,  the  excavator  has  found  the 
ruins  of  another  city.  It  would  seem  that  wherever  the  soil  would  sup- 
port and  the  climate  permit,  there  man  has  lived  and  had  his  being,  and 
that  practically  every  country  produces  evidence  of  a  forgotten  and  pre- 
historic race. 

In  the  Dark  Ages,  a  few  centuries  back,  ruthless  might,  with  its 
accompanying  wreck  and  ruin,  effaced  much  of  the  world's  gems  of  art, 
literature  and  architecture,  and  even  the  torch  of  learning  was  kept  but 
faintly  burning  in  the  cloisters  of  the  monk.  The  world  is  littered  with 
the  devastations  of  war;  and  ever,  man  has  built  and  destroyed. 

The  years,  as  we  know  them  in  written  history,  may  be  but  as  a  day 
in  the  eons  upon  eons  of  man's  development.  Generation  after  genera- 
tion of  men  in  a  ceaseless  flow  have  passed,  and  the  earth  is  filled  with 
the  graves  of  the  forgotten,  above  which  we  "strut  and  fret  our  brief 
hour  upon  the  stage."  Our  country's  history  is  the  history  of  the  white 
man.  We  have  but  filmy  traditions  of  the  Indians,  and  if  another  race 
preceded  it,  it  must  be  discovered  in  what  is  commonly  termed  the  Indian 




When  the  new  world  was  discovered  and  had  wonderfully  revealed 
itself  to  the  adventurers  and  daring  men  of  the  Old  World,  the  enterprize 
of  Europe  was  startled  into  action.  Those  valiant  men.  who  had  won 
laurels  among  the  mountains  of  Andalusia,  on  the  fields  of  Flanders,  and 
on  the  battlefields  of  Albion,  sought  a  more  remote  field  for  adventure. 
The  revelation  of  a  new  world  and  a  new  race,  and  communication  between 
the  old  and  the  new,  provided  a  field  for  fertile  imagination.  The  fact 
was  as  astounding  to  the  people  then  as  it  would  be  to  us  should  we  learn 
that  Mars  is  peopled  and  that  communication  could  be  established  between 
that  planet  and  the  earth. 

The  heroes  of  the  ocean  despised  the  range  of  Europe  as  too  narrow, 
offering  to  their  extravagant  ambition  nothing  beyond  mediocrity.  Am- 
bition, avarice,  and  religious  zeal  were  strangely  blended,  and  the  heroes 
of  the  main  sailed  to  the  west,  as  if  bound  on  a  new  crusade,  for  infinite 
wealth  and  renown  were  to  reward  their  piety,  satisfy  their  greed,  and 
satiate  their  ambition. 

Amei-ica  was  the  region  of  romance  where  their  heated  imagination 
could  indulge  in  the  boldest  delusions,  where  the  simple  ignorant  native 
wore  the  most  precious  ornaments,  the  sands  by  the  side  of  the  clear 
runs  of  water,  sparkled  with  gold.  Says  the  historian  of  the  ocean,  these 
adventui-ous  heroes  speedily  prepared  to  fly  by  a  beckoning  or  a  whis- 


pering  wheresoever  they  were  called.     They  forsook  certainties  for  the 
lure  and  hope  of  more  brilliant  success. 

To  win  provinces  with  the  sword,  divide  the  wealth  of  empires,  to 
plunder  the  accumulated  treasures  of  some  ancient  Indian  dynasty,  to 
return  from  a  roving  expedition  with  a  crowd  of  enslaved  captives  and 
a  profusion  of  spoils,  soon  became  ordinary  dreams.  Fame,  fortune,  life 
and  all  were  squandered  in  the  visions  of  wealth  and  renown.  Even  if 
the  issue  was  uncertain,  success,  greater  than  the  boldest  imagination 
had  dared,  was  sometimes  attained. 

It  would  be  an  interesting  story  to  trace  each  hero  across  the  ocean 
to  the  American  continent,  and  through  the  three  great  gateways  thereof, 
through  which  he  entered  the  wilds  of  the  great  west.  The  accounts  of 
the  explorations  and  exploitations  into  the  great  west  read  like  a  romance. 
The  trials  through  which  the  explorers  passed  were  enough  to  make  the 
stoutest  hearts  quail  and  to  test  the  endurance  of  men  of  steel. 

Juan  Ponce  de  Leon,  an  old  comrade  of  Christopher  Columbus  in  his 
second  voyage  across  the  Atlantic,  spent  his  youth  in  the  military  service 
of  Spain,  and  shared  in  the  wild  exploits  of  predatory  valor  in  the 
Granada.  He  was  a  fearless  and  gallant  soldier.  The  revelation  of  a 
new  world  fired  within  him  the  spirit  of  youth  and  adventure.  He  was 
an  old  man,  yet  age  had  not  tempered  his  love  of  hazardous  enterprise 
to  advance  his  fortune  by  conquest  of  kingdoms,  and  to  retrieve  a  repu- 
tation, not  without  blemish.  His  cheeks  had  been  furrowed  by  years  of 
hard  service,  and  he  believed  the  tale  which  was  a  tradition,  credited  in 
Spain  by  those  who  were  distinguished  for  intelligence,  of  a  fountain 
which  possessed  the  virtue  to  renovate  the  life  of  those  who  drank  of  it 
or  bathed  in  its  healing  waters.  In  1513,  with  a  squadron  of  three  ships 
fitted  out  at  his  own  expense,  he  landed  on  the  coast  of  Florida,  a  few 
miles  north  of  St.  Augustine.  Here  he  remained  for  many  weeks,  pa- 
tiently and  persistently  exploring  and  penetrating  the  "deep,  tangled 
wildwood,"  searching  for  gold  and  drinking  from  the  waters  of  every 
stream,  brook,  rivulet,  and  spring  and  bathing  in  every  fountain.  The 
discoverer  of  Florida  seeking  immortality  on  earth,  bereft  of  fortune  and 
broken  inspirit,  found  the  sombre  shadow  of  death  in  his  second  voyage 
in  1521.  Contending  with  the  implacable  fury  of  the  Indians,  he  died 
from  an  arrow  wound  received  in  an  Indian  fight.  He  was  laid  to  rest 
on  the  island  of  Cuba. 

Thus  began  the  Spanish  claim  to  that  vast  territory  west  of  the 


Mississippi,  which  included  the  Louisiana  Province  from  the  Mississippi 
west  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  (including  Missouri). 

Hernando  De  Soto,  who  had  been  with  Pizarro  in  his  conquest  of 
Peru  in  1533,  inspired  with  the  same  hopes  and  ambitions  as  Ponce  de 
Leon,  and  undismayed  by  his  failure,  and  inspiring  others  with  confidence 
in  his  plans,  collected  a  large  band  of  Spanish  and  Portuguese  cavaliers. 
In  1538,  his  splendidly  equipped  six  or  seven  hundred  men,  among  whom 
were  many  gentlemen  of  position  and  wealth,  set  sail  in  nine  vessels  for 
the  wonderful  Eldorado.  In  addition  to  his  men,  he  carried  three  hun- 
dred horses,  a  herd  of  swine,  and  some  bloodhounds.  It  would  be  inter- 
esting to  follow  this  expedition  in  its  hazardous  wanderings,  but  to  do  so 
in  this  sketch,  would  be  going  "far  afield."  His  route  was  in  part  through 
the  country  already  made  hostile  by  the  cruelty  and  violence  of  the 
Spanish  invader,  Narvaez.  On  April  25,  1541,  De  Soto  reached  the  banks 
of  the  great  Mississippi,  supposed  to  be  near  the  Lower  Chickasaw  Bluffs, 
a  few  miles  below  Memphis,  thus  achieving  for  his  name  immortality. 

Here  he  crossed  the  river  and  pursued  his  course  north  along  its 
west  bank  into  the  region  in  our  own  State  now  known  as  New  Madrid. 
So  far  as  the  historian  can  determine,  he  was  the  first  European  to  set 
foot  on  Missouri  soil,  and  thus  he  strengthened  the  claim  to  the  vast 
wilds  of  the  far  west.  He  reached  a  village  called  Pocaha,  the  northern- 
most point  of  his  expedition,  and  remained  there  forty  days,  sending  out 
various  exploring  parties.     The  location  of  Pocaha  cannot  be  identified. 

He  explored  to  the  northwest,  but  if  he  did  really  penetrate  what 
is  now  the  central  part  of  the  state,  how  far  he  went  is  but  speculation. 
The  country  still  nearer  to  the  Missouri  was  said  by  the  Indians  to  be 
thinly  inhabited,  and  it  abounded  in  bison  in  such  numbers  that  maize 
could  not  be  cultivated.  We  have  in  this  story  no  further  interest  in  De 
Soto's  exploration  and  wanderings,  save  to  say  that  the  white  man,  with 
his  insatiable  greed,  injustice,  and  cruel  adventure,  was  made  known  to 
the  red  man  of  the  far  west.  Because  of  the  white  man's  traits,  a  hatred 
arose  on  the  part  of  the  Indians,  which  by  succeeding  outrages  ripened 
in  after  years  to  a  venom  that  cost  the  lives  of  thousands  of  harmless 
settlers.  Other  explorations  followed  in  succession,  and  though  the  ex- 
periences would  read  like  a  romance,  the  scope  of  this  work  precludes 
an  account,  even  of  the  wonderful  exploits  of  Coronada  about  the  same 
period.  Upon  the  result  of  these  expeditions  Spain  based  her  claims  of 
the  Louisiana  Province,  afterwards  acknowledged  by  European  precedent, 
to  be  justly  founded. 

While  De  Soto  pierced  the  wilderness  from  the  southeast,  another 


Spanish  cavalcade  under  Francisco  de  Coronado,  at  practically  the  same 
time,  invaded  it  from  the  southwest. 

Coronado. — The  expedition  consisted  of  three  hundred  Spanish  ad- 
venturers, mostly  mounted,  thoroughly  armed,  richly  caparisoned,  and 
well  provisioned.  They  started  their  march  with  flying  colors  and  bound- 
less expectations.  The  Vice-roy  of  Mexico,  from  whence  they  started, 
accompanied  them  for  two  days  on  the  march.  Never  had  so  chivalrous 
adventurers  gone  forth  to  hunt  the  wilderness  for  kingdoms.  Every 
officer  seemed  fitted  to  lead  an  expedition  wherever  danger  threatened 
or  hope  lured.  More  young  men  of  the  proudest  families  of  Spain,  than 
had  ever  before  acted  together  in  America,  rallied  under  the  banner  of 

An  Indian  slave  had  told  wonders  of  the  seven  cities  of  Cibola,  the 
land  of  buffaloes  that  lay  at  the  north  between  the  oceans  and  beyond 
the  deserts.  He  represented  this  country  as  abounding  in  silver  and 
gold  beyond  the  wildest  dreams.  The  Spaniards,  in  what  was  then  called 
New  Spain,  trusting  implicitly  in  the  truth  of  this  story  and  hundreds 
of  others  equally  mythical,  burned  with  ambition  to  subdue  the  rich 
provinces.  Several  historians  who  were  participants  in  this  expedition 
have  preserved  the  events  of  the  adventurous  march,  and  it  would  seem 
that  with  so  much  written  evidence  based  on  what  the  participants  of 
the  expedition  saw  and  experienced,  at  least  the  course  pursued,  the  routes 
followed,  and  the  distances  traveled  by  Coronado  and  his  army,  ought  to 
be  free  from  doubt.  This,  however,  is  far  from  being  the  case,  and  the 
entire  matter  is  left  largely  in  doubt. 

It  seems  to  be  well  authenticated,  however,  that  Coronado  entered 
Missouri  in  the  southern  part,  but  how  far  north  he  went,  we  do  not 
know.  Some  have  claimed,  and  with  some  reason,  that  he  reached  the 
Missouri  River  in  the  central  part  of  the  State. 

Cruelty  of  Spanish  Explorers. — Coronado  and  De  Soto  both  treated 
the  Indians  with  barbarous  cruelty.  Their  great  hopes  of  limitless  riches 
and  conquered  province  became  as  ashes  in  their  hands.  Their  men, 
after  long  marches  for  months  through  the  wilderness,  became  tattered, 
disgruntled  and  surly.  They  were  burdens  upon  the  red  men  whom  they 
visited  in  the  different  villages,  and  consumed  their  maize.  The  Indians 
were  distrustful  and  suspicious,  and  an  inborn  hatred  for  the  white  man 
insistently  grew  in  their  breasts,  and  was  handed  down  by  tradition  with 
growing  rancor,  to  future  generations.  The  fabled  cities  of  Cibola  were 
found  to  be  miserable  mud  huts.     Indian  guides  lured  them  from  place 


to  place  with  wonderful  stories  in  order  that  the  white  men  might  be 
held  from  their  own  country. 

It  is  related  that  a  heroic  young  Zuni  brave  represented  that  he  was 
not  a  Zuni,  but  an  enemy  of  that  tribe,  and  belonged  to  the  country  of 
Quivera  far  to  the  north.  In  a  glowing  word  picture  he  described  his 
country  and  insisted  that  the  Spaniards  visit  there,  in  these  words: 
"Come  with  me,  0  mighty  chief,  to  my  country,  watered  by  the  mighty 
river  Quivera.  wherein  are  fishes  as  large  as  the  horses  you  ride,  and  upon 
whose  currents  float  large  and  beautiful  boats  with  many  colored  sails, 
in  which  rest  the  lords  of  the  country  at  ease,  on  downy  couches  and 
canopies  rich  with  gold.  Come,  see  our  gardens  of  roses,  where  our  great 
ones  take  their  siesta  under  the  spreading  trees  that  pierce  the  very 
heavens  in  their  towering  height.  There  gold  and  silver  are  but  as  stones 
on  a  rocky  way.  Precious  jewels  and  riches  beyond  the  dreams  of  avarice, 
0  mighty  chief,  is  yours  for  the  asking.  What  you  can  take  is  but  as  a 
cup  of  water  from  the  great  lake.  Come.  0  mighty  chief,  and  follow  me, 
for  I  will  guide  thee  to  the  land  of  riches  and  plenty." 

Tradition  has  it  that  Coronado,  arriving  near  the  Missouri,  the  Zumi 
brave  said  to  him,  "I  have  lied  to  you.  I  am  a  Zumi.  I  witnessed  your 
cruelties  to  my  people,  and  I  have  brought  you  here.  I  hope  you  will 
perish  before  you  reach  your  home.  I  am  satisfied,  and  now  I  am  ready 
to  die." 

The  young  Zumi  suffered  the  direst  penalty,  and  gave  his  life  for  his 

Coronado  remained  at  this  point  about  25  days. 

The  French  claim  to  the  Louisiana  Province  was  based  on  the  dis- 
coveries of  Marquette  and  Joliet  in  1673.  Marquette  was  of  the  patrician 
"Marquettes  of  Laon",  thought  to  have  been  descendants  of  Celtic  nobles 
whom  Rome,  in  her  wise  policy,  attached  to  her  standard  by  leaving  them 
in  possession  of  their  ancestral  territory,  but  nominally  dominated  by  the 
"eternal  city." 

Father  Marquette  and  Joliet. — Father  Marquette  was  29  years 
of  age  when  his  feet  first  touched  American  soil.  From  all  the  con- 
temporary accounts  of  the  expedition  it  is  evident  that  Father  Marquette 
was  its  leader,  its  very  soul.  But  as  an  ecclesiastic  he  could  not  take 
command  of  an  army,  however  small;  as  an  ambassador  of  Christ  to 
foreign  heathen  nations,  he  could  not  act  as  the  agent  of  a  king  of  France. 
It  was  accordingly  arranged  that  Sieur  Joliet,  a  native  of  Canada,  should 


command  the  expedition,  and  that  Marquette  should  accompany  it  as  its 
missionary.     The  choice  of  Joliet  was  a  wise  and  happy  one. 

They  left  the  connecting  strait  between  Lakes  Michigan  and  Huron 
on  the  17th  day  of  May,  1673.  In  the  language  of  Marquette, 
"We  were  embarking  on  a  voyage  the  duration  of  which  we  could  not 
foresee.  Indian  corn,  with  some  dried  meat,  was  our  only  provisions. 
With  this,  we  set  out  in  two  bark  canoes.  M.  Joliet,  five  other  men  and  I 
firmly  resolved  to  do  all  and  suffer  all  for  a  glorious  enterprise." 

On  the  17th  day  of  June,  1673,  they,  with  their  attendants  in 
two  bark  canoes,  reached  the  Upper  Mississippi.  They  followed  in  their 
frail  barks  the  swift  current  of  the  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois,  and 
thence  into  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri,  called  by  Marquette,  Pekitonoui, 
that  is,  Muddy  Water. 

Shea  in  his  "Discovery  of  the  Mississippi  Valley",  says  that  Pekitonoui, 
or  "Muddy  Water",  prevailed  until  Marest's  time  (1712),  when  it  was 
called  Missouri,  from  the  name  of  a  tribe  of  Indians  known  as  Missouris, 
who  inhabited  the  country  at  its  mouth.  More  than  100  years  after 
DeSoto  discovered  the  Mississippi  the  claim  of  the  French  was  founded. 
Until  1762  these  two  great  nations  contended  for  the  right  of  sovereignity 
of  the  wilderness  west  of  the  Mississippi. 

The  limits  of  this  work  forbid  following  the  varying  fortunes  of  any 
of  the  explorers,  and  reference  is  made  to  them  sufficient  only  to  show 
the  claims  of  France  and  Spain  to  that  expanse  of  territory  of  which  the 
present  Cooper  County  was  a  part. 

La  Salle. — Continuing  these  references  we  must  advert  to  La  Salle. 
On  the  14th  day  of  July,  1678,  with  Tonti,  an  Italian,  and  about 
30  other  men,  he  arrived  in  Quebec.  In  September,  he  sailed  from 
Rochelle,  France,  and  was  joined  by  Louis  Hennepin,  a  Franciscan  friar. 
After  leaving  Frontenac,  in  Nov.,  1678,  they  spent  about  18  months 
among  the  Indian  tribes  exploring  the  northern  lakes  and  rivers. 
They  experienced  many  hardships.  After  returning  to  Canada  for  addi- 
tional supplies,  La  Salle,  with  about  20  Frenchmen,  18  Indian  braves  and 
10  Indian  women,  descended  the  Illinois  to  the  Mississippi,  which  they 
reached  on  the  sixth  of  Feb.,  1662.  On  the  fifth  of  April,  La  Salle  accom- 
plished the  purpose  of  his  expedition,  which  was  to  discover  the  three 
mouths  of  the  Mississippi  through  which  its  great  volume  of  water  is 
discharged  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

By  ceremony  of  great  pomp,  La  Salle  took  possession  of  the  country 


in  the  name  of  Louis  XIV  of  France,  in  whose  honor  the  country  was 
named  Louisiana.  And  here  on  an  elevation  La  Salle,  amid  the  solemn 
chants  of  hymns  of  thanksgiving,  planted  a  cross,  with  the  arms  of 
France ;  and  in  the  name  of  the  French  king  took  possession  of  the  river, 
of  all  its  branches,  and  of  the  territory  watered  by  them.  The  notary 
drew  up  an  authentic  act,  which  all  signed  with  beating  hearts.  A  leaden 
plate  upon  which  were  the  arms  of  France  and  the  names  of  the  dis- 
coverers, was,  amid  the  rattle  of  musketry,  deposited  in  the  earth.  The 
plate  bore  this  inscription,  "Louis  le  Grand  Roi  de  France  et  de  Navarre, 
Regne;  le  Neuvieme  Auril,  1682."  Standing  near  the  planted  cross, 
La  Salle  proclaimed  with  a  loud  voice,  that  in  the  name  of  the  most  high, 
mighty,  invincible  and  victorious  Prince,  Louis  the  Great,  by  the  grace  of 
God,  King  of  France  and  Navarre,  14th  of  the  name,  this  ninth  day  of 
April,  1682,  he  took  possession  of  the  country  of  Louisiana,  comprising 
almost  indefinite  limits  and  including,  of  course,  the  present  territory  of 

The  colonial  policy  of  the  Spaniards  was  not  based  on  theory  or  fancy, 
although  at  this  period,  less  enlightened  than  the  French,  they  had  the 
advantage  of  larger  experience.  The  English  by  reason  of  their  indom- 
itable perseverance  and  fixedness  of  purpose  had,  in  these  respects,  an 
advantage  over  their  rivals.  Yet  the  French,  by  their  superior  attitude 
in  assimilating  with  the  savages,  and  adroitness  in  winning  confidence, 
had  a  clear  advantage  over  both. 

French  Settlements. — The  only  settlements  at  that  time  in  what  is 
now  Missouri,  were  Ste.  Genevieve  and  St.  Louis.  There  were  at  least 
five  settlements  in  what  is  now  Illinois.  These  settlements  were  situated 
along  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  for  about  75  miles  extending  from 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kaskaska.  They 
were  Kaskaskia,  with  a  white  population  of  about  400;  Prairie  View 
Rocher.  with  about  50  inhabitants;  Fort  Chartres.  about  100;  Philippe, 
about  20;  Kahoki,  about  100,  making  a  total  of  670  whites.  The  negro 
population  was  about  300,  which  brings  the  total  up  to  nearly  1,000. 

These  settlements  were  made  by  the  French.  It  seems  unreasonable 
to  assume  that  these  adventurers,  seeking  fame  and  fortune,  did  not 
explore  the  Missouri  River  far  beyond  the  limits  of  Cooper  County. 

Early  in  the  18th  century  the  French  sent  men  into  what  is  now 
Missouri  to  search  for  silver,  and  although  they  failed,  they  did  a  great 
deal  of  exploring  in  this  region.     Again  the  French  settlers  in  Kaskaskia, 


and  other  Illinois  settlements,  which  were  established  in  the  late  17th  and 
early  18th  centuries,  soon  made  their  way  on  hunting  and  exploring 
expeditions  up  the  Missouri.  Naturally  this  activity  on  the  part  of  the 
French  aroused  the  fears  of  the  Spanish  at  Santa  Fe,  which  resulted  in 
their  fitting  out  an  expedition  in  1720  for  exploration.  This  expedition 
is  popularly  known  as  the  "Great  Caravan."  It  consisted  of  a  large  num- 
ber of  soldiers,  artisans,  and  farmers,  together  with  their  families,  flocks 
and  herds. 

But  Houck  in  his  "History  of  Missouri",  says  that  recent  investiga- 
tions seem  to  make  it  clear  that  there  were  not  more  than  50  soldiers 
in  the  expedition,  and  while  there  may  have  been  helpers  they  were  not 
intending  settlers.  However  that  may  be,  the  expedition  failed  com- 
pletely, owing  to  an  attack  made  by  hostile  Indians.  Only  one  man  belong- 
ing to  the  ill-fated  expedition  escaped  with  his  life  to  relate  the  story  of 
the  disaster. 

It  is  claimed  that  this  attempt  of  the  Spanish  to  establish  a  post  on 
the  Missouri  in  1720,  led  directly  to  the  founding  of  Fort  Orleans  by  the 
French  in  1723. 

De  Bourgmont,  who  previously  spent  some  years  trading  with  the 
Indians  along  the  Missouri,  was  captain  and  commandant  of  Missouri  in 
1720.  The  exact  site  of  Fort  Orleans  cannot  be  definitely  determined. 
It  has  been  claimed  that  it  is  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Missouri  near 
what  is  now  Malta  Bend  in  Saline  County.  Recently  the  ruins  of  an  old 
fort,  and  the  remains  of  French  weapons,  have  been  unearthed  near  Malta 
Bend.  These  finds  are  taken  by  some  as  evidence  supporting  the  claim 
that  Fort  Orleans  was  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Missouri  at  that  point. 
These  facts  ?ra  important  because  they  establish  a  foundation  upon  which 
a  reasonable  inference  can  be  drawn  that  what  is  now  Cooper  County  was 
invaded  by  the  white  man,  and  that  trade  had  been  carried  on  with  the 
Indians  long  years  before  we  have  positive  record  of  exploration  by  the 
white  man. 

Treaty  of  Ildefonso.— From  1763  to  1800,  Spain  held  undisputed 
sovereignty  over  the  Louisiana  province.  In  1800,  Europe  was  a  seething 
caldron  of  contention  and  diplomacy.  There  were  wars  and  rumors  of 
wars.  Napoleon  Bonaparte  was  at  the  zenith  of  his  glory.  With  the  iron 
hand  of  power,  guided  by  a  wily  diplomatic  policy,  and  jealous  ot  the 
growing  sovereignty  of  Spain  and  England  in  the  New  World,  Napoleon 
forced  Spain  into  the  treaty  of  Ildefonso,  Oct.  1 ,  1800,  by  which  she  ceded 


to  France  all  the  territory  known  as  Louisiana,  west  of  the  Mississippi 
in  consideration  that  the  son-in-law  to  the  King  of  Spain  should  be  estab- 
lished in  Tuscany. 

This  treaty  took  its  name  from  the  celebrated  palace  of  St.  Ildefonso 
which  was  the  retreat  of  Charles  V  of  Spain  when  he  abdicated  his  throne 
in  favor  of  his  son.  It  was  situated  about  40  miles  north  of  Madrid  in 
an  elevated  ravine  in  the  mountains  of  Gaudarruma. 

Purchase  of  Louisiana  Territory. — Napoleon  Bonaparte  in  1803,  for- 
seeing  that  Russia,  in  conjunction  with  Austria  and  England,  was  pre- 
paring to  send  clown  her  Muscovite  legions  into  France,  realized  that  he 
could  not  hold  his  possessions  in  America  and  determined  to  dispose  of 
them  to  the  disadvantage  of  England.  The  treaty  of  Ildefonso,  in  1800, 
whereby  Spain  ceded  to  France  all  of  the  Louisiana  Province,  had  been 
kept  a  profound  secret  until  1803.  Thomas  Jefferson,  then  president  of 
the  United  States,  was  informed  of  the  contents  of  this  treaty.  He  at 
once  dispatched  instructions  to  Robert  Livingston,  the  American  minister 
to  Paris,  to  make  known  to  Napoleon  that  the  occupation  of  New  Orleans 
by  the  French  government  would  bring  about  a  conflict  of  interest  between 
the  two  nations,  which  would  finally  culminate  in  an  open  rupture.  He 
urged  Mr.  Livingston  not  only  to  insist  upon  the  free  navigation  of  the 
Mississippi,  but  to  negotiate  for  the  purchase  of  the  city  and  the  sur- 
rounding country,  and  to  inform  the  French  government  that  the 
occupancy  of  New  Orleans  might  oblige  the  United  States  to  make  com- 
mon cause  with  England,  France's  bitterest  and  most  dreaded  enemy. 

Mr.  Jefferson,  in  so  grave  a  matter,  appointed  Mr.  Monroe,  with  full 
power  to  act  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  Livingston  in  the  negotiation.  Before 
taking  final  action  in  the  matter,  Napoleon  summoned  his  ministers  and 
addressed  them  as  follows :  "I  am  fully  aware  of  the  value  of  Louisiana, 
and  it  was  my  wish  to  repair  the  error  of  the  French  diplomats  who 
abandoned  it  in  1763.  I  have  scarcely  recovered  it  before  I  run  the  risk 
of  losing  it ;  but  if  I  am  obliged  to  give  it  up,  it  shall  hereafter  cost  more 
to  those  who  force  me  to  part  with  it,  than  to  whom  I  sell  it.  The  English 
have  despoiled  France  of  all  her  northern  possessions  in  America,  and  now 
they  covet  those  of  the  south.  I  am  determined  that  they  shall  not  have 
the  Mississippi.  Although  Louisiana  is  but  a  trifle  compared  to  their 
vast  possessions  in  other  parts  of  the  globe,  yet,  judging  from  the  vexa- 
tion they  have  manifested  on  seeing  it  return  to  the  power  of  France,  I 
am  certain  that  their  first  object  will  be  to  gain  possession  of  it.  They 
will  probably   commence  the  war  in  that  quarter.     They  have   twenty 



vessels  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  our  affairs  in  St.  Domingo  are  getting 
worse  since  the  death  of  LeClerc.  The  conquest  of  Louisiana  might  be 
easily  made,  and  I  have  not  a  moment  to  lose  in  getting  out  of  their  reach. 
I  am  not  sure  but  that  they  have  already  begun  an  attack  upon  it.  Such 
a  measure  would  be  in  accordance  with  their  habits ;  and,  if  I  were  in  their 
place  I  should  not  wait.  I  am  inclined,  in  order  to  deprive  them  of  all 
prospect  of  ever  possessing  it,  to  cede  it  to  the  United  States.  Indeed,  I 
can  hardly  say  that  I  cede  it,  for  I  do  not  yet  possess  it ;  and  if  I  wait  but 
a  short  time,  my  enemies  may  leave  me  nothing  but  an  empty  title  to 
grant  to  the  Republic  I  wish  to  conciliate.  I  consider  the  whole  colony 
as  lost,  and  I  believe  that  in  the  hands  of  this  rising  power  it  will  be  more 
useful  to  the  political  and  even  commercial  interests  of  France  than  if  I 
should  attempt  to  retain  it.  Let  me  have  both  your  opinions  on  the 

One  of  Napoleon's  ministers  agreed  with  him,  and  the  other  dis- 
sented. Ever  quick  to  think  and  to  act,  the  next  day  he  sent  for  the 
minister  who  agreed  with  him,  and  thus  expressed  himself: 

"The  season  for  deliberation  is  over.  I  have  determined  to  renounce 
Louisiana.  I  shall  give  up  not  only  New  Orleans,  but  the  whole  colony, 
without  reservation.  That  I  do  not  undervalue  Louisiana,  I  have  suffici- 
ently proved,  as  the  object  of  my  first  treaty  with  Spain  was  to  recover 
it.  But  though  I  regret  parting  with  it,  I  am  convinced  that  it  would  be 
folly  to  try  to  keep  it.  I  commission  you,  therefore,  to  negotiate  this 
affair  with  the  envoys  of  the  United  States.  Do  not  await  the  arrival  of 
Mr.  Monroe,  but  go  this  very  day  and  confer  with  Mr.  Livingston. 
Remember,  however,  that  I  need  ample  funds  for  carrying  on  the  war, 
and  I  do  not  wish  to  commence  it  by  levying  new  taxes.  For  the  last 
century  France  and  Spain  have  incurred  great  expense  in  the  improve- 
ment of  Louisiana,  for  which  her  trade  has  never  indemnified  them.  Large 
sums  have  been  advanced  to  different  companies,  which  have  never  been 
returned  to  the  treasury.  It  is  fair  that  I  should  require  repayment  for 
these.  Were  I  to  regulate  my  demands  by  the  importance  of  the  terri- 
tory to  the  United  States,  they  would  be  unbounded ;  but,  being  obliged  to 
part  with  it,  I  shall  be  moderate  in  my  terms.  Still,  remember,  I  must 
have  fifty  millions  of  francs,  and  I  will  not  consent  to  take  less.  I  would 
rather  make  some  desperate  effort  to  preserve  this  fine  country." 

The  negotiations  were  completed  satisfactorily  to  both  parties  to  the 
contract.  Mr.  Livingston  said,  "I  consider  that  from  this  day  the  United 


States  takes  rank  with  the  first  powers  of  Europe,  and  now  she  is  entirely 
escaped  from  the  power  of  England." 

Napoleon  Bonaparte,  seemingly  as  well  pleased  said,  "By  this  cession 
of  territory,  I  have  secured  the  power  of  the  United  States,  and  given  to 
England  a  rival,  who  in  some  future  time  will  humble  her  pride.  How 
prophetic  were  the  words  of  Napoleon.  Not  many  years  after  in  the 
very  territory  of  which  the  great  Corsican  had  been  speaking  the  British 
met  their  signal  defeat  by  the  prowess  and  arms  of  the  Americans. 

On  Dec.  20,  1803,  the  Stars  and  Stripes  supplanted  the  tri-colored 
flag  of  France  at  New  Orleans.  March  10,  1804,  again  the  glorious  banner 
of  our  country  waved  at  St.  Louis,  from  which  day  the  authority  of  the 
United  States  in  Missouri  dates. 

The  great  Mississippi,  along  whose  banks  the  Americans  had  planted 
their  towns  and  villages,  now  afforded  them  a  safe  and  easy  outlet  to  the 
markets  of  the  world. 

Organization  of  Territory. — In  the  month  of  April,  1804,  Congress, 
by  an  act,  divided  Louisiana  into  two  parts,  the  territory  of  Orleans,  and 
the  district  of  Louisiana,  known  as  Upper  Louisiana.  Upper  Louisiana 
embraced  the  present  state  of  Missouri,  all  the  western  region  of  country 
to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  all  below  the  49th  degree  of  north  latitude  not 
claimed  by  Spain. 

On  March  26,  1804,  Missouri  was  placed  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
government  of  the  territory  of  Indiana,  and  its  government  put  in  motion 
by  Gen.  William  H.  Harrison,  then  governor  of  Indiana,  afterwards  pres- 
ident of  the  United  States.  In  this  he  was  assisted  by  Judges  Jacob, 
Vandenburg  and  Davis  who  established  in  St.  Louis  what  was  called 
Courts  of  Common  Pleas. 

On  March  3,  1805,  the  district  of  Louisiana  was  organized  by  Con- 
gress into  the  territory  of  Louisiana,  and  President  Jefferson  appointed 
General  James  Wilkinson,  governor;  and  Frederick  Bates,  secretary.  The 
legislature  of  the  territory  was  formed  by  Governor  Wilkinson,  Judges 
R.  J.  Meiger  and  John  B.  C.  Lucas. 

In  1807,  Governor  Wilkinson  was  succeeded  by  Captain  Merriwether 
Lewis,  who  had  become  famous  by  reason  of  his  having  made  the  expedi- 
tion up  the  Missouri  with  Clark.  Governor  Lewis  committed  suicide  in 
1809,  under  very  peculiar  and  suspicious  circumstances,  and  the  President 
appointed  General  Benjamin  Howard  of  Lexington.  Kentucky,  to  fill  his 


Governor  Howard  resigned  Oct.  25,  1810,  to  enter  the  War  of  1812, 
and  died  in  St.  Louis  in  1814. 

Captain  William  Clark,  of  Lewis  and  Clark's  expedition,  was  appointed 
governor  in  1810,  to  succeed  General  Howard ;  he  remained  in  office  until 
the  admission  of  the  state  into  the  Union  in  1821. 

For  purposes  of  purely  local  government,  the  settled  portion  of  Mis- 
souri was  divided  into  four  districts.  Cape  Girardeau  was  the  first,  and 
embraced  the  territory  between  Pywappipy  Bottom  and  Apple  Creek ;  Ste. 
Genevieve,  the  second,  embraced  the  territory  of  Apple  Creek  to  the  Merri- 
mac  River ;  St.  Louis,  the  third,  embraced  the  territory  between  the 
Merrimac  and  the  Missouri ;  St.  Charles,  the  fourth  included  the  settled 
territory  between  the  Missouri  and  the  Mississippi  Rivers.  The  total 
population  of  these  districts  at  that  time,  including  slaves,  was  8,670. 
The  population  of  the  district  of  Louisiana  when  ceded  to  the  United 
States  was  10,120. 

Various  Claims  to  Missouri. — The  soil  of  Missouri  has  been  claimed 
or  owned  as  follows:  First,  from  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century 
to  1763,  by  both  France  and  Spain.  Second,  in  1763,  it  was  ceded  to 
Spain  by  France.  Third,  in  1800,  it  was  ceded  from  Spain  back  to  France. 
Fourth,  April  30,  1803,  it,  with  other  territory,  was  ceded  by  France  to 
the  United  States.  Fifth,  October  31,  1803,  a  temporary  government  was 
authorized  by  Congress  for  the  newly  acquired  territory.  Sixth,  October, 
1804,  it  was  included  in  the  "District  of  Louisiana."  then  organized  with 
a  separate  territorial  government.  Eighth,  June  4,  1812,  it  was  embraced 
in  what  was  then  made  the  "Territory  of  Missouri."  Ninth,  August  10. 
1821,  admitted  into  the  Union  as  a  state. 

When  France,  in  1803,  vested  the  title  to  this  vast  territory  in  the 
United  States,  it  was  subject  to  the  claims  of  the  Indians.  This  claim 
our  government  justly  recognized.  Therefore,  before  the  government  of 
the  United  States  could  vest  clear  title  to  the  soil  in  the  grantees,  it  was 
necessary  to  extinguish  title  by  purchase.  This  was  accordingly  done  by 
treaties  made  with  the  Indians  at  various  times. 

When  Missouri  was  admitted  as  a  territory  in  1812  by  James  Madison, 
it  embraced  what  is  now  the  state  of  Missouri,  Arkansas,  Iowa,  Minnesota, 
west  of  the  Mississippi,  Oklahoma,  North  and  South  Dakota,  Nebraska. 
Montana,  and  most  of  Kansas,  Colorado  and  Wyoming.  It  has  therefor.1 
been  truly  said  that  Missouri  is  the  mother  of  all  the  great  west. 




While  the  preceding  chapters  deal  with  history,  largely  speculative 
and  inferential,  leading  up  to  the  year  1804,  when  the  United  States  took 
possession  of  Upper  Louisiana,  the  present  chapter  is  the  story  based  on 
actual  facts  from  1804  to  1812,  of  the  Central  Boonslick  country,  and 
particularly  that  portion  of  the  same  on  the  south  and  north  banks  of 
the  Missouri,  in  what  is  now  the  northern  part  of  Cooper  County  and  the 
southern  part  of  Howard.  So  intimately  correlated  are  the  events  on 
both  banks  of  the  river,  that  the  story  of  one  is  the  story  of  the  other. 

Over  a  century  of  time  has  elapsed  since  the  first  hardy  pioneer  built 
his  cabin  in  the  wilderness  which  is  now  known  to  the  world  as  Cooper 
county.  During  the  period  which  has  passed  since  the  first  settler  braved 
the  hardships  and  privations  of  the  unknown  and  undeveloped  country 
bordering  upon  the  shores  of  the  mighty  Missouri,  a  wonderful  trans- 
formation has  taken  place. 

Cooper  County  has  risen  to  become  one  of  the  wealthiest  in  Missouri 
and  is  one  of  the  leaders  in  value  of  farm  crops  and  farm  wealth.  It 
has  become  famous  for  enterprise  and  industry,  and  ranks  among  the 
first  counties  of  the  great  state  of  Missouri  in  the  prosperity  of  her 
citizens.     All  this  has  been  accomplished  by  the  men  and  women  who 


have  delved  into  its  rich  soil  and  developed  the  limitless  resources  of  the 

It  has  furnished  to  the  state  and  nation  men  eminent  in  the  councils 
of  both  and  famed  in  statesmanship.  Its  citizens  have  won  distinction 
in  the  professions  and  in  letters,  have  been  in  the  van  of  advanced  agri- 
culture, horticulture  and  stock-breeding,  and  have  in  remote  sections  of 
our  great  country,  carried  with  them  the  vigor  of  mind  and  body  that 
shed  luster  in  their  adopted  homes. 

Schools  have  multiplied  and  towns  have  been  built  upon  the  broad 
expanse  of  her  territory ;  the  old  trails  have  given  away  to  well-kept 
highways;  steam  locomotives  haul  palatial  trains  where  once  the  slow 
moving  ox-teams  transported  merchandise  to  and  from  the  Missouri. 

Even  the  buggy  and  carriage,  once  the  evidence  of  prosperity,  have 
been  superceded  lay  the  more  elegant,  more  comfortable  and  speedier 
means  of  travel,  the  automobile.  The  telegraph,  the  telephone  and  the 
wireless  have  bound  together  distant  communities.  Distance  has  been 
eliminated  and  time  conserved. 

The  history  of  Cooper  County,  from  t^he  time  of  the  red  men  and  the 
first  hardy  adventurers  and  pioneers,  involves  a  wondrous  story  which 
is  well  worth  preserving.  States  and  nations  preserve  their  history,  but 
the  story  of  a  county  and  its  creation  and  development  touches  a  chord 
of  home  life  and  home  making  which  is  dearer  and  nearer  than  that 
which  is  purely  informational. 

Danie!  Boone,  whose  name  is  so  intimately  connected  with  the  early 
pioneer  history  of  Kentucky,  when  an  old  man,  lost  his  holdings  in 
that  state  by  reason  of  defective  land  titles.  Though  learned  in  wood- 
craft and  versatile  in  Indian  lore,  he  knew  little  of  man-made  laws. 
Chagrined  and  baffled,  but  with  never  quailing  heart,  he  determined  to 
move  farther  west  where  he  would  not  be  elbowed  by  a  crowding  civil- 
ization. He  secured  a  grant  of  land  on  the  Femme  Osage,  in  what  is 
now  St.  Charles  County,  in  the  state  of  Missouri,  and  eventually  located 
there  about  1797.  He  was  strong  and  vigorous,  and  for  several  years 
thereafter  hunted  and  trapped  up  and  down  the  Missouri  River,  depend- 
ing solely  and  alone  upon  nature  and  his  trusty  rifle  for  all  his  wants. 

When  Hunt,  in  his  expedition  across  the  continent,  on  Jan.  17,  1811, 
touched  with  his  boats  at  Charette,  one  of  the  old  villages  founded  by  the 
original  French  colonists,  he  met  with  Daniel  Boone.  This  renowned 
patriarch  of  Kentucky,  who  had  kept  in  advance  of  civilization  and  on  the 
borders  of  the  wilderness,  was  still  leading  a  hunter's  life,  though  then  in 


his  83d  year.  He  had  but  recently  returned  from  a  hunting  and  trapping 
expedition,  and  had  brought  nearly  60  beaver  skins  as  trophies  of  his 
skill.  This  old  man  was  still  erect  in  form,  strong  of  limb  and  unflinching 
in  spirit.  As  he  stood  on  the  river  bank,  watching  the  departure  of  an 
expedition  destined  to  traverse  the  wilderness  to  the  very  shores  of  the 
Pacific,  very  probably  his  pulse  beat  the  faster  and  he  felt  a  throb  of  his 
old  pioneer  spirit  impelling  him  to  shoulder  his  rifle,  and  join  the  adven- 
turous band  that  was  to  travel  lands  heretofore  unexplored,  again  braving 
the  wilderness  and  the  savage. 

Boone  flourished  several  yeai-s  after  this  meeting  in  a  vigorous  old 
age,  the  master  of  hunters  and  backwoodsmen,  and  he  died  full  of  sylvan 
honor  and  renown,  in  1820,  in  his  92d  year. 

John  Peck,  that  noted  pioneer  Baptist  preacher,  in  his  memoirs  of 
the  Louisiana  Territory,  thus  describes  Boone: 

"His  high,  bold  forehead  was  slightly  bald,  and  his  silvered  locks 
were  combed  smooth,  his  countenance  was  ruddy  and  fair  and  exhibited 
the  simplicity  of  a  child,  a  smile  frequently  played  over  his  countenance; 
in  conversation  his  voice  was  soft  and  melodious;  at  repeated  interviews 
an  irritable  expression  was  never  heard ;  his  clothing  was  the  coarse,  plain 
manufacture  of  the  family,  but  every  thing  denoted  that  kind  of  com- 
fort that  was  congenial  to  his  habits  and  feelings,  and  evinced  a  busy, 
happy  old  age.  His  room  was  a  part  of  a  range  of  log  cabins  kept  in  order 
by  his  affectionate  daughters  and  grand  daughters.  Every  member  of  the 
household  appeared  to  take  delight  in  administering  to  his  comforts ;  he 
was  sociable  and  communicative  in  replying  to  questions,  but  did  not  intro- 
duce incidents  of  his  own  history.  He  was  intelligent,  for  he  had  treas- 
ured up  the  experience  and  observation  of  more  than  fourscore  years 
"not  moody  and  unsociable  as  if  desirous  of  shunning  society  and  civil- 
ization."    This  was  in  1816,  four  years  before  the  death  of  Boone. 

This  brief  mention  of  Daniel  Boone  is  but  a  small  tribute  to  the  man 
from  whom,  because  of  his  noble  traits  and  unique  career,  the  Boonslick 
Country.  Boone  County,  and  Boonville  take  their  names. 

Boonslick  Country. — In  one  of  his  many  hunting  and  trapping  expe- 
ditions, Boone  came  into  Hov/ard  County  and  discovered  certain  salt 
ings,  about  eight  miles  northwest  of  what  is  now  Now  Franklin.  These 
springs  were  for  many  years  thereafter  known  as  Boonslick,  from  them 
this  section  of  country  took  its  name.  All  of  the  present  state  of  Mis- 
souri lying  west  of  Cedar  Creek  and  north  and  west  of  the  Osage  river, 
and  extending  practically  to  what  is  now  the  state  line  on  the  west  and 


north,  was  for  many  years  known  as  the  Boonslick  Country.  The  first 
settlers  who  came  to  this  section  knew  it  only  by  that  name,  as  at  that 
time  no  counties  were  formed  in  the  central  part  of  the  state.  There  is 
no  reliable  evidence  nor  substantial  tradition  that  Boone  ever  permanently 
resided  at  this  Lick,  but  it  is  certain  that  he  camped  near  there,  prob- 
ably on  many  occasions.  Nor  is  there  substantial  evidence  that  be  ever 
resided  in  the  present  county  of  Cooper,  yet  it  is  very  probable  that  he 
frequently  crossed  to  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri  river,  and  trapped 
and  hunted  along  the  Missouri  in  what  is  now  Cooper  County. 

Samuel  Cole,  a  member  of  one  of  the  first  white  families  which  settled 
in  the  present  limits  of  Cooper  County,  has  been  positive  in  his  statement 
that  Daniel  Boone  never  lived  farther  west  than  St.  Charles  County.  The 
conclusion,  therefore,  is  inevitable  that  those  who  have  assumed  that 
Boone  ever  resided  permanently  in  either  Howard  or  Cooper  County  are 
in  error.  However,  John  W.  Peck,  who  in  the  early  days  traveled  in  this 
section,  gives  a  very  interesting  account  of  his  observations  and  experi- 

A  few  years  before  the  old  hunter's  death,  Peck  visited  him  in  his 
home  in  what  is  now  St.  Charles  County.  He  states  that  Boone  pitched 
his  tent  for  one  winter  at  the  salt  springs,  afterwards  known  as  Boone's 
Lick,  and  later  put  up  a  cabin  there.  Mr.  Peck  does  not  give  the  date. 
The  presumption  is  that  he  got  his  information  from  the  lips  of  the  old 
hunter  himself,  and  we  would  further  suppose  that  Boone  camped  there 
between  the  years  1797  and  1804,  likely  nearer  the  former  date  than  the 
latter  for  the  reason  that  he  was  at  that  time  younger  and  more  robust, 
and  more  inclined  than  he  was  later  to  enjoy  sylvan  sports,  the  chase  and 
the  hunt. 

First  Temporary  Settlements. — Joseph  Marie,  in  the  year  1800,  set- 
tled upon  lands  situated  near  what  is  known  as  "Eagle's  Nest",  about  one 
mile  southwest  of  where  Fort  Kincaid  was  afterward  erected,  in  what  is 
now  Franklin  township,  Howard  County,  and  erected  improvements 
thereon.  This  has  been  controverted,  but  we  give  it  again  for  what  it  is 

The"  first  authentic  record  we  have  dealing  with  any  settlement  is  a 
deed  executed  in  the  year  1816,  transferring  the  above  lands  by  this  same 
Joseph  Marie  to  Asa  Morgan,  whose  name  is  so  intimately  connected  with 
some  of  the  first  land  deals  in  this  section,  and  who  with  Lucas  laid  out 
the  town  of  Boonville.     We  give  this  deed  at  the  end  of  this  chapter. 

Also  in  the  year  1800,  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Upper  Louisiana, 


Charles  Dehault  Delasus,  granted  to  Ira  P.  Nash,  a  large  tract  of  land 
in  what  is  now  Howard  County.  This  land  was  surveyed  on  Jan.  26, 
1804,  and  certified  to  on  Feb.  15th  of  that  year.  We  also  append  at  the 
end  of  this  chapter  a  copy  of  the  deed  transferring  this  land.  In  the  latter 
part  of  February,  Ira  P.  Nash  the  above  named,  a  Deputy  United  States 
surveyor,  together  with  Stephen  Hancock  and  Stephen  Jackson,  came  up 
the  Missouri  River  and  located  a  claim  on  public  lands  nearly  opposite  the 
mouth  of  the  Lamine  River,  north  of  Cooper  County.  They  remained 
there  until  March,  of  the  same  year,  employing  their  time  in  surveying, 
hunting  and  fishing,  and  during  that  month  returned  to  their  homes,  on 
the  Missouri  River,  about  five  miles  above  St.  Charles. 

In  July  of  the  same  year,  Ira  P.  Nash,  with  James  H.  Whiteside, 
William  Clark  arid  Daniel  Hubbard  came  again  into  what  is  now  Howard 
County,  and  surveyed  a  tract  of  land  near  the  present  site  of  Old  Franklin. 
On  this  trip,  it  is  stated,  Mr.  Nash  claimed  that  on  his  former  trip  when  he 
came  up  the  river  in  February,  he  had  left  a  compass  in  a  certain  hollow 
tree.  He  and  two  other  companions  started  out  to  find  it,  and  agreed  to 
meet  the  remainder  of  the  company  the  next  day  at  what  was  known  as 
"Boone's  and  Barkley's  Lick."  This  he  did,  bringing  the  compass  with 
him,  thus  proving  beyond  a  doubt  that  he  had  visited  the  country  before. 
This  incident  is  remembered  as  having  been  important,  in  the  early  days, 
in  bearing  on  the  title  of  Nash's  land. 

Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition. — When  Lewis  and  Clark  in  their  won- 
derful exploring  expedition  across  the  continent  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  came 
up  the  Missouri  river,  they  arrived  near  where  the  Boone  Femme  flows 
into  the  Missouri  river,  on  the  north  side,  and  camped  there  for  the  night. 
This  was  on  June  7,  1804.  <  When  they  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big 
Moniteau  Creek,  they  found  a  point  of  rocks  covered  with  strange  heirog- 
lyphic  paintings  that  deeply  aroused  their  interest,  but  this  place  was 
infested  with  such  a  large  number  of  rattlesnakes,  that  a  closer  examina- 
tion was  rendered  hazardous  and  practically  impossible.  As  they  traveled 
up  the  river  they  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Lamine  on  June  8th  and 
on  the  9th  they  reached  what  is  now  Arrow  Rock.  This  expedition  re- 
turned from  its  journey  in  1806,  after  thrilling  experiences,  having  suc- 
cessfully accomplished  all  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  sent  out. 

In  passing  down  the  Missouri  River,  on  Sept.  18th,  the  expedition 
camped  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri  river,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Lamine.     Passing  up  the  Missouri  in  1804,  and  down  on  their  return  trip 


in  1806,  they  passed  the  present  sites  of  Boonville  and  Franklin,  and 
doubtless  made  short  explorations  on  both  sides  of  the  river. 

The  next  positive  evidence  that  we  have  of  any  white  person  being  in 
the  country  is  the  following: 

Nathan  and  Daniel  Boone  Make  Salt  at  Boonslick. — In  1807,  Nathan 
and  Daniel  M.  Boone,  sons  of  old  Daniel  Boone,  who  lived  with  their  father 
in  what  is  now  St.  Charles  County,  about  25  miles  west  of  the  city  of  St. 
Charles,  on  the  Femme  Osage  Creek,  came  up  the  Missouri  River  and 
manufactured  salt  at  Boone's  Lick  in  what  is  now  Howard  County.  After 
they  had  manufactured  a  considerable  amount  of  salt  they  shipped  it 
down  the  river  to  St.  Louis,  where  they  sold  it.  It  is  thought  by  many 
that  this  is  the  first  instance  of  salt  being  manufactured  in  what  was  at 
that  time  a  part  of  the  territory  of  Louisiana,  now  the  state  of  Missouri, 
however  soon  after  this  sale  was  manufactured  in  large  quantiitiies,  salt 
licks  being  discovered  in  many  parts  of  the  state. 

These  were  the  first  white  persons  who  remained  for  any  length  of 
time  in  the  Boonslick  country,  but  they  were  not  permanent  settlers.  They 
came  only  to  make  salt  or  hunt,  and  left  soon  thereafter. 

So  far  as  authentic  records  give  us  light,  the  foregoing  were  the  first 
white  settlers  who  came  to  this  section  of  the  Boonslick  country.  Thus 
we  see  that  prior  to  1808  three  parties  had  entered  it  while  on  exploring 
and  surveying  expeditions.  Two  parties  had  been  to  its  fine  salt  licks  to 
make  salt.  It  must  not  be  assumed,  however,  that  these  were  the  first 
white  men  who  came  into  this  section  of  the  state.  There  had  been  for 
many  years  settlements  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state  and  especially  on 
the  Mississippi  River.  Doubtless  many  of  these  hardy  pioneers,  on  their 
hunting  expeditions,  tracked  the  forest  to  the  Boonslick  country.  Many 
years  before  1800,  French  traders  and  Spanish  voyageurs  were  wont  to 
trap,  hunt  and  traffic  with  the  Indians,  up  and  down  the  Missouri  River. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  these  white  men  who  came  to  this  section  were  not 
looked  upon  by  the  Indians  in  surprise  and  wonder.  They  knew  the  ways 
of  the  white  man,  and  gave  evidence  of  having  had  previous  dealings  with 

Christy  and  Heath  Make  Salt  in  Cooper  County.— William  Christy 
and  John  J.  Heath  came  up  from  St.  Louis  in  1808,  and  manufactured  salt 
in  what  is  now  Blackwater  township,  Cooper  County,  at  a  place  now  known 
as  Heath's  Lick.  For  years  afterwards,  Heath  made  salt  at  the  same 
place  every  summer  and  shipped  it  to  St.  Louis,  in  hollow  logs  closed  at 


each  end  by  chunks  of  wood  and  clay.  The  salt  springs  where  Heath's 
salt  works  were  located  is  known  as  Heath's  Creek,  named  after  him,  as 
was  also  Heath's  Lick. 

In  1804,  when  the  United  States  took  formal  possession  of  the  province 
of  of  Louisiana,  it  became  the  territory  of  Louisiana,  and  was  afterwards 
divided  into  the  Upper  Louisiana  Territory,  and  the  Orleans,  or  Lower 
Louisiana  Territory,  to  the  former  of  which  this  section  belonged.  It  was 
then  that  the  rugged  American  pioneer  looked  with  longing  eyes  towards 
the  West,  seeking  cheap  lands,  a  new  home  and  adventure.  Soon  there 
started  a  stream  of  immigration  from  the  south,  east  and  north,  but  the 
first  settlers  were  principally  from  the  southern  states. 

Benjamin  Cooper  First  Settler  in  Boonslick  Country. — Benjamin 
Cooper  was  the  first  permanent  settler  in  the  section.  In  the  spring  of 
the  year  1808,  he  and  his  family,  consisting  of  his  wife  and  five  sons, 
moved  to  the  Boonslick  country,  about  two  miles  southwest  of  Boonslick 
in  the  Missouri  River  bottom.  Here  he  had  sought  cheaper  lands  and  a 
new  home,  together  with  the  necessary  adventures  second  to  his  sturdy 
nature.  He  built  a  cabin  cleared  a  small  piece  of  ground  and  began  the 
preliminary  work  for  a  permanent  home.  However,  he  was  located  so  far 
beyond  the  protection  of  the  government  that  Governor  Merriweather 
Lewis,  then  governor  of  the  territory  issued  an  order  directing  him  to 
return  below  the  mouth  of  the  Gasconade  River.  Cooper  was  so  far  ad- 
vanced in  the  Indian  country,  and  so  far  away  from  the  protection  of  the 
government,  that  in  case  of  Indian  wars,  he  would  be  without  other  aid 
and  unable  to  protect  himself  against  the  depredations  of  the  ruthless 
savages.  So  he  returned  to  Loutre  Island,  about  four  miles  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Gasconade  River,  and  remained  there  until  the  year  1810. 
This  precaution  was  perhaps  due  to  the  fact  that  Indians  were  being 
stirred  and  exploited  by  our  then  quandam  friends,  the  English,  in  some 
cases  being  supplied  by  them  with  guns  and  ammunition. 

As  Stephen  Cole  and  Hannah  Cole  and  families  were  the  first  perma- 
nent settlers  in  Cooper  County,  it  may  be  of  special  interest  to  the  reader 
to  learn  something  about  them. 

Stephen  Cole  ;ind  William  Temple  Cole  Fight  With  Indians. — Stephen 
Cole  and  William  Temple  Cole  were  bora  in  New  River,  Wythe  County. 
Virginia.  There  they  married  sisters  named  Allison,  and  emigrated  to 
the  southern  part  of  the  Cumberland,  Wayne  County.  Kentucky.  In  1807, 
they  came  to  Upper  Louisiana,  and  settled  on  or  near  Loutre  Island,  about 
the  same  time  that  the  Coopers  settled  on  that  island. 


In  1810,  a  roving  band  of  about  eighteen  Pottowattomies,  led  by  a 
war  chief  named  Nessotingineg,  stole  a  number  of  horses  from  the  settlers 
of  Loutre  Island  on  the  Missouri.  A  volunteer  company  consisting  of 
Stephen  Cole,  William  Temple  Cole,  Sarshall  Brown,  Nicholas  Gooch, 
Abraham  Potts,  and  James  Mordock,  was  formed  with  Stephen  Cole,  then 
captain  of  the  militia  of  Loutre  Island,  as  leader.  The  company  proposed 
to  follow  the  Indians  and  recapture  the  stolen  property. 

The  volunteer  company  followed  the  Indians  up  the  Loutre  Creek, 
about  20  miles,  and  came  to  a  place  where  the  Indians  had  peeled  bark, 
evidently  to  make  halters,  there  the  white  men  stopped  for  the  night. 
The  next  morning  they  followed  the  Indian  trail  about  thirty  miles  across 
Grand  Prairie,  just  as  they  emerged  from  a  small  patch  of  timber,  sud- 
denly discovered  the  Indians  with  the  horses. 

William  Temple  Cole  and  Sarshall  Brown,  on  the  fastest  horses, 
started  in  pursuit,  the  others  following  them.  So  hard  did  they  press 
their  pursuit  upon  the  Indians,  who  did  not  know  the  number  of  whites 
chasing  them,  and  who  were  apprehensive  that  they  might  be  captured  in 
their  wild  flight,  that  they  threw  their  packs  into  a  plum  thicket  near  a 
pool  of  water,  and  they  scattered  in  the  woods.  These  packs,  consisting 
of  buffalo  robes,  deer  skins  and  partly  tanned  leather,  they  had  stolen  from 
Sarshall  Brown. 

Night  overtaking  the  party,  they  went  into  camp  on  the  Waters  of 
Salt  River  at  a  place  known  as  Bonelick,  65  miles  from  the  Loutre  settle- 
ment, and  about  a  mile  or  two  northwest  of  the  present  city  of  Mexico,  in 
Audrain  County.  Here  contrary  to  the  advice  of  their  leader  Stephen 
Cole,  they  without  posting  any  sentinels,  tied  their  horses  in  the  thicket. 
After  broiling  some  meat  for  supper,  they  went  to  sleep,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Stephen  Cole,  who  with  the  sagacity  of  the  experienced  frontiers- 
man, was  apprehensive  of  an  attack.  They  had  not  been  asleep  long, 
when  Cole  thought  he  heard  the  cracking  of  a  bush.  He  told  his  bi-other 
to  get  up,  for  he  believed  the  Indians  were  near.  However  everything 
remained  still,  and  solemn  quietude  prevailed.  Stephen  Cole  pulled  his 
saddle  against  his  back  and  shoulders,  and  sought  again  his  repose  after 
the  hard  day's  chase,  but  still  impressed  with  impending  danger.  The 
Indians,  who  had  crawled  up  so  near  that,  by  the  light  of  the  little  camp 
fire,  they  could  see  the  faces  of  their  unsuspecting  victims,  waited  but  a 
short  time  till  all  was  quiet  then  they  opened  a  volley  upon  the  party, 
instantly  killing  Gooch  and  Brown,  wounding  William  Temple  Cole  and 
another  one  of  the  men.     A  hand-to-hand  struggle  between  the  Indians 


and  Stephen  Cole  then  took  place  in  which  Cole  killed  four  Indians  and 
wounded  a  fifth ;  the  remaining  members  of  the  Indian  band  disappeared. 

Stephen  Cole  then  went  into  a  nearby  pool  and  squatted  in  the  water 
to  wash  the  blood  from  the  many  wounds  which  he  had  received.  After 
a  little  while  the  Indians  returned,  found  Temple  Cole  and  killed  him. 
Patton,  who  had  managed  to  get  off  some  distance,  also  was  found  dead 
near  a  little  sapling.  Stephen  Cole,  after  stanching  the  flow  of  blood  from 
his  wounds  left  the  scene  of  the  bloody  encounter.  The  next  morning, 
after  he  had  gone  about  two  or  three  miles,  he  sat  down  on  a  small  gopher 
hill  to  rest,  when  he  discovered  two  mounted  Indians  some  distance  away. 
They  eyed  him  for  a  few  minutes,  then  wheeled  their  horses  and  disap- 
peared. He  reached  the  settlement  on  the  third  day  nearly  famished, 
having  had  not  a  morsel  to  eat  during  all  this  time.  James  Moredock 
escaped  unhurt,  and  it  is  said  that  if  he  had  acted  with  one-half  the 
bravery  of  Stephen  Cole,  the  Indians  would  have  been  defeated. 

Samuel  Cole,  a  son  of  William  Temple  Cole,  says  that  the  Indians  did 
not  scalp  the  whites  in  this  encounter.  Peace  was  supposed  to  prevail 
between  the  Indians  and  settlers.  This  skirmish  proved  to  be  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Indian  troubles  on  the  Missouri  River. 

It  is  possible  that  this  band  of  Pottowattomies  had  been  on  the  war 
path  against  the  Osages,  and  since  the  war  trail  from  the  Pottowattomies' 
led  to  the  mouth  of  the  Gasconade,  near  which  Loutre  Island  is  situated 
in  the  Missouri  River,  the  temptation  to  steal  some  of  the  horses  of  the 
settlers  had  been  too  great  for  the  Indians  to  forego.  At  any  rate,  so  far 
as  we  know  they  did  no  personal  injury  to  the  settlers,  except  yielding  to 
their  penchant  for  stealing.  If  they  had  been  bent  upon  more  serious 
mischief,  they  undoubtedly  could  and  would  have  perpetrated  it. 

James  Cole,  a  son  of  Stephen  Cole,  says  that  in  this  fight  Stephen 
Cole  received  26  wounds,  and  that  on  his  way  home  he  chewed  some  elm 
bark  and  placed  it  on  his  wounds.  Stephen  Cole  was  killed  by  the  Indians 
on  the  banks  of  the  Rio  Grande  near  El  Paso  in  1824.  Cole  was  a  strong, 
virile,  robust,  uneducated,  but  sagacious  frontiersman.  On  one  occasion 
he  was  present  at  a  session  of  the  legislature,  says  Houck,  when  two  mem- 
bers who  had  been  opponents  in  a  spirited  debate  during  the  session, 
engaged  in  a  fight,  after  adjournment  for  the  day  and  clinched.  This  was 
a  common  occurrence  in  those  days  when  physical  strength  and  prowess 
were  so  greatly  esteemed.  Governor  McNair,  who  happened  to  be  pres- 
ent, tried  to  separate  them,  but  Cole  seized  the  governor  and  pulled  him 


away,  saying,  "In  sich  a  scrimmage  a  governor  is  no  more  than  any  other 

Saukees  and  Renards  Meet  with  General  Clark. — It  was  shortly  after 
the  Loutre  Island  incident  that  a  delegation  of  the  Saukees  or  Sacs,  and 
the  Renards  or  Foxes,  had  a  meeting  with  General  Clark  in  St.  Louis  and 
assured  him  that  they  were  peaceably  inclined.  Quashquama,  in  a  speech 
to  Clark,  said:  "My  father,  I  left  my  home  to  see  my  great-grandfather, 
the  president  of  the  United  States,  but  as  I  cannot  proceed  to  see  him,  I 
give  you  my  hand  as  to  himself.  I  have  no  father  to  whom  I  have  paid 
any  attention  but  yourself.  If  you  hear  anything,  I  hope  that  you  will 
let  me  know,  and  I  will  do  the  same.  I  have  been  advised  several  times  to 
raise  the  tomahawk.  Since  the  last  war  we  have  looked  upon  the  Amer- 
icans as  friends,  and  I  shall  hold  you  fast  by  the  hand.  The  Great  Spirit 
has  not  put  us  on  the  earth  to  war  with  the  whites.  We  have  never  struck 
a  white  man.  If  we  go  to  war  it  is  with  the  red  flesh.  Other  nations  send 
belts  among  us,  and  urge  us  to  war.  They  say  that  if  we  do  not,  the 
Americans  will  encroach  upon  us,  and  drive  us  off  our  lands." 

This  was  fine-sounding  and  very  romantic  speech  in  light  of  what  fol- 
lowed. In  the  war  that  started  in  1812,  and  from  then  until  its  close, 
in  1815,  these  same  Saukees  and  Renards,  some  of  whom  lived  in  this  sec- 
tion, committed  atrocious  deeds,  and  gave  the  early  pioneer  settlers  much 
trouble.  But  all  the  tribulations  of  the  settlers  at  this  time  cannot  be 
attributed  to  these  tribes  alone,  as  other  roving  bands  of  savages  infested 
'the  country. 

This  section  of  the  Boonslick  country  was  not  destined  to  be  left  long 
to  the  reign  of  the  wild  beasts  and  the  savage  Indians.  It  was  attractive 
and  presented  advantages  which  those  seeking  homes  where  they  could 
find  the  richest  of  lands  and  the  most  healthful  of  climates,  could  not  and 
did  not  fail  to  perceive.  Its  fertile  soil  promised,  with  little  labor,  the 
most  abundant  of  harvests.  Its  forests  were  filled  with  every  variety  of 
game,  and  its  streams  with  all  kinds  of  fish.  It  is  no  wonder  that  those 
seeking  homes  looked  upon  this  section  as  a  "promised  land",  where  pro- 
visions could  be  found,  and  that  they  should  select  and  settle  the  rich 
lands  here,  accomodating  themselves  to  the  scanty  fare  of  the  wilderness, 
and  risking  all  the  dangers  from  the  wild  beasts  and  the  Indians  who  lived 
in  great  numbers  nearby. 

Two  years  after  the  first  settlement  of  Benjamin  Cooper  and  after 
his  removal  to  Loutre  Island,  the  first  permanent  and  abiding  settlement 


was  made  in  this  section  this  was  but  a  forerunner  of  the  stream  of  emi- 
gration which  soon  followed. 

Coopers  and  Coles  Settle  Permanently. — On  Feb.  20,  1810,  Benjamin 
Cooper  with  several  others  returned  to  what  is  now  Howard  County.  They 
came  up  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri  from  Loutre  Island,  and  all  of  ' 
them,  except  Hannah  Cole,  the  widow  of  William  Temple  Cole,  and  her 
family  and  Stephen  Cole  and  his  family,  settled  in  Howard  County,  north 
of  the  Missouri  River. 

Hannah  Cole  and  Stephen  Cole,  together  with  their  families,  settled 
in  what  is  now  Cooper  County;  Stephen  Cole  settled  about  one  and  one- 
half  miles  east  of  Boonville,  at  what  is  now  called  the  old  "Fort  Field" 
once  owned  by  J.  L.  Stephens ;  and  Hannah  Cole,  in  what  is  now  East 
Boonville,  on  the  big  bluffs  overlooking  the  river  at  a  point  of  rocks  where 
the  old  lime  kiln  was  located. 

Benjamin  Cooper  settled  in  Howard  County,  at  the  same  pmce  and  in 
the  cabin  which  he  had  built  two  years  before.  This  cabin  had  not  been 
disturbed  by  the  Indians,  although  they  had  occupied  all  the  adjacent 
country,  and  doubtless  had  passed  it  many  times. 

When  the  families  of  Hannah  Cole  and  Stephen  Cole,  settled  in  what 
is  now  Cooper  County,  there  was  no  white  American  living  in  Missouri 
west  of  Franklin  and  south  of  the  Missouri.  Those  who  came  with  them 
and  settled  north  of  the  Missouri  were  their  nearest  white  neighbors,  but 
most  of  these  were  two  or  three  miles  distant  from  them. 

Names  of  First  Permanent  Settlers  South  of  River. — The  families' 
that  were  the  first  settlers  south  of  the  river  were  composed  of  the  follow- 
ing members:  Hannah  Cole,  the  widow  of  William  Temple  Cole,  and  her 
children  Jennie,  Mattie,  Dickey,  Nellie,  James,  Holburt,  Stephen,  William 
and  Samuel ;  Stephen  Cole,  and  Phoebe,  his  wife,  and  their  children,  James. 
Rhoda,  Mark,  Nellie  and  Polly,  making  seventeen  members  in  the  two 
families  who  made  the  first  settlement  in  what  is  now  Cooper  County,  but 
what  was  then  a  wilderness,  untrodden  save  by  savages.  Here  they  were 
surrounded  on  all  sides  by  the  Indians,  who  pretended  to  be  friendly,  and 
who  stoically  camouflaged  their  malice,  but  sought  every  opportunity  to 
commit  petit  larceny  and  other  depredations  upon  the  settlers.  All  of 
these  have  gone  beyond  the  Great  Divide.  They  have  passed  their  brief 
hour  upon  a  stage,  filled  with  thrilling  adventures.  Each  lived  in  his  own 
limited  sphere,  has  passed  on  and  is  seen  no  more.  Their  memories  are 
perpetrated;  their  noble  deeds  and   self-sacrifices  are  cherished.     Their 


descendants  are  many  and  are  scattered  throughout  the  different  counties 
of  this  state,  and  the  west  from  the  Mississippi  river  to  the  Pacific  coast. 

Conditions  Met. — When  the  Coopers  and  the  Coles  came  to  this  sec- 
tion, there  was  neither  road  nor  path  for  them  to  pass  through  the  wilder- 
ness, save  here  and  there  the  trail  of  the  savage  or  the  path  of  the  wild 
beast.  They  had  to  take  care  as  the  course  in  which  to  travel  any  open- 
ing which  they  could  find  in  the  thickets  or  through  the  forest,  that  would 
permit  the  passage  of  their  wagons  and  animals,  and  frequently  were  com- 
pelled to  chop  their  way  through  with  the  axe,  an  essential  accouterment 
of  the  early  pioneer. 

When  they  arrived  where  old  Franklin  now  stands,  Hannah  and 
Stephen  Cole  looked  with  longing  eyes  to  the  beckoning  forests  on  the 
south  side  of  the  river,  and  desiring  to  cross  the  river  with  their  families, 
were  compelled  to  use  a  large  canoe  or  perogue,  as  it  was  then  called, 
compelling  their  horses  to  swim  behind  them.  At  this  time  throughout 
Cooper  County  up  and  down  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri,  the  land  was 
covered  by  a  vast  forest,  extending  several  miles  inland.  The  Saukee,  or 
Sacs,  and  Renards,  or  Foxes,  were  their  only  neighbors.  The  Saukee 
under  their  leader,  Quashquami,  lived  on  the  Moniteau  Creek  in  the  south 
part  of  Cooper  County.  They  were  in  a  measure  nomadic,  and  moved 
from  place  to  place  seeking  the  easier  and  better  hunting  ground. 

When  these  brave  settlers  first  came  here,  the  Indians  professed  to 
be  friendly  to  them,  and  gave  apparent  evidence  of  desiring  to  live  in  peace 
and  amity,  but  as  is  generally  true  with  all  savages,  they  were  petty 
thieves,  stole  horses  and  committed  various  other  depredations.  During 
the  war  of  1812,  these  Indians  took  sides  with  the  British  against  the 
Americans.  After  the  conclusion  of  the  war  the  Saukee  Indians  were 
ordered  off  to  the  Grand  River,  and  from  thence  to  Rock  River.  Other 
chiefs  with  whom  the  early  settlers  came  in  contact  during  this  time,  were 
Keokuk  and  Blundo,  the  latter  one,  half  French,  the  other  a  full  blooded 

The  whites  of  that  day,  although  they  well  knew  the  treachery  of 
the  Indians,  were  accustomed  to  hunt  and  fish  with  them  and  at  times  to 
visit  them  at  their  villages.  When  in  the  presence  of  the  whites,  the 
Indians  were  kind  and  accomodating,  yet  the  settlers  always  endeavored 
to  guard  against  the  wary  savage  and  his  treachery. 

In  the  Indian  war  of  1832.  known  as  the  Black  Hawk  War.  Blundo  was 
really  and  according  to  the  Indian  law  and  tradition  chief  of  the  tribe, 


but  Black  Hawk,  a  wily  and  restless  agitator,  seemed  to  sway  his  fellow 
savages  and  became  in  this  war  the  leader  of  the  Saukees  and  Renards, 
sometimes  called  the  Sacs  and  Foxes. 

When  the  first  settlers  came  to  what  is  now  Cooper  County,  wild  game 
of  all  kinds  was  very  abundant,  and  was  so  tame  as  not  to  be  easily  fright- 
ened at  the  approach  of  the  white  man.  This  game  furnished  the  settlers 
with  all  their  meat,  and,  in  fact,  with  all  the  provisions  that  they  used 
for  most  of  the  time  they  had  little  else  than  meat. 

There  were  large  numbers  of  deer,  wild  turkeys,  elk,  and  large  ani- 
mals, and  to  use  the  expression  of  an  old  settler,  "They  could  be  killed  as 
easily  as  sheep  are  now  killed  in  our  pastures."  The  settlers  spent  most 
of  their  time  hunting  and  fishing,  as  it  was  a  needless  waste  to  plant  crops 
to  be  destroyed  by  the  wild  game.  Small  game,  such  as  squirrels,  rabbits 
and  the  like  swarmed  so  abundantly  around  the  homes  of  the  settlers  and 
in  such  numbers  that  when  the  men  attempted  to  raise  a  crop  of  any  kind 
they  were  forced  to  kill  the  small  game  in  large  numbers  in  order  to  save 
a  part  of  it.  But  these  inoffensive  animals,  dangerous  only  to  their  crops, 
were  not  the  only  ones  which  filled  the  forests.  Such  terrible  and  blood 
thirsty  wild  beasts  as  the  bear  and  the  panther  could  be  seen  very  often 
lying  in  wait  for  any  unwary  traveler  who  ventured  near  their  lairs. 

Where  the  present  residences  of  E.  A.  Windsor  and  M.  E.  Schmidt 
now  stand  in  the  city  of  Boonville,  a  panther  which  measured  eleven  feet 
from  the  end  of  its  nose  to  the  tip  of  its  tail,  was  one  day  killed  by  Samuel 
Cole.  This  panther  was  thought  to  be  one  of  the  largest  ever  killed  in  the 
state  of  Missouri. 

Thus  were  the  early  settlers  and  their  families  abundantly  provided 
with  meat  and  food  by  nature.  Their  menu  was  brief,  but  it  was  enough 
to  supply  with  vitality  the  red  corpuscles  that  coursed  through  their  veins 
and  gave  them  rugged  health,  vigor  and  strength  of  body.  The  domestic 
animals  also  were  furnished  with  everything  necessary  to  their  well-being. 
The  grasses  were  so  good  during  the  whole  year  that  the  stock  lived  with- 
out being  fed  by  their  owners.  Even  when  the  ground  was  covered  with 
snow,  the  animals,  taught  by  instinct,  would  in  a  few  minutes  claw  from 
under  the  snow  enough  grass  to  last  them  for  the  day.  The  only  use  for 
corn,  of  which  the  settlers  planted  very  little,  was  to  make  bread.  Bread 
made  from  corn  was  the  only  kind  they  had. 

These  first  settlers  of  what  is  now  Cooper  County,  remained  here 
nearly  two  years  without  any  neighbors  nearer  than  those  on  the  opposite 


mi  i 

i       1 


side  of  the  Missouri.  For  nearly  two  years  they  encountered  alone  the 
dangers  of  the  forest,  and  lived  in  peace  and  quietness,  although  at  times 
they  feared  an  attack  from  the  Indians  who  lived  south  and  west  of  them. 
The  treacherous  nature  of  the  Indian  as  well  as  because  Cooper  was  in  fact 
trespassing  upon  the  lands  of  the  Indians,  was  the  reason  that  Merri- 
weather  Lewis,  then  governor  of  the  territory,  issued  the  order  directing 
Benjamin  Cooper  to  return  below  the  mouth  of  the  Gasconade  River,  from 
his  first  settlement  in  what  is  now  known  as  Howard  County. 

The  Indians  with  which  our  early  settlers  had  to  contend  were  idle, 
shiftless,  vicious  and  treacherous.  In  the  presence  of  the  white  settlers 
they  were  apparently  frank,  accomodating  and  kind,  yet  they  nursed  the 
tradition  that  the  white  man  was  their  natural  enemy,  and  would  event- 
ually dispossess  them  of  their  "happy  hunting  grounds." 

Names  of  First  Settlers  in  Boonslick  Country  and  Whence  They 
Came. — Those  who  settled  in  the  Central  Boonslick  country  in  1810  are 
as  follows:  From  Madison  County,  Ky.,  Lieut.-Col.  Benjamin  Cooper. 
Francis  Cooper,  William  Cooper,  Daniel  Cooper,  John  Cooper,  Capt.  Sar- 
shall  Cooper,  Braxton  Cooper,  Sr.,  Joseph  Cooper,  Stephen  Cooper,  Brax- 
ton Cooper,  Jr.,  Robert  Cooper,  James  Hancock,  Albert  Hancock,  William 
Berry,  John  Berry,  Robert  Irvin,  Robert  Brown,  Joseph  Wolfscale,  William 
Thorpe,  John  Thorpe,  Josiah  Thorpe,  James  Thorpe,  Gilead  Rupe,  James 
Jones,  John  Peak,  William  Wolfscale,  Adam  Woods.  From  Estill  County, 
Ky.,  Amos  Ashcraft,  Otho  Ashcraft,  Jesse  Ashcraft,  James  Alexander. 
From  Tennessee,  John  Ferrell,  Henry  Ferrell,  Robert  Hancock.  From 
Virginia,  James  Kile.  From  South  Carolina,  Gray  Bynum.  From  Georgia, 
Stephen  Jackson.  From  Ste.  Genevieve,  Peter  Popineau.  Previous  resi- 
dence unknown,  John  Busby,  James  Anderson,  Middleton  Anderson,  Will- 
iam Anderson.  From  Wayne  County,  Ky.,  Hannah,  Jennie,  Mattie,  Dickie, 
Nellie,  James,  Holbert,  Stephen,  William,  Samuel,  Stephen,  Phoebe 
(Stephen's  wife),  James,  Rhoda,  Mark,  Nellie,  and  Polly  Cole. 

Those  from  Wayne  County,  Kentucky,  settled  south  of  the  river. 
The  women  belonging  to  some  of  these  families  on  the  north  side  of  the 
river  did  not  arrive  until  the  following  July  or  August.  There  may  have 
been  others,  but  the  above  list  is  all  that  we  are  able  to  trace. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  a  daring  Frenchman  had  even  prior  to 
the  year  1800  explored  this  section  lying  contiguous  to  the  Missouri  River, 
several  years  before  its  settlement  proper  and  before  there  existed  within 


the  present  limits  of  this  county  a  trading  post.  The  names  of  the 
streams,  such  as  Bonne  Femme,  Moniteau,  etc.,  attest  the  fact  that  they 
were  of  French  origin,  and  had  been  seen  and  named  by  the  French  traders 
and  explorers. 

Levens  and  Drake,  in  their  condensed  but  carefully  prepared  history 
of  Cooper  County  say:  "While  Nash  and  his  companions  were  in  Howard 
County  (1840),  they  visited  Barclay's  and  Boon's  Lick,  also  a  trading 
post,  situated  about  two  miles  northwest  of  Old  Franklin.  This  trading 
post  was  kept  by  a  white  man  by  the  name  of  Prewitt.  The  existence  of 
the  trading  post,  and  the  fact  that  Barclay's  and  Boone's  licks  had  already 
received  their  names  from  the  white  men  who  visited  them,  show  con- 
clusively that  this  portion  of  the  country  had  been  explored  by  Americans 
even  before  this.  But  no  history  mentions  this  trading  post,  nor  does  any 
give  the  name  of  Prewitt,  hence,  we  are  unable  to  determine  when  he  came 
to  the  Boonslick  country,  how  long  he  remained,  or  where  he  went; 
he  evidently  left  before  the  year  1808,  as  Benjamin  Cooper,  who  moved 
to  Howard  county  in  that  year,  said  there  was  then  no  settlement  in  this 
part  of  the  state. 

Other  Settlers  Move  South  of  River. — In  the  latter  part  of  the  year 
1811  some  more  adventurous  spirits  moved  to  the  south  side  of  the  river, 
and  began  to  settle  around  and  near  the  present  site  of  Boonville.  They 
were  Joseph  Jolly,  Joseph  Yarnell,  Gilliard  Rupe,  Mike  Box,  Delaney  Bolin, 
William  Savage,  John  Savage,  Walter  and  David  Burriss  and  families. 
They  settled  near  one  another,  so  that  in  time  of  danger  they  could  readily 
gather  at  one  place.  This  timely  arrival  revived  the  spirits  of  the  set- 
tlers, for  already  could  be  heard  the  dim  mutterings  in  the  distance,  which 
foreshadowed  a  long  and  bloody  conflict  with  the  Indians  who  had  been 
induced  by  the  emissaries  of  the  British  government  to  take  sides  with 
that  country  against  the  United  States  of  America. 

English  Stir  Up  Indians. — Several  years  before  the  War  of  1812,  the 
British  along  the  lakes  and  in  the  Northwest  industriously  fomented  dis- 
satisfaction among  the  Indians;  consequently  they  were  restless  even 
before  the  declaration  of  war;  dissatisfied  and  openly  hostile.  Frequently 
these  Indians,  between  1809  and  1812,  visited  the  British  agents  on  the 
lakes,  and  by  them  were  generously  supplied  with  rifles  and  fusils,  powder 
and  lead,  and  liberally  with  almost  everything  else  that  they  needed. 

As  early  as  1808  the  subagent  on  the  Missouri  wrote  General  Clark, 
Superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  at  St.  Louis,  that  the  Indians  had  fired 


upon  one  John  Rufty  about  six  miles  above  Fort  Osage  and  killed  him. 
Nicholas  Jarret,  in  1809,  made  an  affidavit  that  the  British  agents  were 
stnring  up  the  Indians  at  that  place  and  on  the  frontiers  of  Canada,  but 
this  statement  was  denied  by  these  British  agents.  The  Osages  and  the 
Iowas  also  were  on  the  warpath  in  1810  and  in  that  year  some  of  the 
Osages  were  killed  not  far  from  the  present  city  of  Liberty. 

The  first  blacksmiths  in  the  Boonslick  country  were:  William  Canole, 
Charles  Canole  and  Whitley. 

The  first  marriage  was  that  of  Robert  Cooper  and  Elizabeth  Carson, 
in  1810,  at  the  home  of  Lindsay  Carson,  the  father  of  "Kit"  Carson,  the 
great  Indian  scout. 

Thomas  Smith  was  the.  first  shoemaker,  his  wife  being  an  adept  at 
making  moccasins. 

Dr.  Tighe  was  the  first  physician. 

These  people  lived  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  from  what  is  now 
Boonville,  and  the  settlers  on  the  south  side  were  for  some  time  served 
by  them. 

Lindsay  Carson  apprenticed  his  son  "Kit"  to  David  Workman,  a 
saddler,  to  learn  that  trade,  but  this  vocation  did  not  suit  "Kit's"  roving 
and  adventurous  nature,  and  1826,  he  literally  shook  the  dust  from  his 
feet  and  sought  the  Rockies,  gaining  national  renown  as  an  Indian  scout. 
He  died  in  1869. 

First  Deed  Recorded. — The  first  deed  executed  and  recorded  in  the 
Boonslick  country  was  as  follows :  "Know  all  men  by  these  presents  that 
I.  Joseph  Marie,  of  the  county  and  town  of  St.  Charles,  and  territory  of 
Missouri,  have  this  day  given,  granted,  bargained,  sold  and  possession 
delivered  unto  Asa  Morgan,  of  the  county  of  Howard,  and  territory  afore- 
said, all  the  right,  title,  claim,  and  interest,  and  property  that  I,  the  said 
Joseph  Marie  have  or  may  possess  or  am  in  any  legally  and  equitably 
entitled  to  in  a  certain  settlement  right  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri 
River,  in  the  aforesaid  county  of  Howard,  near  a  certain  place  known  and 
called  by  the  name  of  Eagle's  Nest,  and  lying  about  one  mile,  a  little  west 
of  south  from  Kincaid's  Fort,  in  the  said  county  of  Howard,  which  said 
settlement  was  made  by  me  sometime  in  the  year  1800,  for  and  in  con- 
sideration of  value  by  me  received,  the  receipt  whereof,  is  hereby  acknowl- 
edged, and  him  the  said  Asa  Morgan  forever  discharged  and  acquitted. 
And  I  do  by  these  presents,  sell,  transfer,  convoy  and  quit-claim  to  the 
aforesaid  Asa  Morgan  all  the  claims  and  interest  which  I  might  be  entitled 


to  either  in  law  or  equity  from  the  aforesaid  improvement  of  settlement 
right,  together  with  all  and  singular,  all  the  appurtenances  to  the  same 
belonging,  or  in  any  wise  appertaining  to  have  and  to  hold  free  from  me, 
or  any  person  claiming  by  or  through  me. 

In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal,  the  13th 
day  of  April,  1816. 

(Seal,         JOSEPH  MARIE. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of  Urh.  I.  Devore,  A.  Wilson. 

Second  Deed  Recorded. — The  second  deed  we  also  give  because  of  its 
peculiar  phraseology  and  terms.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  word  "arpent" 
is  used  instead  of  "acre."    An  arpent  is  practically  five-sixths  of  an  acre. 

"To  all  to  whom  these  presence  shall  come  greeting; — Know  ye  that 
we,  Risdon  H.  Price,  and  Mary,  his  wife,  both  of  the  town  and  county  of 
St.  Louis,  and  territory  of  Missouri,  for  and  in  consideration  of  the  sum 
of  four  thousand  eight  hundred  dollars,  lawful  money  of  the  United  States 
to  us  in  hand  before  the  delivery  of  the  presents  well  and  fully  paid  by 
Elias  Rector  of  the  same  place,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  acknowledged 
and  thereto,  we  do  hereby  acquit  and  discharge  the  said  Elias  Rector, 
his  heirs  and  assigns  forever.  Have  given  bargained,  granted,  and  sold, 
and  do  hereby  give,  grant,  bargain  and  sell  unto  the  said  Elias  Rector, 
his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  subject  to  the  conditions  hereinafter  ex- 
pressed, one  certain  tract  and  parcel  of  land,  containing  one  thousand  six 
hundred  arpens,  situate  in  the  county  of  Howard,  in  the  territory  of 
Missouri,  granted  originally  by  the  late  Lieutenant-Governor  Charles  De- 
hault  Delassus,  to  one  Ira  Nash,  on  the  18th  day  of  January,  1800,  sur- 
veyed on  the  26th  day  of  January,  1804,  and  certified  on  the  15th  day  of 
February,  of  the  same  year,  the  reference  being  had  to  the  record  of  said 
claim  in  the  office  of  the  recorder  of  land  titles  for  the  territory  of  Mis- 
souri, for  the  concession  and  the  boundaries  thereof  as  set  forth  in  or 
upon  the  said  certificate  or  plat  of  survey  thereof  will  more  fully,  cer- 
tainly, and  at  large  appear,  and  which  said  survey  is  hereto  annexed  and 
makes  part  and  parcel  of  this  deed,  and  being  the  same  tract  of  land 
which  the  said  Risdon  H.  Price  claims  as  assigned  of  the  sheriff  of  the 
county  of  St.  Charles,  who  sold  the  same  as  property  of  said  Ira  Nash, 
as  by  deed  thereof  dated  the  15th  day  of  October,  1815.  reference  thereto 
being  had  will  more  fully  and  at  large  appear. 

To  have  the  said  granted  and  bargained  premises  with  the  appur- 
tenances and  privileges  thereon,  and  thereunto  belonging  unto  him,  the 


said  Elias  Rector,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever.  And  it  is  hereby  declared 
to  be  the  agreement,  understanding  and  intention  of  the  parties  afore- 
said, that  should  the  said  tract  of  land  be  finally  rejected  by  the  United 
States  within  three  years  from  this  date,  or  should  the  same  not  be  sanc- 
tioned and  confirmed  by  the  government  of  the  United  States  at  or  before 
the  period  last  mentioned,  or  in  case  the  said  Elias  R.  Rector,  his  heirs, 
executors,  administrators,  or  assigns,  shall  by  due  process  and  judgment 
at  law,  be  evicted,  dispossessed,  and  finally  deprived  of  said  tract  of  land, 
then  and  in  that  case,  the  said  Risdon  H.  Price,  his  heirs,  executors,  or 
administrator,  shall  only  pay  or  cause  to  be  paid  to  the  said  Elias  Rector, 
his  heirs,  executors,  administrators  or  assigns,  the  said  sum  of  four  thou- 
sand eight  hundred  dollars,  lawful  money  of  the  United  States,  with  the 
lawful  interest  thereon,  at  the  rate  of  six  percentum  per  annum,  from 
the  date  of  this  deed,  until  the  time  of  such  rejection,  not  being  sanc- 
tioned as  aforesaid,  or  until  such  eviction  as  aforesaid,  with  the  legal 
cost  upon  such  suit  or  suits  at  law,  and  which  shall  be  in  full  of  all  dam- 
ages under  any  covenants  in  this  deal,  and  if  such  claim  be  rejected  as 
aforesaid  or  not  confirmed  as  aforesaid,  or  in  case  the  said  Elias  Rector, 
his  heirs,  executors  or  assigns,  shall  be  evicted  therefrom  as  aforesaid, 
that  then,  and  either  of  these  cases,  the  said  Elias  Rector,  his  heirs, 
executors,  or  assigns,  shall  by  proper  deed  of  release  and  quit-claim, 
transfer  to  said  Risdon  H.  Price,  his  heirs,  executors,  administrators  and 
assigns,  the  claim  of  said  Elias  Rector,  his  heirs,  executors,  and  assigns, 
said  premises  at  tte  time  of  receiving  the  said  consideration  money, 
interest,  and  costs  tforesaid. 

In  witness  whereof,  we  have  hereto  set  our  hands  and  seals,  this  22nd 

day  of  June,  1816 

Risdon  H.  Price  (SEAL) 

Mary  G.  Price  (SEAL) 

Elias  Rector  (SEAL) 

Signed,   sealed   and  delivered   in   presence  of   Jerh.   Connor,   M.   P. 




In  the  preceding  chapter,  the  history  of  the  Central  Boonslick  coun- 
try has  been  traced  from  the  year  1804  to  1812,  with  special  reference  to 
its  initial  beginning  between  the  years  1810  and  1812.  The  settlers 
mentioned  by  name  in  that  chapter,  who  blazet!  the  way  through  the 
wilderness  for  us  and  advancing  civilization,  have  kuilded  wiser  than  they 
knew.  They  were  experienced  pioneers  with  hearts  of  gold.  With  ruddy 
health  and  hardy  sinews,  they  coped  with  and  conquered  the  wilds.  They 
despised  the  coddling  ease  of  luxury  and  the  wintiy  winds,  sleets  and 
snows,  had  no  terrors  for  them.  They  determined  the  time  by  the 
shadows,  and  guided  their  paths  at  night  by  the  stars.  They  knew  the 
approaching  storm.  Tho  oky  was  to  them  an  open  look.  Schooled  in 
ffrwAi-cran  and  learned  in  Indian  lore,  they  tracked  thtir  game  and  fol- 
lowed the  trail  of  the  savage.  They  read  the  story  of  the  broken  twig 
and  fallen  leaves.  Their  vision  was  piercing,  and  their  hearing  acute. 
Accountered  with  rifle,  hunting  knife  and  axe,  they  cont?sted  with  the 
forest,  and  wrested  from  it  food,  shelter,  and  raiment. 

Their  first  care  was  to  protect  themselves  from  the  basts  of  Feb- 
ruary, the  month  in  which  they  arrived.  The  first  shelter  they  erected 
was  a  cross  between  a  hoop  cabin  and  an  Indian  bark  hut.  Soon  after, 
however,  the  men  assembled  for  the  real  cabin  raising.  The  forest  fur- 
nished the  timber,  and  from  it  the  strong  arm  of  the  pioneer  with  his 
axe,  fashioned  logs.  The  earth  supplied  the  clay.  None  of  these  first 
cabins  is  now  in  existence,  but  the  following  is  a  fair  description: 

First  Dwellings.— "These  cabins  were  of  round  logs,  notched  together 


at  the  corners,  ribbed  with  poles,  and  covered  with  boards  split  from  a 
tree.  A  puncheon  floor  was  then  laid  down,  a  hole  cut  in  the  end  and  a 
stick  chimney  run  up.  A  clapboard  door  was  made,  a  window  was  opened 
by  cutting  out  a  hole  in  the  side  or  end  two  feet  square,  and  finished 
without  glass  or  transparency.  The  house  was  then  "chinked"  or 
"daubed"  with  mud,  and  the  cabin  was  ready  to  go  into.  The  household 
and  kitchen  furniture  was  adjusted,  and  life  on  the  frontier  was  begun 
in  earnest. 

"The  one-legged  bedstead,  now  a  piece  of  furniture  of  the  past,  was 
made  by  cutting  a  stick  the  proper  length,  boring  holes  at  one  end  one 
and  a  half  inches  in  diameter,  at  right  angles,  and  the  same  sized  holes 
corresponding  with  those  in  the  logs  of  the  cabin  the  length  and  breadth 
for  the  bed,  in  which  were  inserted  poles. 

"Upon  these  poles  the  boards  were  laid,  or  linn-bark  was  interwoven 
consecutively  from  pole  to  pole.  Upon  this  primitive  structure  the  bed 
was  laid.  The  convenience  of  a  cook-stove  was  not  thought  of,  but  in- 
stead, the  cooking  was  done  by  the  faithful  housewife  in  pots,  kettles 
and  skillets,  on  and  about  the  big  fire-place,  and  very  frequently  over 
and  around,  too,  the  distended  pedal  extremities  of  the  legal  sovereign 
of  the  household,  while  the  latter  was  indulging  in  the  luxuries  of  a  cob- 
pipe,  and  discussing  the  probable  results  of  a  deer  hunt  on  the  Missouri 
River  or  some  of  its  small  tributaries." 

"The  acquisition  of  glass  windows  was  impossible  for  these  first 
settlers.  When  white  paper  could  be  secured,  it  was  greased  and  used 
for  window  panes,  through  which  the  light  could  come.  The  doors  were 
fastened  with  old-fashioned  wooden  latches,  and  the  latch-string  always 
hung  out  for  friends  and  neighbors.  These  humble  domociles  sheltered 
happy  hearts,  while  palaces,  with  all  their  splendor  and  riches  many 
times  have  been  but  the  resting  place  of  misery. 

"True  it  is,  that  Home  is  not  four  square  walls, 

Though  with  pictures  hung  and  gilded, 
Home  is  where  affection  calls, 
Around  the  hearth  that  love  hath  builded." 

The  Hominy-Block. — Those  pioneers  were  home  builders,  the  very 
foundation  of  a  nation,  the  true  root  of  patriotism  and  love  of  country. 
They  appreciated  the  frufEs  of  their  own  industry,  and  manufactured  or 
made  most  of  their  own  utensils.     The  home-made  hominy-block  is  doubt- 


less  not  within  the  memory  of  our  oldest  citizens.    This  they  made  some- 
thing in  this  manner: 

A  tree  of  suitable  size,  say  from  18  inches  to  two  feet  in  diameter, 
was  selected  in  th  eforest  and  felled  to  the  ground.  If  a  cross-cut  saw 
happened  to  be  convenient,  the  tree  was  butted,  that  is,  the  kerf  end 
was  sawed  off  so  that  it  would  stand  firmly,  when  ready  for  use.  If 
there  was  no  cross-cut  saws  in  the  neighborhood,  strong  arms  and  short 
axes  were  ready  to  do  the  work.  Then  the  proper  length,  from  four  to 
five  feet,  was  measured  off,  and  sawed  or  cut  square.  When  this  was 
done,  the  block  was  raised  on  end,  and  the  work  of  cutting  out  a  hollow 
in  one  of  the  ends  was  commenced.  This  was  generally  done  by  a  com- 
mon chopping  axe.  Sometimes  a  smaller  one  was  used.  When  the  cavity 
was  judged  to  be  large  enough,  a  fire  was  built  in  it,  and  carefully  watched 
until  the  ragged  edges  were  burned  away.  When  completed,  it  somewhat 
resembled  a  druggist's  mortar.  Then  a  pestle  or  something  to  crush  the 
corn  was  necessary.  This  was  usually  made  from  a  suitable  sized  piece 
of  timber,  with  an  iron  wedge  attached,  the  large  end  down.  This  com- 
pleted the  apparatus.  The  block  was  ready  for  use.  Sometimes  one 
hominy-block  accommodated  an  entire  neighborhood.  It  was  a  means  of 
staying  the  hunger  of  many  months. 

Spirit  of  Helpfulness  Among  Pioneers. — A  person  not  many  years 
ago  in  contrasting  the  social  and  moral  status  of  his  latter  years  with 
those  of  his  early  pioneer  days,  said,  "Then  if  a  house  was  to  be  raised, 
every  man  turned  out,  often  the  women  too,  while  the  men  piled  up  the 
logs,  and  fashioned  the  primitive  dwelling-place,  the  women  prepared  the 
dinner.  Sometimes  it  was  cooked  over  big  fires  near  the  site  where  the 
cabin  was  built.  In  other  cases  it  was  prepared  at  the  nearest  cabin,  and 
at  the  proper  hour  was  carried  to  where  the  men  were  at  work.  If  one 
man  in  the  neighborhood  killed  a  beef,  a  pig,  or  a  deer,  every  other 
family  in  the  neighborhood  was  sure  to  receive  a  piece.  We  were  all  on 
an  equality.  Aristocratic  feelings  were  unknown,  and  would  not  have 
been  tolerated.  What  one  had,  we  all  had,  and  that  was  the  happiest 
period  of  our  lives.  But  today,  if  you  lean  against  a  neighbor's  shade 
tree,  he  will  charge  you  for  it.  If  you  are  poor  and  palsied,  you  may  lie 
and  suffer  unnoticed  and  almost  unattended,  and  will  probably  go  to  the 
poorhouse,  while  just  as  likely  as  not,  the  man  who  reports  you  to  the 
authorities  as  a  subject  of  county  care,  charges  the  county  for  making 
the  report." 

Thus  our  early  settlers,  burdened  with  what  we  deem  today,  untold 


hardships  and  deep  privations,  looked  back,  in  the  latter  days  of  their 
lives,  to  the  good  old  days;  and  even  in  our  own  generation,  we  may  find 
many,  who  decry  the  great  progress  of  the  present  and  long  for  other 
clays.  It  is  ever  thus,  and  ever  will  be.  Even  the  reader,  should  he 
search  his  memory,  will  recall  as  a  pleasing  recollection  some  trial  or 
danger  or  experience  through  which  he  has  successfully  passed  and  even 
our  failures  are  not  necessarily  unpleasant  to  recall. 

Much  has  been  written  regarding  the  log  house  of  the  early  pioneer. 
It  furnished  an  inexpensive  and  convenient  shelter,  and  around  it  clus- 
ter many  pleasant  recollections  that  are  even  yet  dear  to  those  of  us 
who  had  the  good  fortune  to  have  been  reared  within  its  sacred  portals. 
Unpretentious,  uniform  in  size  and  architecture,  the  log  house  of  the 
early  pioneer  was  the  greatest  democratizing  agent  of  the  early  day.  !•&> 
social  lines  could  be  drawn  based  on  the  grandeur  of  dwelling  places,  and 
consequently  each  and  every  one  was  valued  at  their  true  worth,  de- 
termined solely  by  their  every  day  life  and  character.  The  era  of  the 
log  house  is  a  space  of  time  as  distinct  from  others  in  its  peculiar  cus- 
toms as  is  the  Paleozoic  or  the  Stone  Age.  There  is  a  song  which  ends, 
after  trailing  through  innumerable  verses  reciting  the  trials  of  the  log 
house  bachelor,  which  runs  as  follows: 

"Oh,  the  hinges  are  of  leather,  and  the  windows  have  no  glass 

And  the  board  roof  lets  the  howling  blizzard  in, 
And  I  hear  the  hungry  coyote  as  he  sneaks  up  through  the  grass 
Near  my  little  old  log  cabin  on  the  hill." 

Early  Farming  Implements. — The  farming  implements  of  the  pioneers 
were  crude  affairs,  adapted,  however,  to  the  conditions  that  surrounded 
them  and  to  their  circumstances.  The  bull-plough,  the  mould-board  of 
which  was  generally  of  wood,  was  adapted  to  the  fields  abounding  in 
stumps  and  roots.  Occasionally  the  mould-board  was  part  iron,  and; 
possessor  of  such  a  bull-plough  was  looked  upon  as  real  progressive. 

Other  implements  and  utensils  were  of  like  character.  When  the 
clothes  the  settlers  brought  with  them  began  to  wear  out,  the  wild  nettle 
furnished  them  a  substitute  material.  This,  by  process  of  drying  and 
stripping,  they  would  weave  into  a  cloth,  sufficient  for  their  needs  until 
the  coming  of  the  wintry  blast.  Then  the  furs  of  the  wild  animals  were 
requisitioned  with  which  the  pioneers  braved  the  snows  and  sleets  in 
the  coldest  weather. 

The   prairies   were   not   often   settled   until    after   the   first   pioneer 


period,  therefore  the  forests  of  the  timbered  lands  in  small  tracts  were 
cleared,  leaving  the  fields  prolific  in  stumps  and  roots.  Hence  the  cradle 
and  the  bull-plough  were  well  suited  to  the  cultivation  thereof. 

The  Pioneer  Women. — Of  the  women,  we  adopt  largely  the  words  of 
Solomon:  "The  heart  of  her  husband  did  safely  trust  her.  She  did  him 
good  all  the  days  of  her  life.  She  rose  while  it  was  yet  night  and  gave 
meat  to  her  household.  She  girded  her  loins  with  strength  and  strength- 
ened her  arms.  She  laid  her  hands  to  the  spindle  and  her  hands  held 
the  distaff.  She  knew  little  of  fashion  plates,  yet  fashioned  her  raiment 
from  the  material  at  hand  to  meet  the  approbation  of  those  she  cher- 
ished. She  was  nature's  child.  The  sun  kissed  her  cheeks  and  painted 
thereon  the  bloom  of  health.  She  filled  her  lungs  with  the  pure  and 
fragrant  air,  and  reveled  in  the  beauties  of  nature.  Hearty,  healthy, 
happy,  she  met  with  unflinching  fortitude  the  perils  of  her  situation,  and 
complained  not  of  privations.  Strength  and  honor  were  her  clothing,  and 
she  rejoiced  in  the  time  to  come.  She  looked  well  to  the  ways  of  her 
household,  and  ate  not  the  bread  of  idleness.  She  gave  of  the  fruit  of 
her  hands,  and  let  her  own  works  praise  her  in  the  gates.  She  was 
indeed  the  helpmate  of  the  pioneer,  his  help  in  time  of  need,  his  solace 
and  his  comfort.  Resolutely  and  cheerfully  she  bore  her  burdens,  and 
laughter  was  in  her  heart.     We  do  not  think  the  picture  is  overdrawn. 

Early  Pioneer  Described. — The  male  pioneer  and  head  of  the  family 
fias  been  described  by  one  who  sojourned  in  the  Boonslick  country  for 
several  years  as  follows:  "You  find  that  he  has  vices  and  barbarism 
peculiar  to  his  situation.  His  manners  are  rough.  He  wears,  it  may  be, 
a  long  beard.  He  has  quantities  of  bear  or  deer  skin  wrought  into  his 
household  establishment,  his  furniture  and  his  dress.  He  carries  a  knife, 
or  a  dirk  in  his  bosom,  and  when  in  the  woods  has  a  rifle  on  his  back 
and  a  pack  of  dogs  are  among  his  chief  means  of  support  and  profit.  Re- 
member that  all  his  first  days  here  were  spent  in  dread  of  savages.  Re- 
member that  he  still  encounters  them,  still  meets  bears  and  panthers. 
Enter  his  door  and  tell  him  you  are  benighted,  and  wish  the  shelter  of 
his  cabin  for  the  night.  The  welcome  is,  indeed,  seemingly  ungracious: 
T  reckon  you  can  stay,'  or  T  suppose  we  must  let  you  stay.'  But  this 
apparent  ungraciousness  is  the  harbinger  of  every  kindness  that  he  can 
bestow,  and  every  comfort  that  his  cabin  affords.  Good  coffee,  corn 
bread  and  butter,  venison,  pork,  wild  and  tame  fowls,  are  set  before  you. 
His  wife  timid,  silent,  reserved,  but  constantly  attentive  to  your  comfort 
does  not  sit  at  the  table  with  you,  but  like  the  wives  of  the  patriarchs, 


stands  and  attends  you.  You  are  shown  the  best  bed  that  the  house  can 
afford.  When  his  kind  of  hospitality  has  been  extended  to  you  as  long 
as  you  choose  to  stay,  and  when  you  depart  and  speak  about  your  bill, 
you  are  most  commonly  told,  with  some  slight  mark  of  resentment,  that 
they  do  not  keep  a  tavern.  Even  the  flaxen-haired  urchins  will  run  away 
from  your  money." 

Along  about  the  year  1823,  a  gentleman  of  culture  and  refinement, 
Gottfried  Duden,  of  Germany,  came  to  the  United  States,  and  finally 
located  in  Montogomery  County,  Missouri.  He  wrote  many  interesting 
letters  to  Germany,  describing  the  country,  and  recounting  his  experi- 
ence. These  letters  were  finally  printed  in  book  form,  known  as  "Gott- 
fried Duden's  Report,  1824-1827."  This  book  was  circulated  extensively 
in  Germany,  and  was  read  by  thousands.  It  had  much  to  do  with  en- 
couraging emigration  from  Germany  to  this  country  and  is  graphically 
descriptive  of  the  period.  We  take  excerpts  from  one  of  his  letters  writ- 
ten in  September,  1825,  which  have  been  but  recntly  translated  into  Eng- 
lish, which  describes  the  immigrants  of  this  particular  time,  the  houses 
in  which  they  lived,  and  the  manner  of  their  construction.  "During  this 
season  of  the  year,  there  arrive  daily  numbers  of  immigrants  from  Ken- 
tucky, Ohio,  Virginia,  Pennsylvania,  etc.  If  these  people  had  to  travel 
in  European  manner,  their  desire  for  emigration  would  soon  vanish. 
However,  all  that  is  done  differently  here. 

"A  large  wagon  (and  if  the  needs  of  the  family  require  it,  several) 
are  loaded  with  the  household  goods,  which  are  stored  away  in  such  a 
manner  that  a  part  of  the  covered  space  of  the  wagon  is  reserved  for 
the  travelers.  In  addition  to  the  household  goods,  tents  and  provisions 
such  as  smoked  pork,  beans,  peas,  rice,  flour,  cheese  and  fruit  are  taken 
along,  and,  for  at  least  the  first  few  weeks,  bread  for  the  passengers  and 
maize  for  the  work  horses.  Thus  the  migration  is  begun.  Sometimes  the 
owner  rides  with  his  wife  and  children  in  a  separate  wagon,  sometimes  in 
a  coach,  or  he  may  ride  on  horseback.  If  he  owns  male  slaves,  one  of 
these  acts  as  driver,  otherwise  he  himself  or  some  other  member  of  his 
family  attends  to  this.  On  the  entire  journey,  which  may  extend  over 
1,200  miles  they  never  think  of  stopping  at  an  inn.  At  noon,  while  the 
horses  are  being  fed,  the  operations  of  the  kitchen  also  begin.  The 
vicinity  of  a  spring  or  a  brook  is  usually  selected  as  a  stopping  place,  and 
the  travelers  sit  in  the  shade  or  in  the  sun,  just  as  the  weather  conditions 
may  invite.  A  fire  is  quickly  made  and  the  operations  of  preparing  a 
meal  proceed  just  as  they  would  at  home.    In  the  evening  more  attention 


is  paid  to  the  selection  of  a  camping  place.  If  there  is  need  of  cooking 
utensils  or  of  victuals,  halt  is  made  near  a  farm  house.  Tents  are  pitched, 
especially  when  the  weather  is  rainy.  Some  of  the  party  busy  themselves 
with  the  animals,  for  if  the  journey  is  not  too  great,  cattle  are  taken 
along  too,  others  are  busy  with  the  kitchen,  and  finally  the  night's  lodg- 
ing is  prepared.  Wherever  the  wagon-train  stops  the  people  obligingly 
grant  whatever  is  asked  for.  Household  utensils  are  loaned,  provisions 
are  sold  cheaply,  and  to  the  horses  and  cattle  pastures  are  assigned, 
unless  the  owner  should  prefer  to  leave  them  in  the  open.  The  latter  plan 
rarely  offers  any  difficulties.  Usually  it  is  only  necessaxw  to  put  a  bell 
on  the  leader  of  the  herd  and  to  hobble  his  feet  so  as  to  make  walking 
somewhat  difficult.  The  animals  are  tired  and  hungry  and  will  not  easily 
leave  a  good  pasture,  moreover,  a  well  trained  dog  would  soon  find  their 
tracks.  Nevertheless  there  are  instances  where  such  animals  have  taken 
advantage  of  a  moment  of  freedom  to  run  back  to  their  old  home.  No 
distance  and  no  stream  can  hold  them  back,  and  straight  on,  even  through 
great  forests,  they  know  how  to  find  their  old  homestead.  In  my  neigh- 
borhood are  two  oxen  which  have  come  back  100  miles  and  have  swum 
through  the  Missouri  to  get  home.  A  horse  came  back  from  Franklin,  a 
distance  of  120  miles.  Horses  are  not  as  ready  as  cattle  to  swim  through 
great  streams.  For  this  reason  ownerless  horses  are  always  to  be  found 
on  the  point  where  the  Missouri  and  the  Mississippi  join.  These  horses 
have  run  away  from  the  plantations  on  the  upper  course  of  the  river  and 
are  trying  to  get  back  to  their  old  homes  in  Kentucky,  Ohio,  Virginia,  etc. 

"As  soon  as  the  migrating  family  has  arrived  at  the  site  of  he  new 
homestead,  they  stop  near  the  spot  where  the  buildings  are  to  be  erected, 
and  build  an  enclosure  for  the  temporary  protection  of  the  household 
goods  and  tents,  which  are  now  pitched  for  a  longer  time.  The  enclosure 
is  necessary  to  keep  the  cattle  of  other  settlements  away.  In  this  in- 
closure  the  young  calves  are  also  kept,  in  order  to  cause  the  cows,  which 
graze  out  in  the  open  to  come  home  regularly.  These  cows  supply  the 
family  with  milk  and  cream  without  requiring  the  least  attention  or 
care.  For  the  house  a  site  near  a  good  spring  or  brook  is  preferably 
selected.  Over  the  spring  a  small  house  is  at  once  constx-ucted,  in  order 
to  prevent  the  pollution  of  the  water,  and  to  afford  a  place  to  keep  milk, 
butter  and  meat  cool. 

"The  next  concern  is  the  building  of  a  dwelling  house,  which  is  done 
in  a  manner  already  described  by  me  in  an  earlier  letter.  The  timbers 
are  not  hewn,  however,  for  at  first  only  a  barn-like  structure  is  intended. 


for  a  temporary  shelter.  For  the  negroes  a  similar  building  is  erected, 
then  a  barn  and  a  small  building  to  serve  as  a  smoke-house.  The  trees 
are  felled  near  the  building  site,  to  which  they  are  dragged  by  horses  or 
oxen.  The  raising  of  the  house  is  done  with  the  aid  of  the  neighbors,  if 
the  hands  of  the  family  are  not  sufficient  for  this  purpose.  Buildings  01 
this  nature,  however,  do  not  require  more  than  four  or  five  workmen. 
Boards  are  cut  for  the  doors  and  the  floors.  For  the  latter  trees  are 
sometimes  split  in  two,  for  which  purpose  the  ash  and  hackberry  trees 
(celtis  crassifolia)  are  especially  suited.  The  hearth  together  with  the 
chimney  are  made,  in  the  simplest  manner  possible,  of  wood,  which  is 
lined  with  stones  on  the  lower,  inner  side  and  daubed  with  mud  in  the 
upper  portion.  When  the  chimney  is  half  a  foot  higher  than  the  gable 
of  the  house,  the  smoke  will  not  bother  in  the  least.  Danger  of  fire  de- 
pends entirely  upon  the  condition  of  the  rock  lining  and  the  clay  coating. 

"He  who  despises  such  a.  dwelling  does  not  know  the  nature  of  the 
local  climate.  I  have  been  in  many  such  dwelling,  where  cleanliness  and 
good  furniture  afforded  an  extremely  pleasing  effect.  Many  families  de- 
sire no  other  house,  although  they  live  in  easy  circumstances,  indeed  in 
affluence.  What  I  have  to  criticise  about  these  houses  is  the  fact  that 
they  usually  have  no  cellar,  so  that  in  the  summer  time  the  humus  earth 
under  the  rough  floor  gives  out  a  mouldy  odor,  which,  though  it  is  rarely 
offensive,  nevertheless  is  manifestly  not  conductive  to  good  health.  A 
floor  constructed  by  a  carpenter  removes  this  inconvenience  completely. 
He  who  does  not  wish  to  go  to  this  expense  can  attain  practically  the 
same  end  by  first  removing  the  humus  entirely  from  the  building  site,  or 
by  burning  wood  of  the  clearing  on  the  spot  and  thus  baking  the  ground. 

"When  the  work  of  building  is  ended,  which  required  hardly  more 
than  two  or  three  weeks,  the  family  already  feels  much  at  home,  and  then 
the  clearing  of  farm  land  is  begun.  Usually  they  begin  by  fencing  in  a 
selected  tract,  in  order  to  use  it  as  a  temporary  pasture  for  the  horses 
and  oxen  which  must  be  kept  in  the  vicinity  for  work." 

The  hunting  of  bee  trees  by  the  settlers  was  both  pleasant  and  profit- 
able, and  bee  hunters  were  common. 

In  a  letter  written  in  June,  1826,  Duden  describes  bee  hunting  in 
these  words: 

"When  I,  according  to  my  custom,  wandered  through  the  woods  yes- 
terday, I  found  two  bee-hunters.  The  mode  of  procedure  of  these  people, 
which  is  so  new  to  the  European,  had  been  described  to  me  long  ago,  but 
this  time  I  was  to  learn  to  know  it  from  a  practical  standpoint.     You 


must  know,  first  of  all,  that  in  the  woods  of  Missouri  also  there  are  many 
wild  bees  which  have  their  hives  in  hollow  trees.  If  the  method  of  find- 
ing these  trees  is  well  understood,  a  great  deal  of  honey  and  wax  can 
be  gathered  in  a  short  time.  It  is  generally  said  that  America  originally 
had  no  bees,  and  that  the  wild  bees  are  the  descendants  of  swarms  brought 
from  Europe  to  the  eastern  coast.  Be  that  as  it  may,  the  Indians  under- 
stand the  bee-hunt  even  better  than  the  whites.  The  two  bee-hunters  of 
yesterday  were  white  men  and  live  in  Missouri.  They  proceeded  as  fol- 
lows: On  the  ridge  of  a  hill  between  two  valleys,  they  chose  their  first 
stand.  On  a  place,  free  from  trees,  they  built  a  small  fire  and  laid  some 
honeycomb  on  it,  so  that  the  wax  melted,  without  being  consumed  by  the 
fire.  In  this  manner  a  pronounced  scent  of  honey  was  distributed,  which 
in  a  short  time  attracted  all  sorts  of  flying  insects  and  also  a  few  bees. 
Now  it  was  the  duty  of  the  hunters  to  watch  the  bait  fixedly,  in  order 
to  be  able  to  follow  the  bees  with  their  eyes,  when  they  took  flight.  By 
and  by  three  of  them  took  flight,  and  all  of  them  flew  in  the  same  direc- 
tion, which  direction  was  carefully  noted,  knowing  that  a  laden  bee  flies 
straight  to  its  swarm.  One  of  the  hunters  thereupon  took  a  burning  coal 
and  walked  about  two  hundred  paces  away  on  the  same  ridge,  leaving  his 
companion  at  the  first  stand. 

He  proceeded  in  the  same  manner  as  before,  and  anew  distributed 
a  strong  scent  of  honey.  Here,  too,  the  bees  soon  came.  Some  of  them 
went  off  in  exactly  the  opposite  directions.  The  hunter  noted  both  and 
called  out  to  his  companion  to  follow  the  first  indicated  direction.  He 
found  himself  started  in  the  direction  which  was  practically  the  one 
which  his  companion  took.  I  accompanied  him.  We  had  hardly  gone 
three  hundred  paces  through  the  woods  when  we  met  the  other  hunter. 
Now  they  looked  about  for  a  while,  and  in  a  dry  oak,  about  fifty  feet 
above  the  ground,  we  saw  a  small  opening,  where  bees  swarmed  in  and 
out.  The  cleverness  of  these  two  natural  mathematicians  surprised  me, 
and  I  felt  more  pleasure  in  the  discovery  of  the  tree  than  they  them- 
selves. Since  the  hunters  surmised  that,  because  of  the  earliness  of  the 
season,  not  much  honey  had  been  gathered,  the  hive  was  not  robbed.  The 
bee-hunters  designated  their  find  by  blazing  the  tree,  which  is  universally 
regarded  as  the  inviolable  right  of  possession,  and  then  proceeded  in  pur- 
suit of  the  third  direction  noted  above." 

In  concluding  this  letter,  Duden  tells  about  having  seen  a  negro  boy 
who  robbed  such  a  bee  tree  with  the  intention  of  selling  the  honey,  a 
practice  which  owners  of  slaves  generally  permitted. 




Advanced  transportation  and  good  highways  are  indices  of  a  people, 
certain .  evidences  of  their  culture,  progressiveness  and  prosperity.  As 
are  these  so  are  the  people.  Good  transportation,  advanced  civilization; 
or  advanced  civilization,  good  transportation;  either  way  one  follows  the 
other  as  certainly  as  the  night  the  day,  or  the  day  the  night. 

Transportation  has  been,  is,  and  will  be  a  process  of  evolution.  Could 
we  turn  back  the  scroll  of  time  and  witness  the  primitive  methods  of  the 
early  pioneer,  great  would  be  our  astonishment;  could  we  project  our- 
selves into  the  future  one  hundred  years,  and  observe  the  method  of 
transportation  then,  doubtless  it  would  be  beyond  our  comprehension. 

Early  River  Transportation. — When  our  first  settlers  arrived  at  the 
Missouri  River,  the  routes  of  commerce  and  travel  were  largely  the  water 
courses.  For  this  reason  the  settlements  made  were  on  the  banks  of  the 
Mississippi  and  the  Missouri.  At  this  time  there  was  neither  steamboat 
nor  railroad.  The  pirogue,  the  canoe,  the  bateau,  the  mackinaw,  the  bull- 
boat  and  the  keelboat  were  the  means  of  all  river  transportation.  The 
pirogue  was  a  small  type  of  canoe.  The  canoe  was  the  most  commonly 
used,  and  was  the  simplest  of  all  river  crafts.  It  was  usually  made  from 
a  cottonwood  log,  hollowed  out,  and  was  usually  from  15  to  18  feet  long, 
and  was  generally  manned  by  three  men,  one  to  steer  and  two  to  paddle. 
It  was  used  chiefly  for  local  use,  though  occasionally  employed  for  long 


trips.  The  mackinaw  was  a  flat  boat,  pointed  at  both  ends,  and  was  of 
varying  lengths,  from  40  to  50  feet.  Its  crew  usually  consisted  of  five 
men,  one  steersman  and  four  oarsmen.  The  bullboat  was  usually  used 
on  shallow  streams  because  of  its  light  draft.  It  was  constructed  of 
buffalo  bull  hide  sewed  together,  and  stretched  over  a  frame  of  poles, 
and  required  two  men  to  handle  it.  The  keel  boat  was  the  aristocratic 
craft,  and  the  largest,  from  60  to  70  feet  long,  with  the  keel  running 
from  bow  to  stern  and  the  latest  improvements  in  river  transportation 
prior  to  the  steamboat.  It  was  capable  of  carrying  a  larger  cargo  than 
any  of  the  others  mentioned.  It  was  usually  propelled  by  means  of  a 
cordelle.  The  cordelle  was  a  line  practically  1,000  feet  long,  one 
end  of  which  was  fastened  to  the  top  of  the  30  foot  mast  in  the  center 
of  the  boat,  well  braced  from  this  mast  the  rope  extended  to  the  shore. 
At  the  shore  end  of  the  line,  some  twenty  or  thirty  men  walking  along 
the  river  bank,  would  pull  the  boat  up  stream.  Cordelling  was  never 
used  except  in  breasting  the  current  of  the  stream.  It  was  more  or  less 
difficult,  and  in  some  places  it  was  absolutely  impossible  by  reason  of  the 
cliffs  on  the  river  bank.  At  such  points  poles  were  used.  Sails  were  also 
used  very  effectively  at  times  in  this  manner  of  transportation.  Not- 
withstanding the  difficulty  with  which  this  type  of  boat  was  propelled,  it 
was  employed  prior  to  the  invention  of  the  steamboat  more  extensively 
than  any  other  kind  for  long  distance  voyages  up  stream.  In  fact  it 
continued  to  be  used  along  with  the  steamboat  for  many  years  after 
the  appearance  of  the  latter. 

Coureur  de  Bois. — An  average  day's  voyage  for  the  keel  boat  was 
from  twelve  to  fifteen  miles.  It  was  the  means  of  transportation  used 
by  the  coureur  des  bois.  It  is  claimed  that  as  early  as  1700,  there  were 
not  less  than  one  hundred  coureur  de  bois,  or  trappers,  domiciled  among 
the  tribes  along  the  Missouri  River.  The  coureur  de  bois  was  a  French 
Canadian,  sometimes  a  half-breed,  and  in  his  habits  were  blended  the 
innocent  simplicity  of  the  fun-loving  Frenchman  and  the  wild  traits  and 
woodcraft  of  the  Indian.  Born  in  the  woods,  he  was  accustomed  from 
childhood  to  the  hardships  and  exposures  of  the  wild  life  of  the  wilder- 
ness, and  was  a  skillful  hunter  and  trapper. 

His  free  and  easy  manners,  peaceful  disposition,  and  vivacity  quali- 
fied him  for  associating  with  the  Indians,  whose  customs  he  adopted,  and 
often  marrying  into  the  tribe,  himself  became  a  savage.  It  was  the 
ceureur  de  bois  as  he  wandered  up  and  down  the  Missouri  River  who  gave 







the  poetical  and  musical  French  names  to  its  tributaries  and  prominent 
localities  which  they  bear  to  this  day,  as  follows:  Bonne  Femme,  good 
woman;  Lamine,  the  mine;  Pmeem  de  terre,  apple  of  the  earth,  the  po- 
tato ;  Moreau,  very  black ;  Niangue,  crooked ;  Gasconade,  turbulent ;  Aux 
Vase,  very  muddy;  Creve  Couer,  broken  heart;  Cote  sans  Dessein,  hill 
without  a  cause;  Petit  sas  Prairie,  little  cradle  of  the  prairie;  Marias  des 
Cygnes,  river  of  swans;  Roche  Percee,  pierced  rock;  Petit  Saline,  little  salt. 

The  history  of  the  Missouri  for  more  than  two  hundred  years  is  the 
history  of  the  country  through  which  it  flows.  On  its  muddy  waters  the 
Indians  paddled  their  canoes  for  centuries  before  the  advent  of  the  white 
man.  Then  came  the  French  voyageur  and  his  pirogue,  canoe,  bateau, 
his  mackinaw  and  his  keel  boat,  without  which  the  fur  trade,  the  principal 
commerce  in  the  early  day,  could  not  have  attained  its  great  proportions. 

Pioneer  Roads  and  Travel. — In  1815,  the  tide  of  immigration,  which 
had  been  halted  by  the  War  of  1812,  began  with  increasing  force  to  flow 
steadily  to  the  Boonslick  country.  The  settlers  brought  with  them  wagons, 
horses  and  mules,  and  by  degrees  they  began  to  mark  out  roads  and  to 
cut  their  ways  through  the  forest.  Oxen  were  also  used  for  transporta- 
tion, and  continued  to  be  so  used  for  many  years  thereafter. 

The  prairie  presented  few  obstacles  to  travel,  but  to  penetrate  a 
primevial  forest  was  an  entirely  different  matter,  and  necessitated  a  wise 
selection  of  a  route  else  arduous  labor  in  felling  trees  and  fording  streams. 

No  public  roads  were  laid  out  in  what  is  now  Cooper  County  until 
1819.  No  work  was  done  upon  the  roads  nor  were  they  thought  of  for 
a  number  of  years  thereafter.  The  first  petition  for  a  public  road  in 
Cooper  County  was  presented  by  B.  W.  Levens.  It  asked  for  the  location 
of  a  road  leading  from  Boonville  to  the  mouth  of  the  Moniteau  Creek. 
The  second  petition,  for  the  location  of  a  public  road  was  by  Anderson 
Reavis,  presented  on  the  same  day.  The  road  petitioned  for  ran  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Grand  Moniteau  to  the  Boonville  and  Potosi  road.  Cooper 
County  was  then  organized  as  a  county.  The  stream  of  immigration  then 
to  the  south  side  of  the  river  was  great.  Travel  was  greatly  increased 
and  highways  needed. 

However,  prior  to  this,  when  what  is  now  Cooper  County  was  a  part 

of  Howard  County,  which  was  organized  July  8,  1816,  the  first  court  held 

in  Howard  County  was  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  in  what  is  now 

Cooper  County,  at  Cole's  Fort,  at  which  time  the  first  road  laid  out  by 



authority  of  the  court  in  what  is  now  Cooper  County,  was  the  route  from 
Cole's  Fort  on  the  Missouri  River,  to  intersect  the  road  from  Potosi  in 
Washington  County  at  the  Osage  River. 

First  Ferries. — Also  at  this  same  term  of  court  and  on  the  same  day 
Hannah  Cole  was  granted  a  license  to  conduct  a  ferry  on  the  Missouri 
between  Boonville  and  Franklin.  This  was  the  first  licensed  ferry  in 
what  had  been  known  as  the  Boonslick  country,  although,  for  some  time 
prior  thereto,  the  Cole  boys  had  operated  one  on  this  part  of  the  Mis- 
souri. At  the  same  term  of  the  court,  Stephen  Turley  was  granted  the 
right  to  keep  a  ferry  across  the  Lamine  River.  B.  W.  Levens,  Ward,  and 
Potter,  and  George  W.  Cary  were  also  granted  a  license  to  keep  a  ferry 
across  the  Missouri  at  the  present  site  of  Overton.  However,  for  some 
years  prior  to  this,  a  ferry  had  been  operated  across  the  Missouri  River 
from  Boonville  to  Franklin.  The  rates  charged  at  the  Levens  ferry  were 
as  follows:  For  man  and  horse,  fifty  cents;  for  either  separately,  twenty- 
five  cents ;  for  four  horses  and  four  wheeled  wagon,  two  dollars ;  for  two 
horses  and  four  wheeled  carriage,  one  dollar;  for  horned  cattle,  four 
cents  each,  and  for  polled  cattle,  two  cents  each. 

First  Steamboats. — Coincident  with  the  opening  of  the  first  roads 
in  Cooper  County  by  the  Cooper  County  Court,  was  the  arrival  at  Franklin 
of  the  steamboat  Independence,  the  marvel  of  marvels,  and  what  seemed 
to  our  first  settlers  the  acme  of  the  evolution  of  transportation.  Prior 
to  this,  however,  and  leading  up  to  the  navigation  of  the  Missouri  River, 
coincident  with  the  first  Anglo-American  settlement  on  the  Missouri  in 
1807  was  the  first  successful  application  of  steam  as  a  motive  power,  the 
trip  of  the  North  River  steamboat  up  the  Hudson  from  New  York  to 
Albany;  and  again,  coincident  with  the  first  Anglo-American  settlements 
in  what  are  now  Howard  and  Cooper  counties  in  1810,  was  Fulton's  and 
Livingston's  proposition  to  the  legislature  of  Upper  Louisiana,  of  which 
St.  Louis  was  the  seat  of  government,  to  operate  steamboats  on  the 
Mississippi  and  Ohio.  The  proposition,  however,  was  not  acted  upon.  It 
seemed  a  visionary  dream.  It  was  not  until  seven  years  afterward,  in 
1817,  that  the  first  steamboat,  the  Zebulon  M.  Pike,  landed  at  St.  Louis. 
Its  hull  was  built  like  a  barge.  It  had  but  one  smokestack,  its  engine  was 
of  low  pressure,  and  when  the  current  was  swift,  the  crew  used  poles  to 
furnish  additional  power.  The  trip  from  Louisville  to  St.  Louis  took  six 

Arrival  of  First  Steamboat  at  Franklin. — The  trip  of  the  Indepen- 
dence from  St.  Louis  to  Franklin  and  return  deserves  more  than  ordinary 


mention.  The  Independence  left  St.  Louis  May  15,  1819,  and  reached 
Franklin  opposite  Boonville  on  May  29th.  Captain  John  Nelson  had  charge 
of  the  steamboat.  Among  the  passengers  were  Col.  Elias  Rector,  Stephen 
Rector,  Captain  Desha,  J.  C.  Mitchell,  Dr.  Stuart,  J.  Wanton,  and  Major 
J.  D.  Wilcox. 

The  settlers  on  both  sides  of  the  river  were  wild  with  excitement 
and  elation  on  the  arrival  of  the  boat  at  Franklin.  A  public  meeting  was 
held  at  which  Asa  Morgan  who  with  Charles  Lucas,  laid  out  Boonville,  on 
the  first  day  of  August,  1817,  was  chosen  president  and  Dr.  N.  Hutchin- 
son vice-president.  The  "Franklin  Intelligencer,"  May  28,  1819,  speak- 
ing of  that  event  says : 

"On  Friday  last,  the  28th  ult.,  the  citizens  of  Franklin,  with  the  most 
lively  emotions  of  pleasure,  witnessed  the  arrival  of  this  beautiful  boat, 
owned  and  commanded  by  Captain  Nelson,  of  Louisville.  Her  approach 
to  the  landing  was  greeted  by  a  Federal  salute,  accompanied  with  the 
acclamations  of  an  admiring  crowd,  who  had  assembled  on  the  bank  of 
the  river  for  the  purpose  of  viewing  this  most  novel  and  interesting 
sight.  We  may  truly  regard  this  event  as  highly  important,  not  only  to 
the  commercial  but  agricultural  interests  of  the  country.  The  practica- 
bility of  steamboat  navigation,  being  clearly  demonstrated  by  experi- 
ment, we  shall  be  brought  nearer  to  the  Atlantic,  West  India  and  Euro- 
pean markets,  and  the  abundant  resources  of  our  fertile  and  extensive 
region  will  be  quickly  developed.  This  interesting  section  of  country,  so 
highly  favored  by  nature,  will  at  no  distant  period,  with  the  aid  of  science 
and  enterprise  assume  a  dignified  station  amongst  the  great  agricultural 
states  of  the  west. 

"The  enterprise  of  Capt.  Nelson  cannot  be  too  highly  appreciated  by 
the  citizens  of  Missouri.  He  is  the  first  individual  who  has  attempted 
the  navigation  of  the  Missouri  by  steam  power,  a  river  that  has  hitherto 
borne  the  character  of  being  very  difficult  to  and  imminently  dangerous  in 
its  navigation,  but  we  are  happy  to  state  that  his  progress  thus  far  has 
not  been  impeded  by  any  accident.  Among  the  passengers  were  Colonel 
Elias  Rector,  Mr.  Stephen  Rector,  Capt.  Desha,  J.  C.  Mitchell,  Esq.,  Dr. 
Stuart,  Mr.  J.  Wanton,  Maj.  J.  D.  Wilcox. 

"The 'day  after  the  arrival  of  the  Independence,  Capt.  Nelson  and 
the  passengers  partook  of  a  dinner,  given  by  the  citizens  of  Franklin,  in 
honor  of  the  occasion.." 

The  trip  of  the  Independence  from  St.  .Louis  to  Franklin  was  the 
beginning  of  a  stupendous  river  traffic  upon  the  Missouri,  and  was  the 


chief  factor  in  the  development  of  Boonville  and  Cooper  County.  How- 
ever, prior  to  1831,  only  an  occasional  steamer  ventured  up  the  dangerous 
Missouri.  The  steamboat  arrivals  ascending  the  river  at  Boonville,  in 
1831,  were  only  five. 

Arrival  of  Second  Steamboat. — The  second  steamboat  to  arrive  at 
Franklin  was  the  "Western  Engineer,"  a  small  boat  constructed  for  scien- 
tific purposes.  It  carried  an  expedition  projected  by  the  United  States 
to  ascertain  whether  the  Missouri  River  was  navigable  by  steamboat 
and  to  establish  a  line  of  forts  from  its  mouth  to  the  Yellow  Stone.  The 
vessel  reached  St.  Louis,  June  9,  1819,  and  proceeding  on  the  voyage, 
arrived  at  Franklin  June  13,  of  the  same  year.  Its  progress  up  the  river 
excited  the  greatest  fear  among  the  Indians,  many  of  whom  flocked  the 
river  banks  to  see  it,  while  others  fled  in  fear  to  the  forest  or  prairie, 
thinking  it  an  evil  spirit,  a  very  devil  with  horned  head,  and  breath  of 
fire  and  steam.  The  St.  Louis  "Inquirer"  of  June  16,  1819,  gives  this 
description  of  it:  "The  bow  of  the  vessel  exhibits  the  form  of  a  huge 
serpent,  black  and  scaly,  rising  out  of  the  water  from  under  the  boat,  his 
head  as  high  as  the  deck,  darted  forward,  his  mouth  open,  vomiting  • 
smoke,  and  apparently  carrying  the  boat  on  his  back.  From  under  the 
boat,  at  its  stern  issues  a  stream  of  foaming  water,  dashing  violently 
along.  All  the  machinery  is  hid.  Three  small  brass  field  pieces,  mounted 
on  wheels,  stand  on  the  deck;  the  boat  is  ascending  the  rapid  stream  at 
the  rate  of  three  miles  an  hour.  Neither  wind,  nor  human  hands  are 
seen  to  help  her;  and  to  the  eye  of  ignorance  the  illusion  is  complete, 
that  a  monster  of  the  deep  carries  her  on  his  back  smoking  with  fatigue, 
and  lashing  the  waves  with  violent  exertion." 

Description  of  Early  Steamboat. — Captain  Joseph  Brown,  in  a  paper 
before  the  Missouri  Historical  Society,  wrote  what  he  had  seen  and  known, 
as  boy  and  man,  of  the  primitive  steamboat: 

"They  had  but  one  engine,  and  no  'doctor'  or  donkey  engine.  The 
boats  themselves,  and  particularly  those  for  the  upper  rivers,  were  small, 
sometimes  made  like  a  flat  boat,  with  broad  bow  and  stern,  and  a  stern 
wheel.  There  was  nothing  above  the  boiler  house  deck  but  the  pilot 
house  and  chimneys,  or  rather  one  chimney,  for  they  had  cylinder  boilers ; 
that  is,  there  were  no  flues  in  the  boilers.  Having  but  one  engine,  the 
shaft  ran  entirely  across  the  boat,  and  when  at  a  landing  the  engine  bad 
to  run  the  pump  to  supply  the  boilers  with  water,  the  wheels  had  to  be 
uncoupled  to  let  the  engine  work.     As  I  said  before,  the  donkey  engine 


had  not  been  invented,  and  I  do  not  doubt  but  that  many  explosions  oc- 
curred for  the  lack  of  it. 

"The  cabin  was  a  very  primitive  affair.  It  was  on  the  lower  deck, 
back  of  the  shaft,  in  the  after  part  of  the  boat.  There  were  no  state- 
rooms then,  but,  like  a  canal  boat,  there  were  curtains  in  front  of  th"e 
berths.  It  was  quite  common  to  see  a  bowsprit  sticking  out  in  front  of 
the  boat,  such  as  are  seen  on  ships,  but,  being  useless,  they  were  soon 
dispensed  with.  Stages  had  not  been  invented  then.  Two  or  three  planks 
were  used,  if  need  be,  tied  together.  Whistles  were  unknown,  but  bells 
were  rung,  and  the  captains  were  very  proud  of  the  big  bell.  For  a  num- 
ber of  years  there  was  no  signal  for  meeting  or  passing  boats,  which 
resulted  in  many  collisions. 

"There  were  no  packets  then.  A  boat  started  for  Pittsburg  was  just 
as  likely  to  go  to  St.  Paul  as  anywhere,  or  up  any  of  the  other  rivers, 
and  they  had  no  regular  or  even  days  of  starting.  I  have  known  boats 
to  have  steam  up  for  a  week,  telling  people  and  shippers  the  boat  was 
going  in  an  hour,  and  even  have  their  planks  all  taken  in,  all  but  one, 
and  then  launch  out  their  planks  again.  All  this  was  done  to  decoy 
people  on  board.  The  clanging  of  bells,  the  hurrah  of  agents  and  the 
pulling  and  hauling  of  cabmen  and  runners  were  most  confusing,  more 
particularly  to  unsophisticated  emigrants.  There  was  no  fixed  price  for 
anything ;  it  was  all  a  matter  of  bargaining,  and  very  often  deception  was 
practiced.  The  engines  being  small  and  very  imperfect  in  those  days, 
the  boats  were  very  slow.  I  have  known  some  boats  in  the  case  of  a 
sudden  rise  in  the  river  and  consequently  strong  current,  to  be  unable  to 
stem  it  at  the  old  waterworks  point,  which  was  at  the  foot  of  Carr  Street. 
They  would  have  to  go  over  to  the  other  side  of  the  river  and  fight  it 
out  there,  sometimes  for  hours,  in  sight  of  the  city.     *     *     * 

"In  1849,  when  the  gold  fever  was  at  its  height,  there  were  fifty- 
eight  fine  steamers  plying  regularly  on  the  Missouri  River;  on  the  Upper 
Mississippi,  about  seventy-five ;  on  the  Illinois,  twenty-eight  fine  steamers ; 
to  New  Orleans,  about  one  hundred ;  on  the  Ohio,  about  one  hundred  and 
fifty ;  on  the  Tennessee,  about  fifteen.  Owing  to  the  rush  of  immigration 
at  that  time,  boats  could  not  be  built  fast  enough.  It  was  said  of  a  cer- 
tain boat-yard  at  Freedom,  Pennsylvania,  that  they  kept  a  lot  of  straight 
bodies  of  boats  put  up.  When  a  man  wanted  a  boat,  they  took  him  down 
to  the  yard  and  asked  him  how  long  he  wanted  her;  then  just  put  two 
ends  onto  a  body  and  he  had  a  boat.    But  a  really  fast  and  fine  boat  cost 


about  $100,000  to  $150,000  and  took  about  eight  months  to  build.  The 
average  life  of  a  boat  was  about  five  years.  After  that  they  were  com- 
pelled either  to  build  a  more  modern  boat,  or  raise  and  rebuild  the  one 
that  had  sunk  or  blown  up.  Need  I  tell  you  that  in  one  bend  of  the  river 
there  lie  the  wrecks  of  one  hundred  ^nd  three  steamboats,  between  St. 
Louis  and  Cairo?" 

Greatest  Era  of  Steamboating. — Steamboating  reached  its  highest 
prosperity  in  the  year  1858.  There  were  then  not  less  than  sixty  packets 
on  the  river,  besides  probably  30  or  40  transient  boats  called  tramps, 
which  came  on  the  river  from  other  streams  and  made  one  or  two  trips 
during  the  season.  The  packets  carried  the  United  States  mail,  express, 
freight,  papers,  both  semi-weekly  and  daily,  and  their  arrival  was  looked 
forward  to  along  the  Missouri  River  with  a  great  deal  of  interest  and 
people  flocked  to  the  wharves  at  the  time  of  their  arrival. 

So  numerous  were  the  boats  on  .the  lower  river  during  this  period, 
that  it  was  no  unusual  sight  to  see  as  many  as  five  or  six  lying  at  the 
landing  at  the  same  time ;  and  during  the  boating  season,  which  continued 
from  March  to  November,  at  no  time  was  a  boat  out  of  sight.  These 
were  prosperous  days  for  the  river  towns. 

During  this  banner  year  of  prosperity  for  steamboating  on  the  Mis- 
souri River,  some  of  the  finest  and  most  popular  boats  were :  Kate  Howard, 
John  D.  Perry,  David  Tatum,  Clara,  Platte  Valley,  Asa  Wilgus,  Alonzo, 
Child,  F.  X.  Aubrey,  Admiral  D.  S.  Carter,  Emigrant,  E.  A.  Ogden,  Em- 
pire, State,  Isabella,  James  H.  Lucas,  Meteor,  Minnehaha,  Polar  Star, 
Peerless,  Spread,  Eagle.  War  Eagle,  Southwestern,  C.  W.  Sombart,  Twi- 
light, Thomas  E.  Tutt,  White  Cloud  and  Edinburgh.  Those  which  came 
later  were  the  R.  W.  Dugan,  D.  H.  Dui-fee,  Phil  E.  Chapel,  Montana,  Da- 
kota, A.  L.  Mason,  State  of  Missouri  and  State  of  Kansas.  These  boats 
were  built  for  some  special  trade.  Some  ran  as  late  as  1888.  when  steam- 
boat navigation  on  the  Missouri  ceased. 

The  Missouri  is  one  of  the  most  difficult  streams  in  the  world  to 
navigate  because  of  its  shifting  channel,  its  swift  current  and  its  many 
bends  which  with  the  innumerable  snags  therein  were  a  continual  menace 
to  life  in  the  days  of  the  steamboat,  and  no  pilot  approaches  one,  espe- 
cially at  night,  without  trepidation  and  fear. 

Primitive  Boats,  Canoes,  Etc. — The  pirogue,  as  used  by  the  early 
French  fur-trader,  was  really  a  double  pirogue,  or  a  double  canoe,  built 
in  the  shape  of  a  flat-iron,  with  a  sharp  bow  and  a  square  stern.  Two 
canoes,  or  pirogues,  were  securely  fastened  together  a  short  distance 


apart,  the  floor  being  formed  by  boards,  or  puncheons,  laid  across.  On 
the  floor  was  placed  the  cargo,  which  was  protected  from  the  weather  by 
hides.  The  boat  was  propelled  upstream  by  oars  or  line,  steered  by  an 
oarsman,  who  stood  on  the  stern.  A  square  sail  was  also  resorted  to 
going  upstream,  when  the  wind  was  in  the  right  quarter,  and  a  distance 
of  from  ten  to  fifteen  miles  could  be  made  under  favorable  conditions. 

Such  boats  were  usually  from  30  to  40  feet  long,  and  from  six  to 
eight  feet  beam,  and  being  light,  were  good  carriers.  They  were  much 
safer  than  the  canoe,  because  of  their  width  they  could  not  be  easily  upset. 

The  bateau,  used  by  the  French  trader,  was  a  flat  bottomed,  clumsily 
constructed  boat,  especially  adapted  to  transporting  a  cargo  of  fur  down- 
stream, and  did  not  differ  materially  from  the  flat  bottomed  boat.  It 
was  usually  from  50  to  75  feet  long,  and  10  to  12  feet  deep.  Gunwales 
were  hewn  from  cotton  logs,  and  the  bottom  was  spiked  into  cross  beams 
running  lengthwise  of  the  boat.  The  bow  and  stern  were  square  with  a 
sufficient  slant  toward  the  bottom  to  make  easier  the  progress  of  the 
boat  through  the  water.  The  oars,  the  pole,  the  line  and  the  sail  were 
the  appliances  relied  upon  for  motive  power  in  ascending  the  stream,  but 
in  going  down  the  boat  was  allowed  to  float  with  the  current,  being  kept 
in  the  channel  by  the  steersman.  The  flat-boats,  when  they  reached 
their  destination  going  downstream,  were  usually  sold  for  lumber. 

Growth  of  Steamboating. — In  the  year  1836,  on  the  30th  day  of 
September,  the  arrivals  at  the  same  port  had  amounted  to  more  than  70. 
The  population  along  the  Missouri  River  had  increased  so  rapidly  along 
about  1840,  that  there  was  demand  for  additional  transportation  facili- 
ties. This  brought  about  the  building  of  a  better  class  of  boats.  They 
had  full  length  cabins,  double  engines  with  a  battery  of  boilers  in  place 
of  the  single  engine.  Great  improvements  were  also  made  in  the  hulls, 
and  they  were  so  constructed  as  to  have  the  same  carrying  capacity  as 
before  but  to  draw  much  less  water. 

The  same  genius  that  had  invented  the  steamboat  was  continually 
making  improvements,  both  in  the  machinery  and  the  hull,  so  as  to  add 
to  the  speed  of  the  boat  and  also  increase  her  carrying  capacity.  There 
were  26  steamboats  engaged  regularly  in  the  lower  river  trade  during 
the  year  1842.  They  were  generally  from  140  to  160  feet  long,  about  30 
feet  beam  and  six  foot  hold,  and  were  a  much  better  class  of  boats  than 
those  formerly  built.  They  had  side  wheels  and  the  cabins  were  full 

We  have  been  unable  to  secure  information  concerning  the  arrivals 


and  the  departures  of  boats  from  Boonville  during  that  year,  but  at  Glas- 
cow  there  were  312. 

The  years  between  1850  and  1860  are  popularly  termed  by  some  as 
the  "Golden  Era"  in  steamboat  navigation  on  the  Missouri  River,  but 
Capt. .A.  J.  Spahr  thinks  the  period  from  1866  to  1868,  inclusive,  to  be 
the  most  prosperous.  The  improvements  which  had  been  made  both  in 
the  machinery  and  in  the  construction  of  the  hull,  the  adaptation  of  the 
state-room  cabin,  and  the  systematizing  of  the  business  all  tend  to  lessen 
the  danger  of  navigation  and  to  increase  the  profits. 

The  advance  made  in  navigation  on  the  Missouri  River  had  kept 
pace  with  the  march  of  commerce  in  other  parts  of  the  world.  Phil  E. 
Chappel  says  in  a  "History  of  the  Missouri  River:" 

"The  first  navigator  on  the  Missouri  River  was  the  little  blue-winged 
teal ;  the  next  the  Indian,  with  his  canoe ;  then  came  the  half -civilized 
French  voyageur,  with  his  pirogue,  paddling  up  stream  or  cordelling 
around  the  swift  points.  At  a  later  day  came  the  fur-trader  with  his 
keel-boat;  still  later  there  came  up  from  below  the  little  "dingey" — the 
single  engine,  one-boiler  steamboat,  which  has  been  described.  At  last 
the  evolution  was  complete,  and  there  came  the  magnificent  passenger 
steamer  of  the  '50's,  the  floating  palace  of  the  palmy  days  of  steamboat- 
ing,  combining  in  her  construction  every  improvement  that  experience 
had  suggested  or  the  ingenuity  of  man  had  devised  to  increase  the  speed 
or  add  to  the  safety  and  comfort  of  the  passenger. 

"The  fully  equipped  passenger  steamer,  in  the  heyday  of  steamboat- 
ing  on  the  Missouri  River,  was  a  magnificent  specimen  of  marine  archi- 
tecture. She  was  generally  about  250  feet  long,  40  feet  beam,  and  had 
a  full-length  cabin,  capable  of  accommodating  from  300  to  400  people. 
The  texas,  occupied  solely  by  the  officers,  was  on  the  hurricane  roof.  In 
addition  to  her  passenger  accommodation,  she  had  a  freight  capacity 
of  500  to  700  tons.  She  was  well  proportioned,  symmetrical,  trim,  fast 
and  sat  on  the  water  like  a  thing  of  life.  Her  two  tall  smoke-stacks, 
with  ornamental  tops,  between  which  was  usually  suspended  some  gilt 
letter  or  device,  added  much  to  her  beauty.  The  pilot,  on  top  of  the 
texas,  was  highly  ornamentel  with  glass  windows  on  every  side;  a  fence 
railing  of  scroll  work  surrounded  the  guards  of  the  boiler  deck  and  texas. 
The  entire  boat  except  the  smoke-stack,  was  painted  a  dazzling  white. 

"The  cabin  of  the  boat,  a  long,  narrow  saloon,  was  a  marvel  of  beauty 
in  its  snow  white  splendor.  The  floors  of  the  cabin  were  covered  with 
the  softest  of  Brussels  carpets,  and  the  state-rooms  were  supplied  with 


every  convenience.  Indeed,  the  bridal  chambers  were  perfect  gems  of 
elegance  and  luxury.  The  table  was  elegantly  furnished,  and  the  menu 
unsurpassed  by  that  of  any  first-class  hotel.  Each  boat  had,  in  the  ladies' 
cabin,  a  piano,  and  generally  a  brass  band,  and  always  a  string  band 
was  carried.  After  the  table  was  cleared  away  at  night  a  dance  was 
always  in  order,  the  old  Virginia  reel  being  the  favorite  dance.  The  social 
feature  of  a  trip  on  one  of  these  elegant  boats  was  most  charming." 

Costs  of  Steamboats. — The  estimated  cost  of  one  of  the  boats  above 
described,  during  the  period  between  1850  and  1860  was  from  $50,000  to 
$75,000.  The  captains  received  about  $200  per  month,  clerks  $150,  mates 
$125,  engineers  about  the  same  as  mates.  These  wages  included  board, 
and  were  based  on  the  size  of  the  boat,  labor  and  danger  as  well  as  the 
profits  of  the  business.  The  pilot,  however,  received  princely  wages, 
sometimes  as  much  as  $1,600  per  month.  He  was  the  autocrat  of  the 
boat,  and  absolutely  controlled  her  navigation.  It  was  for  him  to  deter- 
mine when  the  boat  should  run  or  "lay  by." 

However,  piloting  on  the  Missouri  River  was  a  science,  demanding 
of  the  pilot  great  skill  and  a  wonderful  memory  of  localities.  The  river 
channel,  its  bends,  cliffs,  bars  and  obstructions  were  visualized  in  his 
mind  as  well  in  the  darkest  night  and  densest  fog  as  if  seen  on  the  clear- 
est day.  The  weal  or  woe  of  the  floating  palace,  with  its  rich  cargo  of 
merchandise  and  human  freight,  depended  upon  his  skill  and  ever  alert 

Locally  Owned  Steamboats. — Capt.  A.  J.  Spahr,  known  in  the  pros- 
perous river  days  as  "Bud"  Spahr,  was  one  of  the  leading  pilots  on  the 
Missouri.  It  is  his  opinion  that  the  most  prosperous  period  in  steam- 
boating  on  the  Missouri  were  the  years  1866,  '67  and  '68.  He  tells  of  a 
certain  pilot  on  the  Missouri  who  entered  into  a  contract  to  pilot  at  $1,600 
per  month  for  eight  months,  "work  or  play."  Also  that  Capt.  C.  H. 
Brewster  of  Boonville,  who  was  clerk  on  the  "Cora,"  a  boat  of  about 
5,000  tons,  on  his  return  from  St.  Louis  to  Fort  Benton,  turned  over  to 
the  owner  of  the  "Cora,"  Capt.  Joe  Kinney,  the  sum  of  $45,000 — profits 
of  the  trip. 

From  Captain  Spahr,  we  gather  the  following  information:  Capt. 
Joe  Kinney,  who  lived  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  from  Boonville, 
was  the  owner  of  the  following  boats  at  different  times:  Kate  Kinney,  a 
side  wheeler  and  a  fine  boat ;  Kate  Kinney,  stern  wheel ;  St.  Lake,  Bacon, 
Fannie  Ogden,  Cora,  stern  wheel ;  Cora,  side  wheel ;  R.  W.  Dugan  and 
Alice,  and  a  large  interest  in  the  W.  H.  H.  Russell,  Twilight  and  Omaha. 


Among  those  of  our  local  citizens  engaged  and  interested  largely  in 
steamboating  were:  Capt.  Joe  Kinney,  as  above  stated;  Capt.  Henry 
McPherson,  owner  of,  or  largely  interested  in,  the  Jennie  Lewis ;  J.  L. 
Stephens,  Cavier,  Lieut.  Girard  D.  Allen,  Captain  St.  John;  Capt.  Dave 
Kaiser,  Wm.  Linge,  pilot;  "Bud"  Spahr,  pilot;  Geo.  Homan,  pilot;  Jesse 
Homan,  pilot;  "Billy"  Young,  pilot;  Capt.  C.  H.  Brewster,  C.  W.  Sombarts 
(owner  of  C.  W.  Sombart) ,  and  Capt.  D.  DeHaven,  captain  of  South  West- 
ern owned  by  a  company  of  Boonville  citizens.  There  were  doubtless 
others  but  we  have  been  able  to  get  information  concerning  only  the 

Wrecking  of  Steamboats. — Space  will  not  permit  us  in  this  chapter 
to  give  the  names  of  the  boats  wrecked  and  destroyed  on  the  Mississippi, 
nor  to  give  an  account  of  any  of  these  unfortunate  events.  Suffice  it  to 
say  that  the  list  of  lost  boats  contains  the  names  of  over  300.  Of  those 
names,  193  were  sunk  by  coming  in  contact  with  snags,  25  by  fire,  and 
the  remainder  by  explosions,  rocks,  bridges,  storms  and  ice. 

As  most  of  the  boats  ran  in  the  lower  Missouri,  more  than  three- 
fourths  of  the  number  were  wrecked  between  Kansas  City  and  the  mouth 
of  the  river.  It  has  been  stated  on  authority  that  there  are  buried  in 
the  lower  bends  of  the  river  the  wrecks  of  more  than  200  steamboats, 
covered  with  the  accumulated  sands  of  more  than  a  half  century. 

Santa  Fe  Trail,  William  Becknell  Founder. — Next  in  importance  to 
the  magnificent  steamboat  traffic  which  so  directly  added  to  the  growth 
and  prosperity  of  Cooper  County,  was  that  of  the  Santa  Fe  trail.  The 
first  concerted  organized  effort  to  reach  and  open  up  trade  and  commerce 
with  Santa  Fe.  New  Mexico,  was  inaugurated  by  William  Becknell,  who 
lived  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri,  not  far  from  Boonville. 

Becknell  published  an  advertisement  in  the  Franklin  "Intelligencer" 
"to  enlist  a  company  destined  to  Santa  Fe  for  the  purpose  of  trading  for 
horses  and  mules,  catching  wild  animals  of  every  description  that  might 
be  for  the  advantage  of  the  company."  It  was  emphasized  that  all  men 
joining  the  expedition  were  to  bind  themselves  by  oath  to  submit  to  such 
orders  and  rules  as  the  company  when  assembled  might  adopt.  The  num- 
ber of  men  sought  to  be  enlisted  in  this  expedition  was  limited  to  70,  and 
applications  were  to  be  received  up  to  Aug.  4,  1822.  These  applicants 
were  directed  to  meet  at  the  home  of  Ezekiel  Williams,  known  as  the 
"lost  trapper,"  on  the  Missouri  River,  five  miles  above  Franklin,  to  secure 
a  pilot  and  appoint  officers.  At  this  meeting,  however,  only  11  men 
assembled,  and  Becknell  was  chosen  captain.     It  was  then  determined 


that  30  men  would  be  the  number  sufficient  to  undertake  the  expedition, 
and  that  the  company  as  organized  should  cross  the  Missouri  River  at 
Arrow  Rock  on  September  the  first. 

The  expedition  was  highly  successful,  and  the  men  returned  in  Jan- 
uary, 1822.  William  Becknell  became  the  founder  of  the  phenomenal 
Santa  Fe  Trail,  of  which  Franklin,  for  a  number  of  years,  was  the  thriv- 
ing center.  But,  alas,  for  more  than  80  years  the  treacherous  waters  of 
the  Missouri  have  eddied  the  shifting  sands  of  the  treacherous  stream 
and  have  covered  the  places  where  the  restless,  indomitable  and  adven- 
turous early  settlers  met  and  jostled,  traded  and  trafficked,  fitted  and 
equipped  the  caravans  for  the  great  trade  of  the  wilderness;  and  who  on 
their  return  from  successful  trips,  boasted  of  exploits  and  adventures, 
and  displayed  the  evidences  of  their  prosperity  and  wealth. 

Boonville  Becomes  Active  Mart. — A  few  years  after  1826,  the  year 
in  which  the  waters  of  the  turbulent  Missouri  commenced  encroaching 
upon  the  beautiful  city  of  Franklin,  Boonville  assumed  its  dominant  posi- 
tion on  the  Santa  Fe  trail.  Steamboats  began  to  land  in  increasing  num- 
bers along  the  river  front,  especially  at  the  foot  of  what  is  now  Main 
street,  and  there  continued  for  years  a  wonderful  activity. 

The  hum  of  activity;  the  loud  and  strident  voices  of  mates,  frequently 
punctured  with  oaths  as  they  drove  the  stevedores  to  greater  activity ; 
the  monotonous  songs  of  the  negroes  chanting  the  river  melodies,  as  they 
strove,  heaved  and  perspired;  the  long  line  of  prairie  schooners  with 
teams  of  patient,  plodding  oxen  loading  for  the  great  trail  of  the  wilder- 
ness ;  the  flare  of  the  torches  at  night  reflected  in  the  waters ;  and  the 
indescribable  grace  of  the  steamboat  as  she  gently  pressed  the  wharf 
and  lowered  her  gang-plank  and  the  hurly-burly;  the  passengers  crowd- 
ing the  rail  eagerly  gazing  on  the  shore  scene,  or  with  sparkling  eyes 
ready  to  pass  the  gang-plank;  all  are  now  but  sweet  memories  of  halcyon 
days,  .obscured  by  the  sands  of  more  than  half  a  century. 

Use  of  Oxen. — Experience  demonstrated  along  about  1821  that  oxen 
were  better  adapted  to  the  Santa  Fe  trail  than  mules,  and  from  this  time 
on  the  oxen  were  more  generally  used  than  the  mules. 

When  oxen  were  used,  the  day  was  divided  usually  into  two  drives 
of  six  or  eight  miles  each  day.  As  soon  as  early  dawn  approached,  the 
first  drive  started  and  its  termination  was  in  a  measure  decided  by  the 
most  favorable  camping  place  where  grass  and  water  were  to  be  found 
in  plenty.  About  midday  the  wagons  were  corraled  and  the  cattle  were 
given  food.     In  very  hot  weather  the  afternoon  drive  was  not  ordered 


until  about  three  or  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  On  such  days  the 
drive  continued  until  nine  or  ten  o'clock  at  night.  When  the  oxen  were 
unyoked,  they  were  turned  over  to  the  night  herder,  who  kept  watcn 
over  them  as  they  moved  about  seeking  the  best  grass.  As  it  was  only 
necessary  for  the  herder  to  keep  track  of  the  leader  of  the  herd,  one 
man  could  easily  watch  over  as  many  as  300  or  400  head  of  oxen  at  night. 
In  the  herd  on  the  trail,  there  developed,  very  soon  after  the  start  on 
the  trail,  one  animal  which  all  the  others  recognized  as  a  leader.  Wher- 
ever the  leader  of  the  herd  went,  the  rest  of  the  herd  followed.  The  night 
herder  always  kept  track  of  the  leader,  and  frequently  got  off  his  mule, 
drove  a  peg  in  the  ground  to  which  he  attached  a  long  rope,  that  allowed 
the  mule  some  range,  rolled  himself  up  in  his  blanket  and  went  to  sleep. 
Moreover,  when  the  grass  was  scarce,  the  leader  would  wander  about  the 
plains,  and  all  the  herd  would  follow,  thus  requiring  the  night  herder  to 
follow  and  keep  awake. 

If  the  grass  was  plentiful  the  herd  would  often  obtain  a  sufficient 
supply  in  three  or  four  hours,  and  would  then  lie  down  until  morning. 
At  the  first  appearance  of  dawn,  the  night  herder  rounded  up  the  oxen, 
and  started  for  the  corral.  When  in  close  proximity,  he  would  shout 
"Roll  out,  roll  out,  roll  out."  This  was  the  signal  for  the  men  to  prepare 
breakfast  and  be  ready  to  yoke  up.  When  all  was  ready,  each  teamster 
answered,  "All  set."  Then  came  the  order,  "Fall  in."  The  second  order, 
"Stretch  out."  Then  with  creaking  yokes  and  rattling  wheels,  the  train 
moved  on  with  the  dignified  pace  of  oxen. 

First  Railroads. — The  building  of  railroads  in  Missouri,  commenced 
in  1859;  this  year  marked  the  completion  of  the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph 
railroad,  the  first  railway  extending  to  the  Missouri  river.  This  sounded 
the  death  knell  of  steamboat  traffic  on  the  Missouri,  and  by  the  same 
token,  there  passed  into  the  dimly  remembered  past,  the  trials  and  thrills 
of  the  Santa  Fe  trail. 

The  first  rail  of  the  first  railroad  built  in  the  United  States  was  laid 
on  July  4,  1828,  by  Charles  Carroll,  who  was  at  the  time  the  only  surviv- 
ing signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 

For  a  year  or  two,  cars  and  coaches  were  drawn  by  horses,  but  after 
that  the  locomotive  engine  was  introduced.  Fifteen  miles  of  this  road 
had  been  completed  by  1830.  Other  railroads  had  been  planned,  and  in 
a  few  years  were  under  construction,  so  that  by  1850,  a  little  more  than 
9,000  miles  of  railroad  had  been  built  in  the  United  States. 

Notwithstanding  this  progress  in  railroad  building  throughout  the 


country,  not  one  mile  was  constructed  in  Missouri  until  1851.  However, 
a  peculiar  i*oad  was  started  in  1849  or  1850,  which  extended  to  a  point  on 
the  Missouri  opposite  Lexington,  was  operated  by  horse  power,  and  its 
rails  and  cross  ties  were  built  entirely  of  timber.  Missouri  was  fortunate 
in  having  great  natural  highways  of  Commerce  in  the  Mississippi  and  Mis- 
souri rivers  and  their  tributaries.  The  steamboats  then  coming  into  gen- 
eral use  made  these  natural  highways  all  the  more  important  and  profit- 
able to  Missouri  by  establishing  connections  not  only  with  the  outside 
world,  but  also  between  different  parts  of  the  state.  Along  the  Mississippi 
and  Missouri  and  their  tributaries  were  thriving  and  prosperous  towns, 
and  these  seemed  well  satisfied  with  the  conditions,  as  they  then  existed. 
Eastern  capitalists  either  were  not  able  to  take  up  railroad  building  in 
Missouri,  or  did  not  consider  it  to  their  advantage  to  do  so.  However, 
agitation  for  railroad  building  began  as  early  as  1836.  A  railroad  con- 
vention was  held  on  April  30,  of  that  year,  at  St.  Louis.  Delegates  to  the 
number  of  59,  representing  11  different  counties,  including  Cooper, 
assembled  at  St.  Louis  at  this  time,  and  passed  various  resolutions  in 
which  the  advantages  of  railroads  were  set  forth. 

It  seems  to  us  at  this  day,  rather  strange  that  they  recommended  two 
lines  of  railroads  running  out  of  St.  Louis,  one  to  Fayette,  by  way  of  St. 
Charles,  Warrenton,  Fulton  and  Columbia,  for  the  purpose  of  opening  up 
an  agricultural  region,  the  other  to  the  valley  of  Bellvue  in  Washington 
County,  with  a  branch  to  the  Merrimac  Iron  Works  in  Crawford  County, 
for  the  purpose  of  developing  the  mineral  region. 

Congress  was  also  petitioned  by  this  convention  to  grant  500,000 
acres  of  public  lands  to  encourage  these  enterprises,  and  it  was 
also  urged  that  the  state  of  Missouri  place  its  credit  at  the  disposal  of 
the  companies  that  would  undertake  to  build  these  roads. 

Governor  Boggs,  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year,  in  his  message  to  the 
Legislature,  strongly  urged  a  general  system  of  railroad  construction. 
Doubtless,  inspired  by  this  convention  of  railroad  delegates,,  and  the 
recommendation  of  the  governor,  the  Legislature  proceeded  to  incorporate, 
during  the  months  of  Jan.  and  Feb.,  1836,  at  least  18  railroad  com- 
panies whose  aggregate  capital  stock  amounted  to  about  $7,875,000. 

The  early  thirties  were  a  period  of  general  speculation  throughout  the 
United  States,  and  the  Missouri  Legislature  in  granting  franchises  to  rail- 
road companies  so  freely  and  generously,  was  only  following  the  example 
of  many  other  states.  However,  little  progress  was  made,  in  railroad 
building  by  these  companies,  due  doubtless,  in  a  large  part,  to  a  panic  in 


1837,  and  for  10  years  thereafter,  failing  to  do  so,  the  public  lost  interest 
in  railroad  enterprises.  The  500,000  acres  of  land  granted  by  Congress 
to  assist  in  internal  improvements  in  Missouri,  were  divided  among  the 
various  counties  of  the  state,  to  be  used  in  the  construction  of  roads. 

It  was  not  until  1850  that  the  people  again  became  interested  in  rail- 
road building.  At  this  time  the  population  of  the  state  had  increased  to 
682,044.  This  increase  in  population  was  not  confined  to  the  older  settled 
portions  of  the  state,  that  is  along  the  Missouri  and  Mississippi  Rivers, 
but  also  in  the  more  inland  sections.  The  country  had  recovered  from 
the  panic  of  1837,  and  the  spirit  of  enterprise  was  aroused  throughout  the 
country.  St.  Louis  became  roused.  In  1850,  her  population  was  80,081, 
and  she  was  the  leading  manufacturing  center  in  the  Mississippi  valley, 
but  Chicago  was  rapidly  gaining  upon  her. 

Missouri  was  being  roused.  Governor  King  proposed  to  the  legis- 
lature in  his  message  in  1850,  that  the  state  should  lend  its  credit  to  the 
railroad  companies  by  issuing  bonds,  and  lending  them  the  money  realized 
from  the  sale  of  these  bonds.  The  companies  were  to  pay  an  annual 
interest  at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent,  and  to  pay  off  the  principal  in  20  years. 

On  Feb.  22,  1851,  a  law  was  passed  by  the  Legislature,  granting  aid 
to  two  railroad  companies,  the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph,  and  the  Pacific. 
The  first  was  granted  $1,500,000,  and  the  latter  $2,000,000.  The  Hannibal 
&  St.  Joseph,  which  had  been  incorporated  in  1846  was  to  build  a  road 
which  would  connect  Hannibal,  on  the  Mississippi,  with  St.  Joseph,  on  the 
Missouri.  The  Pacific,  which  had  been  incorporated  between  1847  and 
1851,  was  to  construct  a  road  which  would  run  from  St.  Louis  to  Jefferson 
City,  and  from  thence  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  state. 

We  shall  follow  the  history  of  railroad  building  no  further  in  the  state 
of  Missouri,  save  only  where  it  directly  affects  Cooper  county. 

It  was  in  the  building  of  the  Missouri  Pacific  railway,  that  Boonville, 
and  Cooper  county,  in  all  probability,  lost  her  great  opportunity.  Boon- 
ville had  the  advantage  of  water  transportation,  and  was  the  most  im- 
portant and  most  popular  town  or  city  in  this  section  of  the  state,  and 
some  of  its  business  men,  though  farsighted  and  prosperous,  thought  that 
any  railroad  coming  west  from  St.  Louis  through  a  region  of  country  sur- 
rounding Boonville,  or  within  20  or  30  miles  of  its  proposed  route,  would 
naturally  deflect  from  its  course,  and  take  in  Boonville.  Efforts  to  secure 
the  road  was  not  characterized  by  that  activity  and  enthusiasm  usually 
manifested  by  men  who  were  attempting  to  avail  themselves  of  an  enter- 
prise, the  success  of  which  would  greatly  and  grandly  enure  for  the 


benefit  of  their  town,  and  the  speedy  building  up  of  its  material  interest, 
as  well  as  the  interest  of  the  county. 

The  golden  prize  (the  Missouri  Pacific),  with  all  its  promised  for  the 
future,  was  really  to  be  given  to  the  Vine-clad  city,  upon  certain  condi- 
tions but,  through  the  lukewarmness,  indifference  and  tardiness  of  those 
who  believed  the  Missouri  Pacific  road  would  come  to  Boonville  whether 
solicited  or  not,  it  was  bestowed  upon  another  and  far  less  pretentious 
raval  and  claimant.  Had  they  acted  upon  the  advice  of  the  poet,  who 

"Shun  delays,  they  breed  remorse," 

they  would  have  taken  the  instant  "by  the  forward  top",  and  would  have 
had  no  cause  for  repentance  and  regret. 

The  citizens  of  Boonville  had  a  meeting  and  instructed  Dr.  Wm.  H. 
Trigg,  one  of  their  most  wealthy  and  prominent  business  men,  to  go  to 
St.  Louis  and  confer  with  Mr.  Allen,  who  was  at  the  time  manager  of 
the  Missouri  Pacific  railroad.  The  doctor  waited  upon  Mr.  Allen  at  his 
office  in  St.  Louis,  and  had  an  extended  interview  with  him  in  reference 
to  bringing  the  road  by  way  of  Boonville.  Nothing  definite,  however,  was 
arrived  at  or  agreed  upon. 

The  road  was  chartered  Feb.  21,  1857,  to  run  from  a  point  between 
Jefferson  City  and  Round  Hill,  in  the  direction  of  Topeka,  Kansas.  The 
first  meetings  of  the  company  took  place  before  the  war.  In  1860,  the 
charter  was  amended,  so  as  to  permit  the  construction  of  the  road  north 
to  Boonville.  The  county  of  Cooper  then  subscribed  $150,000  in  bonds  to 
the  road.  During  the  war  the  road  bed  was  graded,  and  after  the  close 
of  the  war  the  county  subscribed  the  additional  sum  of  $100,000  in  bonds. 
The  road  was  finally  completed  through  Cooper  County  in  the  spring  of 

The  road  was  commenced  in  1870.  Cooper  County  subscribed  $100,- 
000  toward  its  construction  through  the  county ;  Boonville  township, 
$100,000;  Pilot  Grove  township,  $40,000;  and  Clear  Creek  township, 
$30,000.     The  road  was  completed  in  1873. 

Previous  to  1870,  a  railroad  bridge  had  been  talked  of  by  such  prom- 
inent citizens  of  Boonville  as  Captain  Jo  L.  Stephens,  H.  Bunce,  J.  L. 
O'Bryan,  and  others  of  Cooper  County,  Colonels  Elliott  and  Estill,  of 
Howard  County,  and  Messrs.  Marvin  and  Barrett,  of  Sedalia  but  no  steps 
were  taken  to  secure  the  building  of  the  same  until  the  months  of  October 
and  November  of  that  year.  During  these  months  a  preliminary  survey 
was  made  by  General  Wm.  Sooy  Smith,  which  fully  demonstrated  the 


practicability  of  constructing  a  bridge  at  moderate  cost.  The  work,  how- 
ever, did  not  begin  in  earnest  until  the  road  bed  and  franchise  belonging 
to  the  Tebo  and  Neosho  railroad  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Missouri, 
Kansas  and  Texas  railroad  company.  That  powerful  corporation  infused 
new  life  into  the  enterprise  and  determined  to  push  the  work  to  rapid 
completion.  A  charter  was  obtained,  and  an  act  of  Congress  passed 
authorizing  the  construction  of  the  bridge.  A  proposal  was  made  by  the 
American  Bridge  Company,  and  accepted  by  the  Boonville  Bridge  Com- 
pany for  the  building  of  the  bridge.  Men  and  machinery  made  their 
appearance  about  the  middle  of  Sept.,  1872.  During  the  fall  and  winter 
following,  cribs  and  caissons  for  the  foundations  were  framed,  the  abut- 
ments built,  quarries  opened,  and  machinery  and  materials  got  in  a  gen- 
eral state  of  readiness  for  the  spring  and  summer  work.  The  bridge  was 
completed  about  Jan.,  1874. 

Rebuilding  of  Bridges — Road  Improvement. — In  Sept.,  1905,  the  local 
rains  were  so  heavy  that  all  the  streams  within  Cooper  County  were  swollen 
beyond  precedent.  They  overflowed  the  banks  and  covered  much  of  the 
adjoining  land  in  many  places.  Most  of  the  bridges  of  the  county  were 
washed  away  or  wrecked.  Iron  structures  of  which  the  county  felt  proud 
were  but  straws  in  the  way  of  the  surging  waters  in  what  were  in  ordinary 
times  small  streams.  This  was  an  unfortunate  occurrence  and  seemed 
to  be  a  severe  blow  to  the  county.  A  difficult  problem  faced  the  county 
court.  There  was  nothing  like  sufficient  money  in  the  treasury  nor  funds 
to  be  anticipated  to  rebuild  and  reconstruct  these  bridges  necessary  to  the 
traffic  of  the  county.  Necessity  is  truly  the  mother  of  invention,  and  the 
county  court  was  compelled  to  pursue  an  ingenius  course.  All  were 
clamoring  for  bridges  in  their  respective  localities.  Being  unable  to  meet 
the  demands  the  county  court  informed  those  petitioning  for  bridges  that 
as  soon  as  the  money  was  available  the  court  would  at  once  build  the 
bridges  but  that  it  was  impossible  to  construct  all  that  were  needed  at 
once.  In  determining  what  bridge  or  bridges  would  be  first  constructed 
they  informed  the  petitioners  in  the  immediate  locality  of  the  bridges  that 
they  would  construct  first  the  bridge  in  the  locality  where  the  greatest 
subscription  was  raised  and  sent  the  court  for  such  purpose.  This  at 
first  met  with  some  opposition,  but  the  people  realizing  the  wisdom  of  the 
court's  action  and  that  those  in  the  immediate  locality  of  the  particular 
bridge  would  be  benefited  more  than  those  further  removed,  they  re- 
sponded to  the  court's  suggestion  and  soon  thereafter  the  action  of  bridge 
building  across  the  streams  of  Cooper  County  began.  Much  sooner  than 
had  been  hoped  by  the  most  optimistic.     Every  bridge  in  Cooper  County 


was  restored.  This  also  was  the  beginning  of  an  aroused  interest  in  bet- 
ter roads  and  a  few  years  after  bridges  were  constructed  the  court  adopted 
a  policy  with  reference  to  cutting  down  hills  and  establishing  better  grades 
for  roads,  in  other  words,  it  offered  to  the  people  for  the  purpose  of  reduc- 
ing the  grade  of  any  road  as  much  from  the  county  treasury  as  the  local 
people  would  subscribe.  This  action  on  the  part  of  the  court  met  the 
hearty  approval  of  the  people  and  many  bad  grades  throughout  the  county 
were  greatly  improved.  About  this  time  was  also  established  and  marked 
out  the  Santa  Fe  trail  from  Boonville  through  Cooper  County  to  the 
Cooper  County  line  on  the  road  to  Arrow  Rock.  This  entire  stretch  of 
road  was  graded  in  the  best  and  most  approved  manner.  Drag  districts 
were  established.  This  highway  was  kept  in  the  best  condition  for  travel. 
Many  tourists  passing  over  it  from  other  states  pronounces  it  to  be  the 
best  dirt  road  in  our  country.  In  different  portions  of  the  county  the 
people  then  began  to  form  special  road  districts  and  adopted  the  extensive 
use  of  drags.  The  automobile  made  its  appearance  among  the  farmers 
and  every  owner  of  an  automobile  became  a  "good  roads"  booster.  It  will 
be  remembered  that  upon  the  first  appearance  of  the  automobile  in  our 
county  the  farmers  were  antagonistic  to  its  use  and  so  bitter  and  unrea- 
sonable was  the  opposition  on  the  part  of  some  that  various  and  numerous 
obstructions  were  placed  in  the  roads  to  make  hazardous  and  impede  the 
use  of  this,  then,  new  mode  of  travel.  However,  it  is  now  the  farmer 
who  owns  the  automobile.  It  is,  to  him,  a  necessity,  as  it  in  a  measure 
eliminates  space  and  time.  There  is  at  this  time  a  strong  sentiment  and 
agitation  for  hard  surface  roads.  In  1918  the  Boonville  special  road  dis- 
trict voted  bonds  to  the  extent  of  $100,000  which  together  with  a  like 
amount  that  will  be  received  from  the  government,  to-wit,  another  $100,- 
000  will  go  far  to  further  improve  our  roads. 

No  prophet  of  the  present  day,  however  great  his  vision,  can  foretell 
the  transportation  and  mode  of  travel  of  the  future.  Even  now  man  prac- 
tically dominates  the  air  and,  in  speed  and  distance  of  flight,  puts  to  shame 
its  feathered  inhabitants.  It  was  but  the  other  day  that  Captain  John 
Alcock  and  Lieutenant  A.  W.  Brown,  in  a  bombing  areoplane  crossed  the 
Atlantic  from  New  Foundland  to  Ireland,  a  distance  of  l.TJOO  miles  in  16 
hours  and  12  minutes.  Our  government  is  at  the  present  time  arranging 
for  a  flight  around  the  world  and  mail  routes  by  aeroplane  are  being  estab- 

Less  than  half  a  century  back  Jules  Verne  in  his  story  of  how  the 


imaginary  Phileas  Fogg  had  encircled  the  globe  in  80  days,  set  the 
world  to  talking  and  marveling  about  the  accelerated  speed  of  life,  yet  less 
than  20  years  after  or  about  30  years  ago  Nellie  Bly,  a  reporter  for  a  New 
York  paper,  in  actual  travel,  clipped  eight  days  off  the  record  of  the 
marvelous  trip  of  Phileas  Fogg.  In  1911  Andre  Jaeger-Schmidt  made 
the  planetary  loop  in  a  trifle  less  than  40  days.  Thus  from  1872  when 
Verne  calculated  Phileas  Fogg  record-setting  tour  until  1911  only  a  matter 
of  39  years,  mankind  had  come  a  half  nearer  the  flying  heels  of  time. 
Thus  the  imagination  and  vision  of  Jules  Verne  has  been  discounted  by 
actual  facts.     What  we  may  yet  expect  we  would  not  hazzard  a  conjecture. 




In  time  of  profound  peace,  a  British  man-of-war  of  superior  force, 
made  a  surprise  attack  upon  the  Chesapeake  in  the  waters  of  the  United 
States,  and  in  consequence  thereof,  President  Jefferson,  in  July,  1807, 
issud  a  proclamation  of  embargo.  This  caused  much  excitement  among 
the  people  and  fomentation  among  the  Indians  of  the  Northwest  and  on 
the  borders  of  the  territory.  It  naturally  filled  the  minds  of  the  settlers 
on  the  frontier  with  anxiety. 

The  difficulties  between  England  and  the  United  States  remaining 
unadjusted,  and  becoming  greater  with  the  lapse  of  time,  war  was 
declared  in  1812. 

Erection  of  Forts. — The  settlers  in  the  Boonslick  country  began  the 
immediate  erection  of  forts.  The  largest  fort  of  the  settlement  was 
Cooper's  Fort,  a  stockade  flanked  by  log  houses  erected  in  a  bottom  prairie 
near  the  present  town  of  Glascow,  near  the  Missouri  River.  About  150 
yards  between  it  and  the  river,  a  common  field  of  250  acres  was  worked 


by  all  the  inhabitants  of  this  fort.  Twenty  families  and  a  number  of 
young  men  resided  in  the  fort. 

McLean's  Fort,  afterwards  called  Fort  Hempstead,  was  erected  on  a 
high  hill  near  Sulphur  Creek,  on  the  bluff  about  one  mile  from  the  present 
town  of  New  Franklin.  Fort  Kincaid  was  near  the  river,  about  one  and 
one-half  miles  from  the  present  site  of  Old  Franklin;  the  first  was  so 
named  in  honor  of  David  Kincaid.  Then,  there  was  Head's  Fort,  four 
miles  above  Rocheport  on  the  Big  Moniteau,  near  the  old  Boonslick  trail 
from  St.  Charles,  not  far  from  what  was  then  called  the  Spanish  Needle 
Prairie.     It  was  the  most  easterly  fort  of  the  settlement. 

These  forts  were  on  the  north  side  of  the  river.  On  the  south,  the 
first  fort  erected  was  Cole's  Fort,  which  was  located  in  the  "Old  Fort 
Field",  about  one  and  one-half  miles  east  of  the  present  site  of  Boonville, 
north  of  the  Boonville  and  Rocheport  road.  The  second  fort  erected  on 
the  south  side  of  the  river,  was  the  Hannah  Cole  Fort,  located  on  a  bluff 
overlooking  the  river,  at  a  point  of  rocks,  where  a  lime-kiln  once  stood. 
This  last  fort,  however,  was  not  erected  until  1814.  This  place  was  selected 
by  the  settlers  as  the  most  suitable  for  defense,  being  located  at  the  edge 
of  a  very  steep  bluff  and  easily  defended,  and  also  affording  facilities  to 
obtain  a  good  supply  of  water.  In  order  to  make  the  supply  of  water 
,secure  during  an  Indian  attack,  the  settlers  ran  a  long  log  over  the  edge 
of  the  bluff,  and  attached  to  it  a  rope  and  windlass  to  draw  up  the  water. 

McMahan's  Fort  also  was  located  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  sup- 
posed to  be  about  five  miles  from  Cooper's  Fort,  but  we  have  been  unable 
to  determine  its  exact  location. 

When  Stephen  Cole,  assisted  by  his  neighbors,  had  completed  the 
erection  of  the  first  Cole  fort,  all  the  families  living  around,  especially  on 
the  south  side  of  the  river,  gathered  at  this  fort  for  protection  from  the 

The  Cole  fort  consisted  of  a  stockade  flanked  by  log  cabins,  and  here 
lived  all  the  families  south  of  the  Missouri,  during  a  greater  part  ot  tne 
War  of  1812.  Many  mouths  were  to  be  fed,  and  they  were  hearty  feeders. 
Their  meat  consisted  entirely  of  wild  game,  which  they  killed  and  secured 
from  the  forest,  or  fish  caught  from  the  river.  For  this  purpose  they 
sent  out  hunting  parties  from  day  to  day.  At  this  time  all  was  not  ease 
and  comfort  within  the  fort,  and  the  white  men  were  denied  the  freedom 
of  the  forest  bv  the  wily  savage.  The  hunter  who  sallied  forth,  as  it  was 
necessary  for  him  to  do  was  like  Argus  with  his  hundred  eyes,  and  Briar- 


eus,  with  his  hundred  hands,  first  to  watch  and  then  to  guard.  When 
chased  or  surrounded  by  the  Indians,  figuratively  speaking,  he  put  on  the 
helmet  of  Pluto,  which  made  him,  invisible. 

Killing  of  Smith. — A  few  months  after  Cole  Fort  was  completed, 
Indians  were  reported  in  the  neighborhood.  The  Indians  consisting  of  a 
band  of  about  400,  made,  their  appearance  before  the  fort.  At  this  time 
there  were  two  hunting  parties  in  the  forest  after  game,  in  one  of  which 
were  two  men  by  the  names  of  Smith  and  Savage,  who  on  their  return 
to  the  fort  were  espied  by  the  Indians.  Smith  and  Savage  endeavored 
to  break  through  the  cordon  of  Indians  surrounding  the  fort.  They  were 
pursued  by  the  Indians,  and  the  savages  shot  at  them  several  times.  In 
the  first  fire  Smith  was  severely  wounded,  but  struggling,  he  staggered  on 
to  within  50  yards  of  the  fort,  where  the  Indians  again  fired,  two  balls 
taking  effect  and  felling  him  to  the  ground.  Only  Savage  succeeded  in 
attaining  the  fort. 

As  soon  as  Savage  saw  his  companion  fall  he  ran  to  his  assistance, 
but  Smith,  realizing  that  he  was  mortally  wounded  and  that  his  end  was 
near,  handed  Savage  his  gun  and  told  him  to  flee  and  save  himself.  The 
Indians  were  in  close  pursuit,  and  in  order  to  save  himself,  Savage  was 
compelled  to  leave  his  unfortunate  companion  and  make  his  escape. 
Although  he  was  shot  at  perhaps  25  times,  he  succeeded  in  reaching  the 
fort  unhurt.  The  Indians  scalped  Smith,  and  barbarously  mutilated  his 
body,  as  was  then  their  custom.  They  then  withdrew  to  the  adjacent 
woods  and  laid  seige  to  the  fort. 

The  Indians,  who  pursued  Savage  in  his  successful  endeavor  to  escape 
to  the  fort,  came  into  full  view  of  the  settlers  in  the  fort,  and  several  of 
them  might  have  been  killed  had  the  settlers  deemed  it  wise  and  expedient 
to  do  so. 

Indeed,  it  is  said  that  Samuel  Cole,  who  was  in  the  fort  at  the  time, 
begged  his  mother  to  let  him  shoot  an  Indian.  Samuel  then  was  but  a 
little  shaver  about  twelve  years  of  age.  Doubtless  he  burned  with  ambi- 
tion and  his  little  heart  throbbed  by  reason  of  his  eager  and  earnest  desire 
to  kill  the  red  men,  thinking  not  of  the  consequences.  However  his 
mother,  Hannah  Cole,  with  wisdom  born  of  experience,  forbade  him  to 

The  Indians  had  as  yet  shown  no  disposition  to  fire  upon  the  fort,  and 
the  inmates,  there  being  but  six  men  in  the  fort,  did  not  wish  to  rouse 
their  anger  by  killing  any  of  them.     They  also  hoped  that  before  an  attack 


was  made  by  the  Indians,  that  those  settlers  who  were  yet  out  hunting 
would  arrive  and  thus  augment  the  forces  within  the  fort. 

They  realized  that  against  such  overwhelming  forces  they  could  not 
long  maintain  themselves,  and  that  their  only  hope  was  escape.  During 
the  following  day  the  remaining  settlers  who  were  outside  the  fort  evaded 
the  vigilant  cordon  of  savages,  and  doubtless  following  the  route  up  or 
down  the  river  reached  the  fort.  However  dire  their  straits,  aid  came 
fortuitously,  or  by  act  of  Providence.  On  the  following  day  a  boat  loaded 
with  Indian  goods  and  containing  25  kegs  of  powder,  400  pounds  of  balls, 
and  a  keg  of  whiskey,  in  charge  of  Captain  Coursault  and  belonging  to 
French  traders  of  St.  Louis,  was  going  up  the  river  for  the  purpose  of 
trading  these  articles  with  the  Indians. 

Capture  of  Coursault — Escape  of  Settlers. — This  aroused  the  indigna- 
tion of  the  settlers,  and  Benjamin  Cooper  admonished  Coursault  of  the 
danger  and  impropriety  of  supplying  the  Indians  with  ammunition  under 
existing  conditions,  for  with  the  ammunition  the  white  settlers  would  be 
slain.  Coursault  seemed  to  see  and  appreciate  the  danger  of  this  and 
promised  to  return  down  the  river.  It  seemed  to  the  settlers,  however, 
that  he  agreed  with  reluctance,  and  as  they  were  in  doubt  whether  or  not 
he  would  descend,  they  established  a  guard  on  the  river.  Their  suspicion 
was  well  founded,  and  their  caution  well  taken,  for  a  day  or  so  afterwards, 
about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  Coursault  was  intercepted  attempting 
to  go  up  the  liver,  the  oars  of  his  boat  muffled.  He  was  commanded  to 
run  his  boat  ashore,  but  he  did  not  stop,  and  refused  to  obey  the  com- 
mand. Then  Captain  Cooper  fired,  but  Captain  Sarshall  Cooper  knocked 
the  gun  up,  thus  saving  Coursault's  life.  Coursault,  realizing  that  the 
settlers  were  in  deadly  earnest,  brought  his  boat  to  the  shore.  The 
ammunition  and  whiskey  were  confiscated  by  the  settlers  and  Coursault 
himself  held  captive  for  a  short  time.-  He  was  finally  allowed  to  return 
home  with  his  goods,  except  the  ammunition  and  the  large  keg  of  whiskey. 

After  this,  however,  Coursault  proved  himself  loyal  to  the  Americans 
in  the  War  of  1812.  He  bravely  assisted  in  the  defense  of  Cotesans  Des- 
sein,  when  it  was  attacked  by  the  Indians,  and  during  the  war  he  loyally 
aided  in  the  defense  of  the  country  against  the  Indians.  He  was  captairt 
of  the  Cote  sans  Dessein  Company.  In  this  engagement,  an  account  of 
which  is  given  in  this  chapter,  Coursault  lost  his  life. 

By  reason  of  the  capture  of  this  boat,  the  settlers  were  enabled  to 
make  their  escape  from  Fort  Cole.     They  crossed  the  river  in  this  boat  to 


Fort  Kincaid  or  Fort  Hempstead,  which  was  located  about  one  mile  from 
the  end  of  the  great  iron  bridge  over  the  Missouri  River  at  Boonville. 
They  succeeded  in  taking  with  them  their  families,  all  their  stock,  furni- 
ture and  belongings  of  other  nature.  The  fort  was  surrounded  by  savages 
on  all  sides,  save  on  the  river  front,  and  yet,  in  the  face  of  all  this,  the 
white  men  saved  not  only  themselves,  but  all  their  personal  property  in 
the  fort,  as  well  as  their  live  stock. 

After  they  had  crossed  the  river,  the  Frenchmen  and  their  leader, 
Coursault,  were  permitted  to  return  down  the  river  with  their  boat,  with 
the  strong  admonition  that  if  thev  ever  dared  come  up  the  river  again 
with  supplies  for  the  Indians  they  would  handle  them  with  "short  shrift". 

The  ammunition  captured  and  confiscated  at  this  time,  was  sufficient 
to  last  the  settlers  for  a  long  time. 

Previous  to  this,  Joseph  Jolly  had  supplied  them  with  powder,  manu- 
factured by  himself  from  saltpeter  found  in  a  cave  near  Rocheport. 
Whence  came  the  saltpeter?  "If  true,"  as  Houck  says  in  his  history  of 
Missouri,  "it  is  a  fact  also  to  be  noted." 

Smith  was  the  first  man  killed  within  the  present  limits  of  Cooper 
County.  All  the  settlers  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  had  now  moved 
to  the  north  side. 

Todd  and  Smith  Are  Killed. — In  the  early  spring  of  1812  prior  to  the 
killing  of  Smith  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  Jonathan  Todd  and  Thomas 
Smith  started  down  the  Missouri  either  to  pick  out  a  piece  of  land  on 
which  to  settle,  or  to  find  a  stray  horse,  possibly  both.  Todd  and  Smith 
lived  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri.  They  had  gone  as  far  as  the 
present  line  between  Howard  and  Boone  Counties,  when  they  were  unex- 
pectedly attacked  by  the  Indians.  The  struggle  was  long  and  hard,  and 
several  Indians  were  killed,  but  Todd  and  Smith  eventually  paid  the  forfeit 
of  their  hardihood  with  their  lives.  The  savages,  after  killing  them,  cut 
off  their  heads,  and  literally  cut  out  their  hearts  and  placed  them  on  poles 
by  the  side  of  the  trail.  Soon  the  news  of  the  killing  of  Todd  and  Smith 
was  brought  to  the  fort,  and  a  party  of  men  was  sent  out  to  recover  their 
bodies.  After  they  had  traveled  several  miles,  they  captured  an  Indian 
warrior,  who  seemed  to  be  spying  on  their  movements,  and  they  started 
to  the  fort  with  their  captive  in  order  to  secure  information  from  him. 
On  their  return,  when  they  arrived  within  two  miles  of  the  fort,  the  Indian 
prisoner  suddenly  broke  away  from  them,  and  attempted  to  make  his 
escape.     The  Indian  was  fleet  of  foot,  and  although  the  settlers  pursued 


him  about  one-half  a  mile,  they  found  that  they  could  not  overtake  him 
and  capture  him  alive.  Then  with  unerring  aim  they  shot  him,  killing 
him  instantly. 

The  killing  of  these  white  settlers  happened  before  the  settlers  on  the 
south  side  had  moved  to  the  north  side  of  the  river.  Immediately  the 
settlers  on  both  sides  of  the  river  organized  and  began  to  act  with  one 
accord.  They  sent  out  scouting  expeditions  in  different  directions  to 
ascertain  the  lay  of  the  ground,  whether  the  Indians  were  in  the  neighbor- 
hood and  whether  they  were  really  upon  the  warpath. 

Discover  Indians. — James  Cole  and  James  Davis  were  sent  out  upon 
one  of  these  scouting  expeditions.  After  scouting  around  for  some  time, 
they  were  unable  to  discover  any  trace  of  the  savages  in  the  neighborhood, 
or  to  find  out  anything  about  their  plans.  They  were  preparing  to  return 
to  the  fort,  when  they  discovered  a  large  band  of  Indians  in  pursuit  of 
them,  and  directly  between  them  and  the  fort,  in  which  were  their  fam- 
ilies and  friends,  unconscious  of  their  danger.  They  could  not  withstand 
the  attack  of  the  large  body  of  Indians  in  the  open  woods,  and  they  knew 
that  they  would  soon  be  surrounded.  Their  return  to  the  fort  was  seem- 
ingly cut  off.  However,  they  started  for  what  then  was  called  Johnson's 
Factory,  a  trading  post  kept  by  a  man  named  Johnson.  It  was  situated 
on  the  Moniteau  Creek,  in  what  is  now  Moniteau  County,  about  two  hun- 
dred yards  from  the  Missouri  River.  They  reached  the  factory  or  trad- 
ing post  that  afternoon,  and  the  Indians  immediately  surrounded  the  place. 
Cole  and  Davis  knew,  as  true  scouts,  that  it  was  their  duty  to  warn  their 
friends  and  neighbors,  and  that  unless  they  received  the  warning  they 
would  easily  fall  prey  to  the  savages.  That  the  forts  might  be  warned 
of  their  danger  in  time  to  prepare  for  the  attack,  which  seemed  certain, 
these  hardy  rangers  and  scouts  determined  at  all  hazards  to  escape  and 
bear  to  them  the  tidings.  As  long  as  they  remained  at  the  trading  post, 
they  were  safe  from  the  shots  of  the  enemy,  at  least  for  a  time.  To  leave 
the  fort,  they  ran  the  hazard  of  the  scalping  knife,  and  mutilated  bodies. 
They  resolved  upon  a  daring  method.  At  about  midnight,  with  the  utmost 
caution  as  to  noise,  they  took  up  a  plank  from  the  floor  of  the  factory, 
crawled  through  the  floor,  and  with  stealth  and  cunning  reached  the  creek. 
Fortunately,  there  they  found  a  canoe,  and  silently  floated  down  to  the 
river,  evading  the  vigilance  of  the  savages.  But  just  as  they  reached  the 
river,  an  unlucky  stroke  of  the  paddle  against  the  side  of  the  canoe, 
revealed  them  to  the  Indians,  who  at  once  started  in  pursuit  in  canoes. 


The  Indians  pursued  them  to  what  is  known  as  Big  Lick,  in  Cooper  County, 
where  being  closely  pressed,  Cole  and  Davis  turned,  and  each  killed  an 
Indian.  The  Indians  then  left  off  pursuit.  The  two  settlers  reached 
Cole's  Fort  in  safety,  and  announced  to  the  astonished  settlers  that  they 
were  indeed  on  the  verge  of  a  long  and  blood  war,  with  Indians  on  the 
war  path  in  the  immediate  vicinity. 

From  there  the  tidings  were  conveyed  to  the  other  forts.  The  hearts 
of  the  bravest  were  filled  with  dismay.  They  knew  that  their  numbers 
were  few,  and  that  to  withstand  the  attack  of  the  great  Indian  nations 
living  around  them  would  try  the  courage  and  the  sagacity  of  the  stoutest. 

However,  no  attack  was  made  by  the  band  of  Indians  who  had  pur- 
sued Cole  and  Davis.  Doubtless  because  they  knew  that  their  presence 
was  known  in  the  neighborhood,  and  they  well  knew  that  the  forts  would 
be  prepared  and  expecting  to  receive  them. 

Chased  by  Indians. — Nothing  being  seen  or  heard  of  Indians  for  some 
time,  in  the  summer  of  the  same  year,  Samuel  Cole,  Stephen  Cole  and 
Muke  Box  started  from  Kincaid's  Fort  on  a  hunting  expedition  and  crossed 
the  river  where  Boonville  now  stands,  penetrating  the  forest  t6  the  Petit 
Saline  Creek.  They  hunted  and  fished  for  two  days  and  were  preparing 
to  return  upon  the  third,  when  they  heard  the  sound  of  shooting  in  the 
direction  of  the  river,  where  they  had  left  their  canoe.  Knowing  that 
there  were  no  whites  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  except  themselves, 
they  concluded  that  the  shots  were  fired  by  Indians.  However  they  im- 
mediately started  by  a  circuitous  route  to  the  river,  to  gain  possession 
of  their  canoe.  When  they  arrived  at  the  residence  where  once  lived 
Delaney  Belin,  they  discovered  that  a  band  of  Indians  was  in  pursuit  of 
them.  Not  knowing  the  number  in  pursuit,  but  supposing  them  to  be 
numerous,  they  immediately  separated,  and  took  different  routes  through 
the  woods.  They  agreed  to  meet  at  the  place  where  they  had  left  their 
canoe.  Here  they  met,  but  the  Indians  had  stolen  their  canoe.  As  the 
Indians  were  still  in  hot  pursuit  of  them,  they  hastily  lashed  three  cotton- 
wood  logs  together,  placed  their  guns,  clothing,  equipment,  etc.,  upon  this 
small  but  hastily  constructed  raft,  and  swam  over  the  river,  pushing  it 
before  them,  and  landed  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  about  two  and 
one-half  miles  below  the  present  city  of  Boonville.  They  reached  the  fort 
in  safety  that  evening,  and  reported  their  adventure  with  the  Indians. 
The  settlers  then  made  their  preparations  against  any  attack  by  the 
savages.     Next  morning  tracks  of  Indians  were  discovered  around  and 


near  the  fort,  and  it  was  found  that  the  fort  had  been  reconnoitred  during 
the  night  by  a  band  of  eight  Indians. 

At  this  time  there  were  very  few  men  in  Fort  Kincaid.  They,  there- 
foi'e,  sent  to  Cooper's  and  McLean's  Forts  for  reinforcements,  as  they 
supposed  that  this  band  of  eight  was  but  the  scouting  party  of  a  large 
number  of  Indians. 

Settlers  Take  Up  Trail  of  Indians. — The  other  forts  sent  reinforce- 
ments to  the  number  of  forty-two,  which  soon  arrived,  and  together  with 
the  men  belonging  to  Kincaid's  Fort,  they  started  in  pursuit  of  the  Indians 
of  whom  by  this  time  they  had  discovered  to  be  but  a  small  band.  They 
found  their  trail,  pursued  them  for  some  distance,  and  surrounded  them 
finally  in  a  hollow  within  about  four  miles  of  the  present  site  of  New 

The  Indians  concealed  themselves  in  the  brush  and  thickets,  and 
behind  timber,  not  being  able  to  see  the  Indians,  the  fire  of  the  settlers 
at  first  was  very  much  at  random.  The  fight  continued  for  a  long  time. 
However,  four  Indians  were  killed,  and  the  remaining  four,  though  badly 
wounded,  escaped.  None  of  the  settlers  were  killed  and  only  one,  a  man 
named  Adam  Woods,  was  severely  wounded,  but  he  afterwards  recovered. 

Night  came  on  and  the  pursuit  was  deferred.  The  next  day  the 
rangers  again  took  up  the  trail  of  the  surviving  four  Indians,  which  was 
plainly  marked  with  blood.  They  followed  it  to  the  river,  and  there  found 
the  canoe,  which  the  savages  had  two  days  before  stolen  from  Samuel 
Cole  and  his  companion.  In  this  canoe  the  Indians  had  hoped  to  make 
their  escape.  The  sides  of  the  canoe  were  covered  with  blood,  showing 
that  the  Indians  had  attempted  to  push  it  into  the  river,  but  on  account 
of  being  weakened  by  loss  of  blood,  could  not  do  so.  After  hunting  them 
for  some  time  in  vain,  the  party  returned  to  the  fort. 

In  August  a  band  of  eight  Indians  was  followed  by  a  party  of  25  or 
30  men  from  Cooper's  and  Kincaid's  Forts.  These  Indians  had  killed 
some  cattle  and  had  stolen  about  10  or  12  horses.  They  drove  the  horses 
away  to  the  high  ground  not  over  three  or  four  hundred  yards  from  the 
bottom  to  a  place  about  three  miles  from  the  present  town  of  Franklin, 
where  they  tied  the  horses  in  the  thicket. 

Captain  Cooper,  with  25  or  30  men,  among  them  Lindsay  Carson,  the 
father  of  Kit  Carson;  David  Boggs,  Stephen  Jackson;  William  Thorpe, 
afterward  a  Baptist  preacher;  and  James  Cole,  who  in  1867  gave  Draper 
this  version  of  the  affair,  found  the  horses  in  the  thicket,  and  then  fol- 
lowed the  trail  of  the  Indians  into  the  hollow  below. 


After  going  not  much  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  they  divided 
into  three  parties ;  Captain  Cooper,  with  one  party,  going  up  to  the  left, 
another  party  going  direct  up  the  hollow,  and  the  third  party  up  the 
eastern  bank,  skirting  the  hollow. 

After  entering  the  mouth  of  the  hollow,  five  of  the  men,  whose  feet 
had  become  blistered  from  long  and  hot  pursuit,  remained  behind  and  sat 
down  on  a  log,  some  one  hundred  yards  above  where  the  hollow  commenced 
at  the  river  bottom.  Among  them  was  James  Barnes,  whose  horse  had 
given  out.  As  the  three  parties  of  whites  advanced,  the  Indians,  who  as 
the  event  proved  were  in  the  hollow,  seeing  that  the  approaching  settlers 
were  too  numerous  for  them,  hid  in  the  bushes  till  they  passed.  Then 
they  ran  out  and  came  unexpectedly  upon  the  men  on  the  log,  who  when 
they  saw  the  Indians  fired  on  them.  The  Indians  returned  the  fire  and 
wounded  Francis  Woods  through  the  thigh;  they  also  wounded  Barnes' 
horse.  Both  parties  then  sought  the  protection  of  the  trees;  this  was 
about  mid-day.  When  the  three  parties  heard  the  firing  they  quickly  re- 
turned, being  but  a  short  distance  away,  arrived  nearly  simultaneously 
and  surrounded  the  Indians  before  they  were  aware  of  it.  Captain  Coop- 
er's party  was  on  the  high  point  skirting  the  western  side  of  the  banks, 
twenty  or  thirty  feet  above  the  Indians  and  fired  down  on  them.  The 
Indians  concealed  themselves  in  the  thick  fern  grass  which  was  three  or 
four  feet  high  and  they  would  rise  up  and  shoot,  then  drop  down  and 
reload  their  guns. 

Captain  Cooper  then  oi-dered  a  charge  and  the  whole  party  being  near 
enough  to  hear,  suddenly  ran  down  upon  the  Indians.  One  Indian  who 
had  his  ball  about  half  way  down  his  rifle  was  knocked  down  by  Lindsay 
Carson,  and  David  Boggs  shot  off  his  gun  between  Carson's  legs,  the 
muzzle  close  to  the  Indian's  head,  shattering  his  head  beyond  recognition. 
Just  then,  Lieutenant  McMahan  with  savage  ferocity  ran  up  and  plunged 
his  knife  into  the  Indian's  dead  body,  broke  off  the  blade  and  made  a 
flourish  of  the  handle.  In  this  encounter  five  Indians  were  killed,  all  shot 
to  pieces. 

A  few  days  afterwards  another  dead  Indian  was  found  on  the  river 
two  or  three  miles  above  the  scene  of  Conflict.  He  had  attempted  to  leave 
there,  but  was  too  feeble  to  do  so,  and  had  died  on  the  bank  of  the  river. 
Unquestionably  he  was  one  of  the  band  Captain  Cooper  had  encountered. 
The  above  account  we  take  from  Honck's  History  of  Missouri. 

The  party  of  whites  then  took  possession  of  the  horses  and  the  Indians' 
guns  and  carried  home  Woods,  who  though  badly  wounded,  recovered. 


It  is  not  known  to  what  tribe  these  Indians  belonged.  However,  it  is 
thought  that  they  were  affiliated  with  the  Saukees  and  Renards,  or  they 
may  have  been,  as  General  Dodge  supposed,  Miamis. 

Campbell  Killed.— In  July,  1812,  a  man  by  the  name  of  Campbell,  com- 
monly called  by  his  associates,  "Potter",  because  of  his  trade,  was  killed 
on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  about  five  miles  northwest  of  the  present 
site  of  Boonville.  He  and  a  man  named  Adam  McCord  went  from  Kin- 
caid's  Fort  to  Campbell's  home  to  tie  some  flax.  Savages,  who  were  in 
ambush,  concealed  in  some  underbrush,  fired  upon  them  and  shot  Campbell 
through  the  body,  but  he  ran  about  a  hundred  yards,  climbed  the  fence,  and 
pitched  into  the  trunk  of  a  tree  which  had  blown  down  and  there  expired. 
The  Indians,  though  they  hunted  for  the  body,  did  not  succeed  in  finding  it. 

Adam  McCord  escaped  without  injury,  and  going  to  the  fort,  reported 
the  death  of  Campbell,  and  the  circumstances  under  which  he  had  been 

The  fact  that  later  in  1814,  Campbell's  gun  was  found  in  the  possession 
of  the  Miamis,  by  Colonel  Cooper,  when  he  had  his  altercation  with  General 
Dodge,  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  opposite  Arrow  Rock,  leads  us  to 
believe  that  the  savages  that  killed  Campbell  were  a  party  of  Miamis.  The 
finding  of  Campbell's  gun  in  the  camp  of  the  Miamis  led  up  to  the  memor- 
able quarrel  between  Colonel  Cooper  and  General  Dodge. 

Settlers  Move  to  South  Side  of  River. — Not  having  seen  any  Indians 
for  several  months,  in  the  spring  of  1813  the  settlers  from  the  south  side 
of  the  river  who  had  gone  to  Kincaid's  Fort  in  the  previous  spring,  returned 
to  their  homes  on  the  south  side. 

The  year  before,  no  crops  had  been  raised,  and  they  were  anxious  to 
put  in  their  crops  for  the  coming  year.  In  order  that  they  might  put  in 
their  crops  with  safety,  and  be  advised  of  the  approach  of  the  Indians, 
they  stationed  a  guard  in  each  corner  of  the  field  in  which  they  were  at 
work.  From  this  time  on,  even  after  the  establishing  of  peace  in  1815,  the 
settlers  were  kept  continually  on  the  watch  against  the  savages,  tor  every 
month  or  two,  some  small  band  of  Indians  would  suddenly  attack  and  slay 
some  unsuspecting  settler  who  had  for  the  moment  forgotten  his  usual 
caution,  and  who  feeling  secure  from  attack,  because  the  Indians  had  not 
appeared  for  some  time,  suffered  the  severe  penalty  of  his  negligence. 

The  Indians,  from  this  time  on,  never  marched  in  large  bands  against 
the  settlements,  but  came  in  small  scouting  parties,  with  the  hope  of  way- 
laying and  shooting  down  some  unsuspecting,  unwary  settler,  or  murder 
unprotected  women  and  children. 


Several  men  of  the  Boonslick  country  were  killed  by  the  Indians  during 
the  two  or  three  years  following  the  return  of  the  settlers  from  Kincaid's 
Fort  to  this  side  of  the  river.  There  may  have  been  others  of  whom  we 
can  gain  no  trace,  or  find  any  record. 

Braxton  Cooper,  Jr.,  Killed. — Braxton  Cooper,  Jr.,  was  killed  in  Sept., 
1813,  two  miles  north  of  the  present  site  of  New  Franklin.  The  Indians 
attacked  him  as  he  was  cutting  logs  to  build  a  house.  He  was  a  young 
man  of  much  physical  strength  and  courage.  He  was  armed  with  rifle 
and  hunting  knife.  The  trampled  condition  of  the  ground  and  broken 
bushes  gave  certain  evidence  that  the  fight  had  been  fast  and  furious.  The 
howling  of  young  Cooper's  dog  attracted  attention  from  the  fort,  and  this 
faithful  friend  of  his  master  stood  watchful  sentinel  until  David  Boggs 
and  Jesse  Turner  crawled  out  during  the  night  to  the  place.  There  they 
found  Cooper  dead,  lying  on  his  face.  By  his  side  lay  his  gun,  and  in  his 
clenched  right  hand  was  his  knife,  bloody  to  the  hilt:  He  was  not  scalped 
nor  mutilated,  positive  evidence  that  the  savages  were  put  to  flight  before 
Cooper  succumbed  to  his  wounds.  Not  far  from  him  was  found  an  Indian 
buckskin  shirt,  with  two  holes  in  it,  saturated  with  blood.  How  many  of 
the  Indians  were  killed  or  wounded  the  settlers  could  not  determine,  for  the 
savages  had  removed  all  that  might  have  given  information,  except  the 
hunting  shirt.  The  Indian  trail  was  followed  for  a  short  distance,  but  was 
soon  lost,  and  the  settlers  abandoned  the  pursuit  as  useless. 

Joseph  Still  Killed. — Joseph  Still  and  Stephen  Cooper,  the  latter  a 
youth  of  sixteen  years,  both  belonging  to  the  rangers  of  Fort  Cooper, 
were  sent  up  the  Chariton  River  on  a  scouting  expedition.  On  their  return, 
when  within  about  twenty  miles  of  the  fort,  a  band  of  one  hundred  Sac 
Indians  intercepted  them.  The  course  that  seemed  most  feasible  was  for 
them  to  break  through  the  savage  band  and  make  for  the  fort.  So  the 
two  rangers  with  cocked  rifles  unswervingly  rode  forward  toward  the 
waiting  enemy.  When  within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  band,  both  fired 
and  putting  spurs  to  their  horses  charged  furiously  upon  the  Indians. 
Cooper  killed  one  Indian  brave  and  Still  wounded  another,  but  Still  on 
reaching  the  Indian  line  was  shot  dead  from  his  horse.  Cooper,  however, 
was  more  fortunate,  and  with  waving  rifle  and  strident  battle  cry  suc- 
ceeding in  escaping  the  shower  of  bullets,  arrows,  and  missiles  aimed  at 
him.  He  rode  a  fleet  horse,  and  thus  soon  outdistanced  his  pursuers  and 
reached  the  fort.     This  was  in  October,  1813. 

Killing  of  William  McLean.— William  McLean  was  killed  in  Oct.,  1813, 
by  the  Indians  in  what  is  now  Howard  County  near  the  present  site  of 


Fayette.  William  with  Ewing  McLean  and  four  other  men  went  to  Mc- 
Lean's Fort,  to  pick  out  a  piece  of  land,  on  which  some  one  of  them  ex- 
pected to  settle.  When  they  arrived  at  a  short  distance  southwest  of  the 
present  site  of  Fayette,  they  were  attacked  by  a  band  of  about  150  Indians. 
As  soon  as  McLean  and  his  companions  saw  them,  McLean  retreated 
towards  the  fort,  and  just  as  the  white  men  were  ascending  a  slant  lead- 
ing from  a  long,  deep  ravine,  to  the  Moniteau  Creek,  the  Indians  fired  a 
volley  at  them.  One  shot  struck  William  McLean  in  the  back  of  the  head 
and  he  dropped  dead  from  his  horse.  After  satisfying  themselves  that  he 
was  dead,  his  remaining  companions  left  his  body,  and  continued  their 
retreat  to  the  fort,  which  they  reached  in  safety.  The  Indians  scalped 
McLean,  cut  out  his  heart,  and  literally  hacked  him  to  pieces. 

Attempt  to  Rill  Austin. — Not  long  before  the  negro  "Joe"  was  killed, 
a  man  by  the  name  of  Austin,  who  was  stopping  at  McLean's  Fort,  while 
coming  around  the  corner  of  a  fence  about  two  miles  from  the  fort,  dis- 
covered an  Indian  in  the  act  of  firing  upon  him.  He  suddenly  reined  up 
his  horse  and  the  ball  passed  through  his  horse's  head.  The  horse  fell 
upon  Austin. 

One  Hough  and  Nicolas  Burckhardt,  who  were  some  distance  in  the 
rear,  saw  what  had  happened,  and  Hough  shot  and  wounded  the  Indian 
as  he  was  jumping  over  the  fence  to  kill  Austin.  Austin  soon  extricated 
himself,  and  reached  the  fort;  so  did  Hough,  but  Burckhardt,  who  ran 
into  the  woods,  did  not  come  in  until  the  next  morning.  This  man  Hough 
remained  temporarily  in  the  Boonslick  country.  He  was  a  hunter  and 
trapper  on  the  Upper  Missouri. 

Gregg  Killed  and  Daughter  Patsy  Captured. — Jesse  Cox,  and  his  son- 
in-law,  William  Gregg  in  1814  made  a  settlement  on  the  south  side  of  the 
river  above  Arrow  Rock.  There  they  built  a  block  house,  a  sort  of  family 
fort,  and  called  it  Cox's  Fort.  They  began  to  make  improvements,  hunt- 
ing also  for  subsistence.  Gregg  and  Cox  killed  a  bear  on  the  twenty-third 
of  October,  and  the  next  day  Gregg  went  out  on  his  horse  to  get  it.  He 
subsequently  went  to  feed  his  hogs,  and  while  doing  so,  was  shot  by  an 
Indian  lying  in  ambush.  Gregg  ran  to  the  blockhouse,  a  hundred  yards 
off,  got  inside  the  stockade,  grasped  his  gun,  and  fell  dead.  It  is  said  that 
seven  bullets  hit  the  gate-post  of  the  stockade.  It  is  said  that  after  the 
Indians  killed  Gregg,  they  made  an  attack  on  the  cabin  and  captured  his 
daughter  Patsy,  and  took  her  away  as  a  prisoner.  A  party  was  immedi- 
ately organized  among  the  settlers  to  pursue  the  Indians.  The  girl  was 
riding  on  horseback  behind  an  Indian  brave.     One  of  her  hands  was  tied 


to  the  Indian's  hand.  The  horse,  on  account  of  this  double  load,  lagged 
behind  the  others.  She  in  the  hope  of  seeing  some  of  the  settlers  fol- 
lowing to  rescue  her,  constantly  looked  behind.  At  last  she  discovered 
horsemen  approaching,  and  prepared  to  escape,  waiting  until  the  white 
men  were  within  50  yards  of  her,  when  with  her  unbound  hand,  she  sud- 
denly seized  and  extracted  the  Indian's  knife  from  its  sheath,  and  cut  the 
thong  which  bound  her  hand  to  his.  She  sprang  to  the  ground  and  rushed 
into  the  brush  on  the  side  of  the  trail  and  disappeared.  The  pursuing 
party  then  fired  on  the  Indians,  who  fled  precipitatly.  Jesse  Cox  and 
William  Gregg  were  members  of  Sarshall  Cooper's  company. 

According  to  another  account,  the  Indians  tomahawked  their  prisoner 
and  fled,  but  she  recovered.  It  is  also  said  that  Patsy  Cox  was  the  name 
of  the  young  woman  captured  and  that  it  was  not  Gregg. 

Negro  "Joe"  Killed. — A  negro  named  Joe,  belonging  to  Samuel  Brown, 
was  killed  by  the  Indians  near  Mr.  Burkhard't  farm  about  three  quarters 
of  a  mile  from  what  is  now  Estil's  Station  on  the  M.  K.  &  T.  railroad. 

Coursault  Killed. — Captain  Coursault  was  killed  in  1814  at  Cote-sans 
Dessein  in  the  attack  on  Roy's  Fort.  Cote-sans  Dessein,  now  Bakersville, 
Callaway  County,  was  a  village  of  considerable  importance  and  was  located 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Osage  River.  It  is  said  that  but  for  a  Spanish  land 
claim  the  capital  of  Missouri  would  doubtless  have  been  located  near  this 

It  was  settled  by  French  families  about  1810.  Several  block  houses 
were  erected  there.  One  was  called  Tebeau  or  Tebo's  Fort  and  one  Roy's 
Fort.  These  forts  were  about  three  hundred  yards  apart;  between  them 
was  a  log  house  that  served  as  a  powder  magazine  for  both  forts. 

One  day  Baptiste  Roy  went  out  to  kill  some  venison,  but  when  he  had 
gone  about  a  mile,  he  discovered  that  the  Indians  were  hidden  in  the 
bushes,  grass  and  weeds,  so  he  immediately  turned  his  horse  and  fled,  and 
when  nearing  Tebo's  Fort,  he  cried,  "Indians,  Indians." 

All  the  men  of  the  fort  who  were  armed,  hastened  at  once  to  meet 
the  enemy,  leaving  only  a  few  old  men  and  a  half  dozen  unarmed  and  par- 
tially grown  negroes  in  the  fort.  Louis  Roy  was  at  his  block  house  which 
was  some  two  or  three  rods  from  Roy's  Fort,  which  was  vacant  at  the 

When  the  others  rushed  forth  to  meet  the  Indians,  Louis  Roy  excused 
himself  by  saying  that  he  was  fixing  his  ramrod,  and  kept  busily  at  work 
scraping  it. 

About  a  mile  or  two  below  the  fort,  the  settlers  met  the  Indians,  and 


there  the  fight  continued  nearly  all  day,  all  fighting  from  behind  trees. 
Finally  the  Indians  were  apparently  driven  away,  but  not  before  Captain 
Coursault  and  four  or  five  others  were  killed.  The  number  of  Indians 
slain  was  never  known.  In  the  meantime,  the  Indians  divided  their  forces 
and  sent  a  band  to  attack  Roy's  Fort.  They  at  once  began  the  attack  upon 
the  block  house  in  which  were,  at  the  time,  Roy,  his  wife,  Francois,  and 
several  other  women. 
t  Only  two  guns  were  to  be  had  in  the  block  house.  These,  however, 
Roy  used  effectively,  the  women  keeping  them  loaded  as  fast  as  he  fired. 
So  accurate  was  his  aim  that  he  killed  14  Indians.  The  Indians 
disappeared,  but  warily  returned,  creeping  up  under  the  river  bank.  Sud- 
denly they  emerged  between  the  two  forts  and  made  for  the  log  house, 
which  was  used  as  a  magazine.  They  took  dry  cedar  which  they  had 
found,  split  it  with  their  knives  and  tomahawks,  and  piled  it  around  the 
log  house  magazine  and  set  fire  to  it. 

There  were  perhaps  40  or  50  Indians  in  this  band.  They  were 
armed  for  the  most  part,  with  only  bows  and  arrows.  They  yelled  and 
capered  with  fiendish  glee  around  the  building  as  the  fire  spread.  Soon, 
however,  the  flames  reached  the  powder  and  their  merriment  and  glee 
was  changed  to  consternation.  A  tremendous  explosion  sent  timbers  and 
rafters  flying  into  the  air;  Indians  and  parts  of  Indians  were  hurled  in 
every  direction;  according  to  one  account,  about  20  of  them,  including 
those  who  ran  and  jumped  into  the  river  to  soothe  their  anguish,  were 
killed.     The  remainder  of  the  party  quickly  disappeared. 

Murder  of  Ramsey  Family. — The  most  horrible  incident  of  this  war 
was  the  atrocious  murder  of  the  Ramsey  family.  Although  it  happened 
on  the  Femme  Osage  in  St.  Charles  county  the  news  of  the  atrocity  spread 
far  and  wide,  and  stirred  the  indignation  and  resentment  of  the  settlers 
of  the  Boonslick  country. 

Mrs.  Ramsey  having  gone  out  to  milk,  was  fired  upon  by  the  Indians 
and  shot  through  the  body.  Her  husband  was  a  cripple,  having  but  one 
leg.  He  saw  his  wife  fall  and  managed  to  get  her  to  the  house,  but  as  he 
reached  the  door,  he  received  a  wound  in  the  thigh.  At  this  time  his 
three  children  were  playing  a  short  distance  from  his  cabin.  The  Indians 
chased  them  around  the  house,  and  finally  caught  them  and  scalped  them 
in  the  yard  before  the  eyes  of  their  parents.  Ramsey  and  his  wife  both 
died  from  their  wounds. 

Capt.  Sarshall  Cooper  Murdered. — One  of  the  saddest  events  of  the 
war  was  the  tragic  death  of  Sarshall  Cooper,  after  whom  Cooper  County 




was  named.  His  death  touched  the  hearts  of  the  frontiersmen  as  had 
no  other  death  in  this  section.  He  was,  in  fact,  the  beloved  and  acknowl- 
edged leader  of  the  settlers  north  of  the  Missouri  River. 

The  night  of  April  14,  1814,  was  dark  and  stormy,  and  the  watchful 
sentinel  could  not  see  an  object  six  feet  in  front  of  the  stockade.  Captain 
Cooper  lived  in  one  of  the  angles  of  the  fort,  and  one  day  while  sitting  at 
his  fireside  with  his  family,  his  youngest  child  on  his  lap,  and  the  others 
playing  around  the  room,  his  wife  sitting  by  his  side  sewing,  the  storm 
raging  without,  a  single  warrior  crawled  up  to  the  fort,  and  made  a  hole 
just  large  enough  for  the  muzzle  of  his  gun  through  the  clay  between  the 
logs.  The  noise  of  his  work  was  drowned  by  the  howling  storm;  he  dis- 
charged the  gun  with  effect  fatal  to  Cooper,  and  Sarshall  Cooper  fell  from 
his  chair  to  the  floor,  a  lifeless  corpse,  amidst  his  horror-stricken  family. 

Sarshall  Cooper  was  a  natural  leader;  he  was  about  five  feet  10  inches 
tall,  of  fine  physique,  a  superior  horseman,  cool  and  deliberate.  His  wife 
was  Ruth,  a  daughter  of  Stephen  Hancock,  the  Boonsboro  pioneer  with 
Daniel  Boone. 

The  muster-roll  of  Capt.  Sarshall  Cooper's  company,  dated  April, 
1812,  is  not  without  interest,  and  gives  the  names  of  the  following  officers 
and  men: 

Wm.  McMahan,  1st  lieutenant ;  David  McQuilty,  2nd  lieutenant ;  John 
Monroe,  3rd  lieutenant ;  Ben  Cooper,  ensign ;  John  McMurray,  1st  sergeant ; 
Sam  McMahan,  2nd  sergeant;  Adam  Woods,  3rd  sergeant;  David  Todd, 
4th  sergeant;  John  Mathews,  5th  sergeant;  Andrew  Smith,  corporal; 
Thomas  Vaugn,  corporal;  James  McMahan,  corporal;  John  Busby,  cor- 
poral ;  James  Barnes,  corporal.  Private  Jesse  Ashcraft,  Jesse  Cox,  Sam 
Perry,  Solomon  Cox,  Henry  Ferrill,  Harmon  Gregg,  Wm.  Gregg,  John  Was- 
son,  Josiah  Higgins,  David  Gregg,  Robert  Cooper,  Gray  Bynums,  David 
Cooper,  Abbott  Hancock,  Wm.  Thorp,  Wm.  Cooper,  John  Cooper,  Jos. 
Cooper,  Stephen  Cooper,  Wm.  Read,  Stehen  Turley,  Thos.  McMahan,  Jas. 
Anderson,  Wm.  Anderson,  Stehen  Jackson,  John  Hancock,  Robert  Irvin, 
Francis  Cooper,  Benoni  Sappington,  Jas.  Cooley,  Nathan  Teague,  Jas. 
Douglass,  John  Sneathan,  Wm.  Cresson,  Jos.  Cooley,  Wm.  McLane,  Jas. 
Turner,  Ervin  McLane,  Wm.  Baxter,  Peter  Creason,  David  Burns,  Price 
Arnold,  John  Smith,  John  Stephenson,  Alfred  Head,  Gilliard  Roop,  Daniel 
Durbin,  Jas.  Cockyill,  Jesse  Tresner,  Mitchell  Poage,  Townsend  Brown, 
John  Arnold,  Robert  Poage,  Francis  Berry,  Lindsay  Carson,  David  Boggs, 
Jesse  Richardson,  Robert  Brown,  John  Peak,  John  Elliot,  Jos.  Beggs, 


Andrew  Carson,  John  Colley,  Reuben  Fugitt,  Seibert  Hubbard,  John  Berry, 
Wm.  Brown,  Francis  Woods,  Wm.  Allen,  Robert  Wells,  Jos.  Moody,  Jos. 
Alexander,  Amos  Barnes,  Daniel  Hubbard,  Harris  Jamison,  Abraham 
Barnes,  Wm.  Ridgeway,  Enoch  Taylor,  Matbew  Kinkead,  John  Barnes, 
Henry  Waedon,  Otto  Ashcraft,  John  Pursley,  Wm.  Monroe,  Isaac  Thorn- 
ton, Stephen  Feils,  Dan  Monroe,  Giles  Williams,  Henry  Barnes,  Wm.  Sav- 
age, Thomas  Chandler,  John  Jokley,  Stephen  Cole,  Wm.  Robertson,  Wm. 
Bolen,  Mixe  Box,  Sabert  Scott,  John  Savage,  Jas.  Cole,  Stephen  Cole,  Jr., 
John  Ferrill,  Delaney  Bolen,  Jas.  Savage,  Jos.  McMahan,  Braxton  Cooper, 
Robert  Hancock. 

Every  enlisted  man  furnished  his  own  equipment  and  an  order  was 
promulgated  so  ,that  "citizen  soldiers  may  not  be  ignorant  of  the  manner 
in  which  the  law  requires  him  to  be  equipped,  he  is  reminded  that  it  is 
his  duty  to  provide  himself  with  a  good  musket,  with  bayonet  and  belt, 
or  fusil,  two  spare  flints  and  a  knapsack  pouch,  with  a  box  thereon  to 
contain  not  less  than  24  cartridges ;  or  a  good  rifle,  knapsack,  powder- 
horn  and  pouch,  with  20  balls  and  one-quarter  of  a  pound  of  powder." 

Two  Negroes  Captured — Indians  Chased. — Two  negroes,  belonging  to 
James  and  John  Heath,  while  cutting  wood  for  making  salt,  were  captured 
by  the  Indians  in  May.  A  party  of  fully  60  men  assembled  and  on  horse- 
back pursued  these  Indians,  in  a  northerly  direction  50  or  60  miles  far  up 
the  Chariton.     However  the  Indians  escaped  with  their  prisoners. 

Rangers  Come  to  Relief  of  Settlers. — So  great  had  been  the  depreda- 
tions of  the  Indians,  so  inhuman  the  murders  committed  by  them  in  their 
predatory  war  in  the  central  portion  of  the  Boonslick  country  that  Gen. 
Henry  Dodge  was  ordered  to  take  command  of  350  mounted  rangers 
and  proceed  to  the  relief  of  the  settlers.  This -was  in  September,  1814. 
There  were  in  Dodge's  command  companies  under  Capt.  W.  Compton  of 
St.  Louis,  Capt.  Isaac  Vanbibler  of  Loutre  Island,  Captain  Daugherty  of 
Cape  Girardeau,  and  a  company  of  the  Boonslick  settlers  under  Capt. 
Benjamin  Cooper.  Nathaniel  Cooke  and  Daniel  M.  Boone  were  majors. 
In  this  campaign,  Dodge  carried  with  him  blank  commissions,  and  it  was 
at  this  time  that  he  appointed  Benjamin  Cooper,  an  elder  brother  of 
Sarshall  Cooper,  a  major.  According  to  Draper's  "Memoirs"  there  were 
with  Dodge's  company  forty  friendly  Indians,  but  John  M.  Peck  says 
there  were  50  Delawares  and  Shawnees.  They  were  under  four  Indian 
captains:  Na-kur-me,  Kisk-ka-le-wa,  Pap-pi-pua,  and  Wa-pe-pil-le-se.  The 
two  latter  were  fully  70  years  old  and  both  had  served  in  the  early  Indian 


Dodge  marched  to  the  Boonslick  country,  and  arrived  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Missouri  opposite  Arrow  Rock,  close  to  Coopers'  fort,  where 
he  was  joined  by  Captain  Cooper  and  his  company.  Dodge  and  his  men 
crossed  the  river  to  the  southern  bank  by  swimming  the  stream.  The 
crossing  was  effected  by  selecting  for  the  advance,  six  of  his  most  active 
men,  good  swimmers  on  horseback,  the  others  following  flanked  on  both 
sides  by  canoes,  and  with  a  vanguard  of  canoes  above  and  below  the  main 
body,  stemming  the  swift  current.  About  half  way  across,  the  men  struck 
the  current,  which  soon  carried  them  to  the  southern  bank  in  safety.  Only 
two  hours  were  thus  consumed  in  crossing  the  river  with  horses  and 

Having  arrived  on  the  south  side,  Dodge  sent  out  his  Indian  allies  as 
scouts.  They  soon  located  the  hostile  Mi-am-mis,  and  found  that  they 
had  thrown  up  a  small  entrenchment.  Dodge's  men  pushed  forward  sev- 
eral miles  up  the  river,  and  surrounded  the  Indians  at  a  point  in  what  is 
now  Saline  County,  since  known  as  Miami's  Bend.  The  Indians,  seeing 
that  the  whites  were  in  overwhelming  force,  proposed  to  the  Shawnees  to 
surrender  themselves  as  prisoners  of  war. 

General  Dodge  called  a  council  of  his  officers  for  the  purpose  of  seek- 
ing their  advice,  and  after  explaining  the  whole  matter  to  them,  they  all 
agreed  to  receive  the  Indians  as  prisoners  of  war,  and  agreed  that  the 
prisoners'  lives  should  be  sacredly  preserved.  The  Coopers  and  other 
Boonslick  officers  assented.  General  Dodge  then  told  all  the  officers  that 
he  would  hold  them  personally  responsible  not  only  for  their  own  conduct, 
but  also  for  that  of  their  men,  particularly  in  their  treatment  of  the  sur- 
rendered Indians. 

Dodge  understood  quite  well  his  responsibility.  He  was  well  acquainted 
with  the  disposition,  temper  and  peculiarities  of  the  western  settlers.  He 
knew  that  they  had  been  harassed,  and  those  near  and  dear  to  them 
slaughtered  in  ambush.  He  feared  that  something  might  occur  to  arouse 
their  anger  and  stir  them  to  reciprocal  vengeance,  should  any  untoward 
event  occur,  and  in  order  to  prevent  a  massacre,  he  exacted  an  explicit 
pledge  from  the  officers  of  the  several  commands. 

Dodge  and  Cooper  Controversy. — The  Indians,  consisting  of  31  war- 
riors and  122  women  and  children,  surrendered  to  him  and  were  received 
under  his  protection  as  prisoners  of  war.  The  following  morning,  Cooper 
and  other  settlers  under  his  command,  began  looking  through  the  Indian 
camp,  purposing,  if  possible,  to  find  stolen  property.  In  this  search,  the 
well  known  rifle  of  Campbell,  whose  murder,  in  the  Boonslick  region,  we 


have  previously  referred  to,  was  found.  This  discovery  greatly  infuriated 
Cooper  and  the  settlers.  They  construed  the  finding  of  the  gun  evidence 
that  these  Miamis  had  perpetrated  the  killing  of  their  friend  and  neighbor. 
They  came  galloping  up  to  General  Dodge  and  demanded  the  surrender 
of  the  Indian  who  had  killed  Campbell,  their  purpose  being  to  make  an 
example  of  him.  This  demand  General  Dodge  peremptorily  denied.  Cooper, 
feeling  outraged,  threatened  that  his  company,  who  surrounded  him  with 
cocked  rifles,  would  kill  the  Indians  unless  his  demand  was  acceeded  to, 
and  his  men  assumed  a  shooting  attitude,  Dodge,  with  commendable  cool- 
ness, without  even  turning  to  the  men,  drew  his  sword,  and  thrusting  it 
within  six  inches  of  Cooper's  breast,  reminded  him  of  his  pledge  to  protect 
the  Indians  on  their  surrender  and  treat  them  as  prisoners  of  war.  He 
then  cautioned  Captain  Cooper  that  should  his  threat  be  carried  out,  he, 
Cooper,  would  be  the  first  to  feel  the  consequences.  At  this  juncture, 
Major  Boone  rode  up,  and  took  his  position  at  Dodge's  side  and  announced 
that  he  would  stand  by  him  to  the  end.  He  also  reminded  Cooper  of  their 
pledge,  and  that  the  execution  of  his,  Cooper's,  threat  would  be  an  act  of 
treachery.  By  this  time  Cooper's  temper  had  abated,  and  he  reluctantly 
yielded  to  superior  authority,  and  with  his  company  rode  away.  Cooper 
and  his  men  took  the  position  that  Campbell  had  been  treacherously  mur- 
dered, and  that  the  perpetrator  of  the  deed  was  not  entitled  to  the  protec- 
tion afforded  prisoners  of  war,  but  should  be  summarily  dealt  with  as  a 
murdered  according  to  the  custom  of  the  west. 

It  is  said  that  by  reason  of  this  incident  a  strong  attachment  sprang 
up  between  Kish-la-lewa  and  Dodge,  and  that  long  afterwards  at  Fort 
Worth  in  1835,  there  was  an  affecting  recognition  between  the  two  men. 
Dodge  is  said  to  have  looked  upon  his  conduct  in  saving  these  prisoners 
as  one  of  the  happiest  acts  of  his  life. 

However,  for  many  years,  General  Dodge,  by  reason  of  his  magnani- 
mous conduct  on  this  occasion,  was  exceedingly  unpopular  in  the  Boons- 
lick  country.  Dodge  was  afterwards  governor  of  Wisconsin  Territory,  and 
twice  United  States  senator  from  the  state  of  Wisconsin. 

Cooper  was  a  fearless  man,  and  just,  according  to  his  standards.  He 
and  the  settlers  had  been  too  long  beyond  the  boundaries  of  civilization 
to  yield  readily  to  the  reasoning  of  Dodge  and  Boone.  They  had  been 
accustomed  to  rely  solely  upon  themselves  for  protection  and  to  adminis- 
ter justice  according  to  western  traditions,  considering  only  the  right  and 
wrong  in  every  instance.  Their  comrade  and  friend  had  been  shot  from 
ambush,  and  it  was  clear  to  their  minds  that  these  Miamias  should  pro- 


duce  the  murderers,  or  they  should  not  be  entitled  to  the  privileges  of 
prisoners  of  war. 

Letter  to  the  Governor. — When  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  the  gov- 
ernor of  the  Territory  wrote  Benjamin  Cooper  advising  him  and  the 
settlers  to  move  nearer  to  St.  Louis  to  receive  protection  against  the 
Indians,  Cooper  wrote  in  reply  the  following  characteristic  letter.  While 
its  literary  merits  are  subject  to  criticism,  yet  it  breathes  in  every  word, 
whether  correctly  or  incorrectly  spelled,  the  brave  spirit  of  the  pioneer, 
and  evidences  a  stamina  and  heroism  of  the  soul  superior  to  polite 
erudition : 

"We  have  maid  our  Hoams  here  &  all  we  hav  is  here  &  it  wud  ruen 
us  to  Leave  now.  We  be  all  good  Americans,  not  a  Tory  or  one  of  his 
Pups  among  us,  &  we  hav  2  hundred  Men  and  Boys  that  will  Fight  to  the 
last  and  have  100  Wimen  and  Girls  that  will  tak  their  places  wh.  Makes  a 
good  force.  So  we  can  Defend  this  Settlement  wh.  with  Gods  help  we  will 
do.    So  if  we  had  a  flew  barls  of  Powder  and  2  hundred  Lead  is  all  we  ask." 

David  Barton,  afterwards  United  States  senator,  was  a  volunteer  in 
Compton's  company,  refusing  any  rank,  but  offering  General  Dodge  any 
service  he  was  able  to  render  him. 

Samuel  McMahan  Ambushed. — Samuel  McMahan,  who  lived  in  what 
is  now  Lamine  township  in  Cooper  County  was  killed  on  Dec.  14,  1814, 
near  Boonville.  McMahan  had  been  down  to  the  settlement  at  Boonville. 
As  he  was  returning  home,  he  came  upon  a  band  of  Indians  who  were  lying 
in  ambush  for  some  of  the  settlers  who  were  cutting  clown  a  bee  tree  not 
far  away.  McMahan  was  on  horseback  and  unsuspectedly  rode  into  the 
midst  of  the  Indians.  The  savages  fired  upon  him,  wounding  him  and 
killing  his  h6rse.  He  jumped  when  his  horse  fell,  and  though  severely 
wounded,  succeeded  in  reaching  a  ravine  leading  to  the  river.  The  savages 
soon  overtook  and  killed  him,  sticking  three  spears  into  his  back.  They 
afterward  cut  off  his  head,  and  scattered  his  entrails  over  the  ground. 
The  Indians  then  scattered,  and,  pursuing  different  routes,  made  their  way 
out  of  the  countiy. 

The  settlers,  not  knowing  the  numbers  of  the  Indians,  since  roving 
bands  of  savages,  large  and  small,  had  so  frequently  passed  through  this 
section,  sent  for  reinforcements  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  and 
on  the  following  day  sent  out  a  party  of  men  to  secure  McMahan's  body, 
and  get  all  information  possible  of  the  Indians.  James  Cole,  the  son  of 
Hannah  Cole,  and  the  brother  of  Samuel  Cole,  secured  the  body  and 
carried   it  before  him  on   his  horse.     David  McGee  brought  the   head 


wrapped  in  a  sheepskin.  The  body  of  McMahan  was  buried  under  the 
Linn  tree,  which  formerly  stood  in  the  center  ring  at  the  old  fairground. 
The  child  of  David  Buness  who  was  burned  to  death,  was  also  buried  under 
this  tree. 

Building  of  Hannah  Cole  Fort. — The  next  day  after  the  killing  of 
McMahan,  all  the  settlers  living  near  the  present  site  of  Boonville,  assem- 
bled at  the  house  of  Hannah  Cole  which  stood  on  the  bluff  in  what  is  now- 
East  Boonville.  This  was  considered  by  the  settlers  as  the  most  suitable 
and  available  place  for  strong  defense  against  attacks  of  the  Indians.  All 
the  men  came  with  their  teams,  cut  down  trees,  dragged  logs  to  build 
the  fort  and  were  continuously  at  work  until  it  was  completed.  It  required 
them  one  week  to  finish  the  building.  During  the  time  that  they  were  at 
work,  it  was  necessary  for  them  to  keep  men  stationed  around  the  fort 
at  some  distance  to  guard  against  the  approach  of  the  enemy,  whom  they 
expected  to  appear  at  any  hour. 

As  soon  as  the  Hannah  Cole  Fort  was  completed,  the  old  fort  of 
Stephen  Cole's  situated  on  the  bluff  above  the  river,  one  mile  above  the 
new  fort,  was  abandoned.  All  the  families  gathered  into  the  new  fort, 
so.  as  to  be  a  protection  one  to  the  other. 

The  treaty  of  peace  between  England  and  the  United  States  was  signed 
at  Ghent  on  Dec.  24,  1814,  nevertheless  the  Indians,  emboldened  by  Black- 
hawk's  repulse  of  the  forces  of  Maj.  Zachriah  Taylor  on  Rock  River  al- 
though advised  that  peace  had  been  declared,  thought  themselves  able  to 
cany  on  an  independent  warfare. 

Indian  Treaty. — All  treaties  with  the  Indians  which  had  been  made 
regarding  the  cession  of  Indian  lands  prior  thereto  were  ratified  at  this 
conference.  It  was  not,  however,  until  1833  that  every  Indian  claim  to 
land  title  in  the  state  of  Missouri  was  eliminated. 

Major  Stephen  Cole  was  the  acknowledged  leader  of  the  settlers  living 
south  of  the  Missouri  River,  and  he  survived  the  war.  Having  made  every 
effort  to  protect  his  loved  ones,  and  his  neighbors,  during  the  trying  period 
of  the  War  of  1812,  when  peace  was  declared  in  1815,  the  love  of  wild 
adventure  led  him  to  become  a  pioneer  in  the  trade  with  Santa  Fe,  in 
1822.  He  was  killed  by  the  Indians  about  60  miles  southwest  of  Sante 
Fe,  on  the  Rio  Grande  River.  With  and  associated  with  him  at  the  time, 
was  Stephen  Cole,  the  son  of  Hannah  Cole.  Cole  was  also  killed  at 
that  time. 

We  have  endeavored  to  give  the  names  of  all  the  men  of  whom  we 
have  been  able  to  secure  any  record  who  were  killed  in  the  Boonslick 


country  during  the  Indian  War,  from  1812  to  1815,  together  with  a  brief 
account  of  how  they  came  to  their  death.  The  peculiar  atrocities  attend- 
ing the  killing  of  some  of  them  make  even  the  stoutest  shudder. 

During  the  war  the  Indians  stole  so  many  horses  from  the  Boonslick 
settlement,  that  for  two  or  three  years  after  the  declaration  of  peace,  they 
were  compelled  to  plow  their  corn  with  oxen,  and  even  milch  cows. 

The  reader  should  remember  that  the  Indian  was  a  savage  and  was 
intellectually  dwarfed.  In  the  eyes  of  our  forefathers,  the  Indians  had 
no  rights,  at  least  none  to  impede  the  onward  march  of  civilization.  We 
had  not  then  adopted  the  benevolent  policy  of  treating  the  Indians  as 
wards,  the  modern  colonial  policy  affected  by  our  government  in  the 
Philippines.  The  Indians  were  continually  driven  back,  giving  ground 
before  the  oncoming  white  colonists,  until  they  retreated  far  inland. 
Through  war,  liquor  and  disease,  their  numbers  have  decreased.  How- 
ever, amalgamation  and  benevolent  assimilation  have  wrought  a  wondrous 
change.  A  humane  policy  has  preserved  them  from  extinction,  and  has 
changed  once  implacable,  treacherous  and  cruel  enemies  into  loyal  friends, 
citizens  and  staunch  allies  in  the  cause  of  liberty  and  justice.  In  the 
World  War,  just  ended,  1,000  Indians  enlisted  in  the  navy.  In  the  army, 
6,500  Indians  enlisted.  They  now  hold  a  $50  Liberty  Bond  for  every  man, 
woman  and  child  of  their  race.  The  romance  of  the  American  Indian  is 
not  ended.  He  is  a  striking,  living  illustration  of  what  a  humane  policy 
will  do  to  bury  racial  hatred  in  the  land  of  the  free  and  the  home  of 
the  brave. 

Additional  Incidents  of  the  Period. — James  Davis  was  an  intimate 
companion  and  associate  of  Daniel  Boone  in  many  of  his  hunting  expedi- 
tions. On  this  occasion  to  which  we  refer,  Boone,  by  reason  of  infirmities 
of  age,  or  disability,  did  not  accompany  Davis.  It  was  in  the  winter  of 
1813.  None  but  a  hardy  and  adventurous  character  would  venture  alone 
through  the  wilderness  at  this  time.  Davis  was  intrepid  and  experienced, 
and  fearlessly  started  upon  his  expedition,  and  arrived  near  the  western 
boundaries  of  the  territory,  where  he  was  captured  by  the  Otoes  Indians. 

The  Otoes  were  said  to  be  the  most  civilized  as  well  as  the  most 
sanguinary  and  cruel  of  all  the  tribes  west  of  the  Mississippi  River.  They 
lived  in  substantial  log  houses  with  roofs  of  dirt  and  sod,  and  were  so 
fearless  and  warlike  that  no  satisfactory  treaty  was  ever  made  with  them 
until  the  latter  part  of  1828. 

After  having  captured  him,  they  stripped  him  of  everything  that  he 
possessed,  took  his  gun  and  ammunition  and  turned  him  loose  as  naked 


as  he  was  when  he  came  into  the  world.  However,  as  if  in  mockery,  they 
gave  him  an  old  English  musket  with  one  load.  They  did  not  torture  him, 
but  turned  him  loose  to  meet  his  fate.  None  but  the  most  vigorous  con- 
stitution could  have  stood  successfully  the  trial.  He  traveled  until  about 
nightfall,  and  while  seeking  shelter  in  some  place  where  he  could  protect 
himself  from  the  winter  winds,  he  saw  a  bear  taking  his  winter  sleep. 
With  the  cunning  and  caution  of  the  frontiersman,  born  of  experience,  he 
approached  the  bear,  and  placing  his  old  musket  within  a  few  inches  of 
its  head,  fired  the  charge  into  the  bear's  brains,  and  killed  it  instantly. 
Necessity  to  him  was  the  mother  of  invention.  With  the  flint  of  his  old 
musket  he  succeeded  in  skinning  the  bear.  Having  done  this,  he  fashioned 
it  as  best  he  could,  and  before  the  heat  had  left  the  hide,  he  clothed  him- 
self therewith,  placing  his  feet  and  arms  where  the  legs  of  the  bear 
had  been,  and  drawing  the  head  well  over  his  own  head  and  face,  he  lay 
down  by  the  side  of  the  bear  and  slept  through  the  night  in  the  skin  that 
he  had  appropriated. 

At  daylight,  feeling  refreshed,  he  set  out  on  his  long  journey  to  the 
settlement,  taking  enough  of  the  meat  to  last  him  through  the  toilsome 
journey.  He  had  more  than  a  hundred  miles  of  snow  and  wilderness  to 
traverse,  and  no  implement  with  which  he  could  make  a  fire,  but  his  fur 
suit  kept  him  warm,  and  raw  bear  meat  furnished  him  nutriment. 

It  took  him  several  days  to  make  the  journey,  but  finally  he  arrived 
at  the  house  of  Jonathan  Bryan  in  the  Boone  settlement  late  in  the  eve- 
ning. Davis  grasped  the  latch-string,  which  usually  was  hanging  on  the 
outside,  and  pushed  the  door  open.  Sitting  alone  by  the  fire  was  an  old 
Scotch  schoolmaster,  who  had  evidently  stopped  at  Bryan's  for  a  few 
days.  The  opening  of  the  door  attracted  the  schoolmaster's  attention,  and 
by  the  light  of  the  fire,  he  could  plainly  see  the  rough  outlines  of  this 
weird  figure,  which  to  his  excited  imagination  was  transformed  into  an 
evil  shape.  Filled  with  fear,  he  jumped  from  his  chair,  and  fled  from  the 
room,  crying,  "Devil,  devil,  devil."  However,  Jonathan  Bryan,  hearing 
the  disturbance,  rushed  into  the  room,  and  recognizing  Davis,  soon  quieted 
the  apprehensions  of  the  schoolmaster.  The  bear's  skin  had  become  so 
dry  and  hard  that  it  required  considerable  effort  to  restore  the  old  hunter 
to  human  shape. 

This  story  is  said  to  have  been  handed  down  by  tradition  by  Jonathan 
Bryan  himself.  James  Davis  was  an  eccentric  and  picturesque  character. 
He  was  the  first  man  indicted  by  grand  jury  that  assembled  in  the  Louisi- 
ana Territory  under  American  auspices  for  the  murder  of  William  Davis. 


However  as  the  evidence  showed,  it  possessed  none  of  the  elements  of 
murder,  and  Davis  was  acquitted  by  the  jury  that  tried  him. 

In  an  account  of  the  expedition  from  Pittsburg  to  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains in  the  years  1819  and  '20,  by  order  of  Hon.  J.  C.  Calhoun,  Secretary 
of  War,  and  under  the  command  of  Maj.  Stephen  H.  Dong,  compiled  by 
Edward  James,  we  take  the  following: 

"A  Mr.  Munroe  of  Franklin  related  to  the  party  that  in  1816  he  found 
on  a  branch  of  the  Lamine,  (4)  the  relics  of  the  encampment  of  a  large 
party  of  men,  whether  of  whites  or  of  Indians  he  did  not  know.  Seeing 
a  large  mound  nearby,  which  he  believed  to  be  a  cache  for  the  spoils  of 
the  party,  he  opened  it  and  found  the  body  of  a  white  officer,  apparently 
a  man  of  rank,  which  had  been  interred  with  extraordinary  care.  The 
body  was  placed  in  a  sitting  posture,  upon  an  Indian  rush  mat,  with  its 
back  resting  against  some  logs,  placed  around  it  in  the  manner  of  a  log 
house,  enclosing  a  space  of  about  three  by  five  feet,  and  about  four  feet 
high,  covered  at  top  with  a  mat  similar  to  that  beneath.  The  clothing 
was  still  in  sufficient  preservation  to  enable  him  to  distinguish  a  red  coat 
trimmed  with  gold  lace,  golden  epaulets,  a  spotted  buff  waistcoat,  furnished 
also  with  gold  lace,  and  pantaloons  of  white  nankeen.  On  the  head  was  a 
round  beaver  hat,  and  a  bamboo  walking  stick,  with  the  initials  J.  M.  C, 
engraved  upon  a  golden  head,  reclined  against  the  arm,  but  was  some- 
what decayed  where  it  came  in  contact  with  the  muscular  part  of  the  leg. 
On  raising  the  hat,  it  was  found  that  the  deceased  had  been  hastily  scalped. 
To  what  nation  he  belonged,  Mr.  Munroe  could  not  determine.  We  ob- 
served, however,  that  the  button  taken  from  the  shoulder,  had  the  word 
Philadelphia  moulded  upon  it.  The  cane  still  remains  in  the  possession 
of  the  narrator,  but  the  button  was  taken  by  another  of  the  party." 

Leven's  and  Drake,  in  their  "History  of  Cooper  County,"  written  in 
1886,  gives  the  following  interesting  incident: 

"In  the  year  1818,  Joseph  Stephens,  who  died  in  1836,  Maj.  Stephen 
Cole  and  William  Ross,  the  hatter,  started  west  on  a  hunting  and  exploring 
tour,  and  traveled  as  far  as  Knob  Noster.  At  that  time,  all  the  country 
west  of  the  present  boundary  line  of  Cooper  County,  was  a  wilderness,  no 
person  living  in  it.  About  six  miles  southeast  of  the  present  site  of 
Sedalia,  in  Pettis  County,  on  a  farm  now  owned  by  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Warren,  near  Flat  Creek,  they  discovered  what  appeared  to  be  a  large, 
high  and  peculiarly  shaped  Indian  mound.  They  examined  it  pretty  closely, 
and  found  on  one  side  that  the  wolves  had  scratched  an  opening  into  it. 
After  enlarging  it,  so  as  to  admit  them,  they  beheld  a  remarkable  sight. 


They  found  themselves  in  what  resembled  a  room,  about  eight  feet  square, 
with  a  ceiling  of  logs,  just  high  enough  to  permit' a  tall  man  to  stand  erect. 
On  the  side  opposite  where  they  had  entered,  sat  an  officer  dressed  in  full 
military  uniform,  with  gold  epaulets  upon  his  shoulders,  gold  lace  fring- 
ing every  seam  of  his  coat,  cocked  military  hat,  knee  breeches,  lace  stock- 
ings and  morocco  slippers.  As  he  sat  erect  upon  a  seat  hewed  out  of  a 
log,  nothing  but  the  ghastly  hue  and  leathery  appearance  of  his  skin 
would  have  suggested  but  that  he  was  alive.  By  his  side  stood  a  heavy 
gold-headed  cane.  His  features  were  complete,  and  his  flesh  free  from 
decay,  though  dried  to  the  consistency  of  leather.  The  place  in  which 
the  body  was  found,  was  very  peculiar.  A  place  about  eight  feet  square 
and  two  feet  deep  had  been  dug  in  the  earth.  The  sides  had  been  walled 
up  with  sod,  until  it  was  high  enough  for  the  purpose,  reaching  several 
feet  above  the  surface  of  the  ground.  The.  top  was  then  covered  with 
poles  which  ran  up  to  a  point  in  the  center  like  the  roof  of  a  house.  Then 
the  poles  and  the  surrounding  walls  were  covered  with  sod  two  or  three 
feet  deep,  cut  from  the  prairie  nearby,  thus  excluding  entirely  the  rain 
and  air.  When  they  left  the  place,  William  Ross,  being  the  eldest  man  of 
the  party,  took  the  cane  as  a  momento,  but  nothing  else  was  touched. 

"Who  this  officer  was,  from  whence  he  came,  what  he  was  doing  in 
this  part  of  the  country,  what  was  the  cause  of  his  death,  and  when  and 
by  whom  he  was  thus  singularly  entombed,  has  not,  and  perhaps  never 
will  be  known.  But  he  was  supposed,  by  many,  to  have  been  a  British 
officer,  who,  during  the  War  of  1812,  passed  around  by  way  of  Canada 
into  the  Indian  country,  to  incite  the  Indians  against  the  whites;  yet 
this  is  only  conjecture,  though  those  who  discovered  his  body,  account  for 
him  in  that  way. 

"Soon  after  this,  Joseph  Stephens,  Sr.,  now  living  near  Petersburg, 
on  the  0.  V.  &  S.  K.  Railroad,  in  company  with  James  D.  Campbell,  went 
into  that  part  of  the  country  bee  hunting,  and  visited  the  burial  place  of 
this  officer.  They  found  that  part  of  the  roof  had  fallen  in,  and  that  the 
wolves  had  eaten  all  of  the  flesh  off  the  body,  so  that  nothing  but  the 
skeleton  and  clothes  remained.  Joseph  Stephens  took  the  epaulets,  as  a 
momento,  but  nothing  else  was  disturbed.  As  his  mother  objected  to  his 
keeping  the  epaulets,  he  melted  them  into  a  large  ball,  which  was  worth 
$15  or  $20,  as  it  was  solid  gold.  This  description  of  the  burial  place,  &c, 
was  obtained  from  the  last  mentioned  Joseph  Stephens,  and  is  correct, 
although  several  different  accounts  have  been  published." 


FROM  1815  TO  1819. 




During  the  War  of  1812,  more  properly  called  the  "Second  War  with 
Great  Britain,"  there  was  some  immigration  into  the  Boonslick  country. 

When  peace  was  established  with  England,  and  the  treaty  of  peace 
was  finally  entered  into  with  the  Indians  in  1815,  a  steady  and  ever  in- 
creasing stream  of  immigration  poured  into  the  Boonslick  country,  and 
continued  in  an  unending  flow  for  many  years  thereafter. 

But  even  during  the  war  with  the  Indians,  some  hardy  and  brave 
settlers  settled  in  the  Boonslick  country,  though  few  ventured  to  locate 
except  near  enough 'to  reach  the  forts  at  the  first  approach  of  the  Indians. 

Organization  of  Counties. — When  the  territory  of  Missouri  was  estab- 
lished in  1812,  the  eastern  portion  of  the  state  was  at  once  organized  into 
counties,  and  the  territorial  law,  by  means  of  territorial  courts,  was  ex- 
tended over  them.  But  the  Boonslick  country  had  not  been  sufficiently 
settled  to  justify  its  organization,  and  the  expense  of  holding  terms  of 
court  within  its  limits. 

Now,  however,  conditions  were  different.  With  increasing  immigra- 
tion the  demand  became  strong  and  loud  for  organized  courts. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  from  1804  until  Oct.  1,  1812,  the  territory 
of  Missouri  was  divided  into  four  districts.  At  that  date,  in  accordance 
with  an  act  of  Congress,  requiring  him  so  to  do,  Governor  Clark  issued  a 
proclamation,  reorganizing  the  four  districts  into  the  five  following  coun- 
ties: St.  Charles,  St.  Louis,  St.  Genevieve,  Cape  Girardeau,  and  New  Ma- 


drid.  In  1813  the  county  of  Washington  was  created  from  a  part  of  St. 
Geneveive.  In  1814,  the  county  of  Arkansas  was  formed,  and  during  the 
winter  of  1814,  and  1815,  the  county  of  Lawrence  was  organized  from  the 
western  portion  of  New  Madrid. 

Under  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Territory  of  Missouri, 
approved  Jan.  13,  1816,  the  county  of  Howard  was  created,  being  the  ninth 
organized  county  of  the  territory,  and  was  taken  out  of  the  counties  of 
St.  Louis  and  St.  Charles.  It  included  among  other  counties  what  is  now 
Cooper  County.  Its  territory  was  more  than  one-third  of  the  present 
state  of  Missouri.  It  was  almost  an  empire,  presenting  an  area  of  nearly 
23,000  square  miles.  It  was  larger  than  Vermont,  Massachusetts,  Dela- 
ware, and  Rhode  Island.  Missouri  at  that  time  had  not  been  admitted 
into  the  sisterhood  of  states.  From  its  territory  have  since  been  organized 
the  following  counties: 

Adair,  organized  Jan.  29,  1841.  Called  after  Gen.  John  Adair,  of 
Mercer  County,  Kentucky,  who  was  elected  governor  of  that  State  in 
1820  and  died  May  19,  1840. 

Audrain,  organized  Dec.  17,  1836.  Called  for  James  S.  Audrain,  who 
was  a  representative  from  St.  Charles  in  the  Missouri  Legislature  in  1830, 
and  who  died  in  St.  Charles,  Nov.  10,  1831. 

Bates  (part),  organized  Jan.  29,  1841.  Called  for  Frederick  Bates, 
second  governor  of  the  State,  who  died  Aug.  4,  1825,  before  the  expiration 
of  his  term.  Lieutenant-Governor  W.  H.  Ashley,  having  resigned,  Abra- 
ham J.  Williams,  of  Columbia,  president  of  the  Senate,  became  Governor 
until  the  special  election  in  September,  same  year,  when  John  Miller  was 
elected.  Williams  died  Dec.  30,  1839,  and  an  old  fashioned  box-shaped 
limestone  monument  marks  his  grave  in  Columbia  Cemetery. 

Benton  (north  part),  organized  Jan.  3,  1835.  Called  for  Thomas  H. 
Benton,  United  States  Senator,  1820-1850.    Died  April  10,  1858. 

Boone,  organized  Nov.  16,  1820.  Named  for  the  old  pioneer  and  Indian 
fighter,  Daniel  Boone.    Died  in  St.  Charles  County  Sept.  26,  1820. 

Caldwell,  organized  Dec.  26,  1836.  Called  for  Capt.  Matthew  Cald- 
well, commander  of  Indian  scouts  and  a  hunter  of  Kentucky.  Joseph 
Doniphan,  father  of  Gen.  A.  W.  Doniphan,  belonged  to  his  company.  Gen- 
eral Doniphan  was  chiefly  instrumental  in  having  the  county  named  in 
honor  of  his  father's  old  comrade. 

Camden  (part) ,  first  named  Kinderhook,  after  the  home  of  Martin  Van 
Buren,  organized  Jan.  29,  1841.    On  Feb.  23,  1843,  name  changed  to  Cam- 


den,  in  honor  of  Charles  Pratt  Camden,  an  English  statesman  who  was 
a  warm  advocate  of  the  American  colonies. 

Carroll,  organized  Jan.  3,  1833.  Called  for  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carroll- 
ton,  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Died  Nov. 
14,  1832. 

Cass,  organized  Sept.  14,  1835.  First  called  Van  Buren ;  changed  to 
Cass  Feb.  19,  1849,  in  honor  of  Lewis  Cass,  United  States  Senator  from 
Michigan.    Died  June  17,  1866. 

Chariton,  organized  Nov.  16,  1820.  John  Chariton  was  the  name  of 
a  leader  of  the  French  fur-traders  who  at  an  early  day  located  on  the 
Missouri  River  at  the  mouth  of  the  creek  which  was  ever  afterwards 
called  Chariton.    Hence  the  name  of  the  creek  and  county. 

Clay,  organized  Jan.  2,  1822.  Called  for  Henry  Clay,  of  Kentucky. 
Died  June  29,  1852. 

Clinton,  organized  Jan.  15,  1833.  Called  for  Governor  DeWitt  Clinton, 
of  New  York.    Died  Feb.  11,  1828. 

Cole,  organized  Nov.  16,  1820.  Called  for  Capt.  Stephen  Cole,  an  old 
settler,  who  built  "Cole's  Fort,"  near  Boonville. 

Cooper,  organized  Dec.  17,  1818.  Called  for  Sarshel  Cooper,  who 
was  killed  by  an  Indian  in  Cooper's  Fort  opposite  Arrow  Rock  and  near 
the  present  village  of  Boonsboro,  Howard  County,  on  the  night  of  April 
14,  1814. 

Daviess,  organized  Dec.  29,  1836.  Called  for  Col.  Joe  Hamilton  Daviess, 
of  Kentucky.    Killed  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe,  Nov.  7,  1811. 

De  Kalb,  organized  Feb.  25,  1845.  Called  for  Baron  John  De  Kalb,  a 
Frenchman  of  Revolutionary  fame,  who  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Cam- 
den in  1780. 

Gentry,  organized  Feb.  12,  1841.  Called  for  Gen.  Richard  Gentry,  of 
Columbia,  who  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Okeechobee,  Fla.,  Dec.  25,  1837. 

Grundy,  organized  Jan.  2,  1843.  Called  for  Felix  Grundy,  United 
States  Senator  of  Tennessee.    Died  Dec.  19,  1840. 

Harrison,  organized  Feb.  14,  1845.  Called  for  Albert  G.  Harrison,  of 
Fulton,  Mo.,  member  of  Congress  from  1835  to  1839.    Died  Sept.  7,  1839. 

Henry,  first  named  Rives  in  honor  of  William  C.  Rives,  of  Virginia, 
organized  Dec.  13,  1834.  Changed  to  Henry  in  honor  of  Patrick  Henry, 
who  died  June  6,  1799. 

Jackson,  organized  Dec.  15,  1826.  Named  in  honor  of  Andrew  Jack- 
son.   Died  June  8,  1845. 


Johnson,  organized  Dec.  13,  1834.  Called  for  Richard  M.  Johnson,  of 
Kentucky.    Died  of  apoplexy,  Nov.  19,  1850. 

Lafayette,  first  called  Lillard  and  organized  Nov.  16,  1820,  after  James 
Lillard,  an  old  citizen.  Changed  to  Lafayette,  Feb.  16,  1825,  who  died  at 
Paris,  May  20,  1834. 

Linn,  organized  Jan.  7,  1837.  Called  for  Lewis  F.  Linn,  United  States 
Senator  from  Missouri,  1830-1843,  who  died  at  St.  Genevieve,  Oct.  3,  1843. 

Livingston,  organized  Jan.  6,  1837.  Called  for  Edward  Livingston, 
Secretary  of  State  under  President  Jackson.    Died  May  23,  1836. 

Macon,  organized  Jan.  6,  1837.  Named  in  honor  of  Nathaniel  Macon, 
of  North  Carolina,  of  the  Seventh,  Eighth,  and  Ninth  Congresses  and 
United  States  Senator  in  the  Nineteenth  and  Twentieth.  Died  June  29, 

Mercer,  organized  Feb.  14,  1845.  Called  for  John  F.  Mercer,  a  soldier 
of  the  Revolution  from  Maryland.    Died  Aug.  30,  1821. 

Miller  (north  part),  organized  Feb.  26,  1837.  Called  for  Gov.  John 
Miller,  of  Missouri ;  was  Governor  from  1825  to  1832.    Died  March  18,  1846. 

Moniteau,  organized  Feb.  14,  1845.  An  Indian  name,  and  doubtless 
a  corruption  of  Manito,  an  Indian  name  for  Deity  or  Great  Spirit. 

Monroe  (part),  organized  Jan.  6,  1831.  Called  for  James  Monroe, 
President.    Died  July  4,  1831. 

Morgan,  organized  Jan.  5,  1833.  Called  for  Gen.  Daniel  Morgan,  of 
the  Revolution,  who  displayed  great  bravery  at  the  battle  of  the  Cowpens 
in  the  defeat  of  Tarlton  and  died  in  1802. 

Pettis,  organized  Jan.  26,  1833.  Called  for  Spencer  Pettis,  member 
of  Congress  from  St.  Louis  from  1829  to  1831,  who  was  killed  in  a  duel 
by  Maj.  Thomas  Biddle,  Aug.  27,  1831,  aged  29  years. 

Putnam,  organized  Feb.  28,  1845.  Called  for  Gen.  Israel  Putnam,  of 
Bunker  Hill  fame,  1775.    Died,  1790. 

Randolph,  organized  Jan.  22,  1829.  Called  for  John  Randolph,  of 
Roanoke,  Va.    Died  May  24,  1833. 

Ray,  organized  Nov.  16,  1820.  Called  for  John  Ray,  a  member  of  the 
constitutional  convention  of  1820  from  Howard  County. 

St.  Clair  (north  part),  organized  Jan.  29,  1841.  Called  for  Gen. 
Arthur  St.  Clair,  of  the  Revolution. 

Saline,  organized  Nov.  25,  1820.    Named  because  of  its  salt  springs. 

Shelby  (part),  organized  Jan.  2,  1835.  Called  for  Gov.  Isaac  Shelby, 
of  Kentucky.    Died  July  18,  1826. 

Sullivan,  organized  Feb.  16,  1845.    Called  for  James  Sullivan,  of  Revo- 


lutionary  fame,  a  member  of  the  Continental  Congress  of  1782.  Died 
Dec.  10,  1808. 

Worth,  organized  Feb.  8,  1861.  Called  for  Gen.  William  J.  Worth, 
of  the  Florida  and  Mexican  Wars.    Died  at  San  Antonio,  Texas,  May  7,  1849. 

Also  the  following  counties  in  Iowa:  Parts  of  Taylor  and  Adams, 
Union,  Ringgold,  Clarke,  Decatur  and  Wayne,  and  probably  parts  of  Lucas, 
Monroe  and  Appanoose. 

Its  boundaries  were  established  as  follows:  Beginning  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Osage  River,  which  is  about  10  miles  below  the  city  of  Jefferson 
and  opposite  the  village  of  Barkersville  in  Callaway  county,  the  boundary 
uprsued  the  circuitous  course  of  said  stream  to  the  Osage  boundary  line, 
meaning  thereby  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  Osage  Indian  Territory,  or 
to  the  northeast  corner  of  Vernon  County,  where  the  Osage  River,  two 
miles  east  of  the  present  town  of  Shell  City,  runs  near  said  corner ;  thence 
north  (along  the  western  line  of  St.  Clair,  Henry,  Johnson  and  Lafayette 
counties),  to  the  Missouri  River,  striking  that  stream  west  of  and  very 
near  Napoleon,  thence  up  said  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kansas  River 
(where  Kansas  City  is  now  located),  thence  with  the  Indian  boundary 
line  (as  described  in.  the  proclamation  of  Gov.  William  Clark  issued  the 
9th  day  of  March,  1815),  northwardly  along  the  eastern  boundary  of  the 
"Platte  purchase"  140  miles,  or  to  a  point  about  36  miles  north  and  within 
the  present  county  of  Adams,  in  the  state  of  Iowa,  near  the  town  of 
Corning  in  said  county,  on  the  Burlington  and  Missouri  River  railroad; 
thence  eastward  with  the  said  line  to  the  main  dividing  ridge  of  high 
ground,  to  the  main  fork  of  the  river  Cedar  (which  is  the  line  between 
Boone  and  Callaway  counties  in  Missouri)  ;  thence  down  said  river  to  the 
Missouri;  thence  down  the  river  Missouri  and  in  the  middle  of  the  main 
channel  thereof,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Osage  River,  the  place  of 

Howard  County  was  reduced  to  its  present  limits  by  an  act  of  the 
Legislature  approved  Feb.  16,  1825.  The  history  of  what  is  now  Cooper 
County  is  inseparably  connected  with  that  of  Howard  County  until  the 
organization  of  Cooper  County  in  1819. 

Early  Courts. — The  act  under  which  Howard  County  was  organized 
located  the  seat  of  justice  at  Hannah  Cole's  Fort.  The  first  circuit  court 
of  Howard  County,  which  was  the  first  Court  held  in  this  section  of  the 
State,  was  held  at  the  house  of  Joseph  Jelly  in  Hannah  Cole's  Fort,  which 
was  situated  in  what  is  now  East  Boonville.  The  Court  opened  on  the 
eighth  day  of  July,  1816,  and  discharged  under  the  territorial  laws  all 


the  duties  of  the  Circuit,  County  and  Probate  Courts  of  the  present  day. 

Hon.  David  Barton  was  the  presiding  judge;  Nicholas  T.  Burkhartt, 
the  sheriff;  Gray  Bynum,  the  clerk;  and  John  G.  Heath,  circuit  attorney. 
The  attorneys  who  attended  this  term  of  court  were  Edward  Bates, 
Charles  Lucas,  Joshua  Barton,  and  Lucius  Easton.  Few  in  number,  but 
their  names  became  intimately  and  prominently  associated  with  the  fu- 
ture development  of  the  state  of  Missouri.. 

The  following  are  the  proceedings  of  this  term  of  court: — 

John  Munroe  was  appointed  coroner  of  Howard  County,  and  Benjamin 
Estil,  David  Jones,  David  Kincaid,  William  Head  and  Stephen  Cole  were 
appointed  commissioners  to  locate  the  permanent  county  seat,  which  was 
temporarily  located  by  the  territorial  legislature  at  Hannah  Cole's  Fort 
as  above  stated. 

The  following  persons  composed  the  first  grand  jury:  Stephen  Jack- 
son, foreman ;  Adam  Woods,  Sr. ;  Asaph  Hubbard,  John  Pusley,'  George 
Tompkins,  Isaac  Drake,  William  Anderson,  Samuel  Brown,  Robert  Wilde, 
Davis  Todd,  William  Brown,  Robert  Brown,  John  Snethan,  Ezekiel  Wil- 
liams, William  Monroe,  Jr.;  John  O'Banon,  James  Alexander,  Muke  Box. 

The  first  license  to  operate  and  run  a  ferry  was  issued  to  Hannah 
Cole.  The  charges  were  fixed  by  the  Court,  and  will  be  found  in  the  chap- 
ter on  "Transportation  and  Highways." 

Harper  C.  Davis  was  licensed  to  conduct  a  tavern  at  Kincaid's  Fort. 

The  first  road  laid  out  by  the  authority  of  the  Court  in  the  county 
was  a  route  from  Cole's  Fort  on  the  Missouri  River  to  intersect  the  road 
from  Potosi,  in  Washington  County,  at  the  Osage  River.  Stephen  Cole, 
James  Cole,  and  Jumphry  Gibson  were  appointed  commissioners  to  mark 
out  this  road. 

The  first  indictments  returned  by  the  grand  jury  were  United  States 
vs.  Samuel  Heirall,  and  United  States  vs.  James  Cockrell,  both  endorsed 
a  true  bill. 

At  the  first  election  held  in  the  county,  the  electors  voted  at  Head's 
Fort,  McLean's  Fort,  Fort  Cooper  and  Cole's  Fort.  The  first  civil  action 
was  styled  Davis  Todd  vs.  Joseph  Boggs.  The  following  amusing  incident 
and  example  of  retributive  justice  happened  at  this  term  of  court: 

Maj.  Stephen  Cole  was  fined,  by  Judge  Barton,  one  dollar,  for  con- 
tempt, for  misconduct  in  the  presence  of  the  court.  Cole  objected  to  pay- 
ing the  fine,  but  supposing  he  would  be  able  to  retaliate  some  time,  at  last 
paid  it.  And  his  time  for  retaliation  came  sooner  than  he  expected.  That 
afternoon,  Cole,  who  was  a  justice  of  the  peace,  organized  his  court  on  a 





log  in  front  of  the  fort.  As  Judge  Barton  was  returning  from  dinner,  he 
stopped  in  front  of  Cole  and  leaned  against  a  tree,  watching  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  justice  and  smoking  his  pipe.  Cole  looked  up,  and  assuming 
the  stern  look  of  insulted  dignity,  said,  "Judge  Barton,  I  fine  you  one 
dollar  for  contempt  of  my  court,  for  smoking  in  its  presence."  Judge 
Barton  smilingly  paid  his  fine,  and  went  to  open  his  own  court,  acknowl- 
edging that  he  had  been  beaten  at  his  own  game. 

The  following  order  established  the  rate  of  taxation  at  that  time: 

"Ordered  by  the  court  that  the  following  rates  of  taxation  for  county 
purposes  for  the  year  1816  be  established  in  the  county  of  Howard,  to-wit: 

On  each  horse,  mare,  mule  or  ass  above  3  years  old $     .25 

On  all  meat  cattle  above  3  years  old -0614 

On  each  and  every  stud-horse,  the  sum  for  which  he  stands  the 

season -0614 

On  every  negro  or  mulatto  slave  between  the  ages  of  16  and  45  —       .50 

For  each  billiard-table 25.00 

On  every  able-bodies  single  man  of  21  years  old  or  upwards  not 

being  possessed  of  property  of  the  value  of  $200 .50 

On  water,  grist-mills,  and  saw-mills,  horse-mills,  tan-yards  and  dis- 
tilleries in  actual  operation  40  cents  on  every  $100  valuation." 

Five  marriage  certificates  were  recorded  in  the  year  1816.  We  give 
verbatum  copies  of  four. 

I  do  hereby  certify,  that  on  the  27th  day  of  March  last,  I  celebrated 
the  rights  of  matrominy  between  Elijah  Creason  and  Elizabeth  Lowell, 
both  of  the  county  of  Howard  and  territory  of  Missouri. 

Given  under  my  hand,  this  12th  day  of  April,  1816. 

Territory  of  Missouri, 

Howard  County,  To-wit: 

Be  it  known,  to  whom  it  may  concern,  that  on  the  26th  day  of  April, 
1816,  by  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  vested  in  my  by  law,  a  preacher 
of  the  Gospel,  I  joined  in  the  holy  state  of  matrimony  Abraham  Barnes, 
and  Gracy  Jones,  of  the  said  territory  and  county,  as  man  and  wife,  satis- 
factory proof  having  been  given  of  the  legal  notice  as  requested  by  law 
and  parents'  consent  obtained. 

Witness  my  hand,  the  22nd  day  of  April,  1816. 

Territory  of  Missouri, 


County  of  Howard,  To-wit: 

Be  it  remembered  to  all  whom  it  may  concern,  that  on  the  10th  day 
of  May,  1816,  by  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  vested  in  me  by  law 
a  preacher  of  the  Gospel,  etc.,  I  joined  in  the  holy  state  of  matrimony 
Judiah  Osmond  and  Rosella  Busby,  of  the  said  territory  and  county,  as 
man  and  wife.    Witness  my  hand,  this  3d  day  of  July,  1816. 


I  hereby  certify,  that  on  the  second  of  June  last  passed,  I  celebrated 
the  rights  of  matrimony  between  John  Cooley  and  Elizabeth  White,  both 
of  the  county  of  Howard  and  territory  of  Missouri. 

Given  under  my  hand,  this  12th  day  of  April,  1816. 


The  first  election  held  in  Cooper  County  after  its  organization  was 
on  the  second  day  of  August,  1819.  It  was  held  to  elect  a  delegate  to 
Congress  from  the  territory  of  Missouri.  John  Scott  and  Samuel  Ham- 
mond were  the  candidates.  The  townships  which  voted  at  said  election 
were,  as  heretofore  stated,  Arrow  Rock,  Miami,  Tebo  (sometimes  in  those 
early  days  spelled  Tabeaux,  and  Tabeau),  and  Lamine.  The  latter  town- 
ship included  the  town  of  Boonville.  The  votes  cast  in  Tebo  township 
were  thrown  out  because  the  poll-book  of  said  township  did  not  state  for 
whom  the  votes  were  cast,  and  this  poll-book  was  not  put  on  file  with  the 
others;  thei'efore  the  only  votes  counted  were  those  cast  in  the  other 
three  townships.  John  Scott  received  127  votes,  and  Samuel  Hammond  21 
votes,  making  the  total  count,  138. 

We  infer,  and  on  a  reasonable  hypothesis,  that  this  was  nothing  like 
the  total  vote  of  the  county  at  that  time.  The  county  was  sparsely  settled 
and  there  was  then  no  newspaper  published  in  Cooper  County.  News  of 
the  election,  in  the  main,  had  to  be  spread  by  word  of  mouth,  and  it  is 
very  probable  that  many  of  the  voters 'did  not  know  the  day  of  the  same; 
and  again  by  reason  of  the  distance  from  their  voting  places,  failed  to 
record  their  votes. 

Robert  P.  Clark,  county  clerk,  called  to  his  aid  James  Brufee  and 
Benjamin  F.  Hickox,  two  justices  of  the  peace,  to  assist  him  in  counting 
the  votes. 

The  next  election  hold  in  the  county  was  to  select  delegates  to  the 
state  convention,  called  by  proclamation  of  the  Governor  to  frame  a  con- 


stitution  for  the  state  of  Missouri,  and  was  held  on  the  first,  second  and 
third  days  of  May,  1820.  The  following  was  the  result  in  the  county: 
Robert  P.  Clark,  William  Lillard  and  Robert  Wallace  were  elected.  The 
townships  in  which  this  election  was  held  and  the  votes  cast  were  as 
follows:  Arrow  Rock  township,  120  votes;  Lamine  township,  408  votes; 
Tableaux  township,  150  votes ;  Moreau  township,  101  votes ;  Miami  town- 
ship, 40  votes.    Total  vote  of  Cooper  County,  819. 

At  the  time  of  this  election,  Cooper  County  was  bounded  on  the  east 
and  south  by  the  Osage  River,  on  the  west  by  the  Indian  Territory,  and 
on  the  north  by  the  Missouri  River.  Lamine  township  then  included  about 
all  within  the  present  limits  of  Cooper  County,  and  some  territory  not 
now  included  in  its  limits. 

The  next  and  third  election  was  held  on  the  28th  day  of  August,  1820, 
to  elect  a  member  of  Congress,  and  State  and  county  officers.  The  follow- 
ing townships  voting  at  this  election,  and  the  votes  cast,  were  as  follows: 
Arrow  Rock  township,  57  votes;  Lamine  township,  503  votes;  Jefferson 
township,  110  votes;  Osage  township,  78  votes;  Miami  township,  28  votes; 
Moreau  township,  71  votes;  Tableaux  township,  125  votes.  The  vote  of 
Cooper  County,  972.  Thomas  Rogers,  Thomas  Smiley  and  William  Lillard 
were  elected  representatives ;  William  H.  Curtis,  sheriff ;  and  Bryant 
Saunders,  coroner. 

Immigration. — In  writing  of  the  immigration  at  this  period,  Dr.  John 
Mason  Peck  has  this  to  say:  "The  'new-comers,'  like  a  mountain  torrent, 
poured  into  the  country  faster  than  it  was  possible  to  provide  corn  for 
breadstuff's.  Some  families  came  in  the  spring  of  1815.  But  in  the  winter, 
spring,  summer  and  autumn  of  1816,  they  came  like  an  avalanche.  It 
seemed  as  though  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  were  breaking  up  and  moving 
to  the  "Far  West."  Caravan  after  caravan  passed  over  the  prairies  of 
Illinois,  crossing  the  'gi^eat  river'  at  St.  Louis,  all  bound  to  the  Boonslick. 
The  stream  of  immigration  had  not  lessened  in  1817.  Many  families  came 
from  Virginia,  the  Carolinas  and  Georgia,  and  not  a  few  from  the  Middle 
States,  while  a  sprinkling  found  their  way  to  the  extreme  West  from 
Yankeedom  and  Yorkdom.  Following  in  the  wake  of  this  exodus  to  the 
middle  section  of  Missouri  was  a  terrific  excitement  about  land." 

Land  Speculation. — This  was  a  period  of  some  wild  and  hazardous 
land  speculations ;  not  only  by  reason  of  the  large  immigration  into  the 
Boonslick  section,  or  rather  into  Howard  County,  but  because  of  the  earth- 
quake in  New  Madrid  in  the  years  1811  and  1812. 

In  1815,  Congress  passed  an  act  affording  liberal  relief  for  the  suf- 


ferers  from  the  earthquake.  The  land  owners  were  permitted  to  give 
up  their  present  holdings  and  to  locate  with  the  certificates  received  for 
their  New  Madrid  possessions  on  other  public  land.  This  opened  a  wide 
door  for  fraud,  speculation  and  litigation.  The  actual  sufferers  were  in 
nearly  every  instance  defrauded.  Before  they  had  knowledge  of  the  pass- 
ing of  the  act  of  Congress,  the  New  Madrid  country  was  filled  with 
speculators  from  St.  Louis,  who  purchased  their  property  at  a  rate  of 
from  $40  to  $60  per  claim,  a  claim  sometimes  embracing  as  much  as  640 
acres.  After  acquiring  the  rights  to  the  injured  land,  certificates  of  dis- 
location were  issued  by  the  St.  Louis  land  office  to  the  purchasers  of  these 
injured  properties.  The  owners  of  these  certificates,  of  course,  hunted 
around  for  the  most  valuable  property  and  located  their  certificates  on 
it.  The  demand  for  certificates  became  very  great,  the  more  unscrupulous 
and  dishonest  New  Madrid  settlers  would  sell  their  claims  several  times 
to  new  speculators  anxious  to  buy.  All  this  led  to  endless  litigation. 
Under  New  Madrid  certificates  so  issued  much  valuable  property  was 
located  in  the  Boonslick  country. 

Sale  of  Public  Lands. — Dec.  6,  1816,  marked  the  setting  for  the  first 
time  of  the  Jacob  Staff,  to  survey  the  public  lands  of  this  state,  prepara- 
tory to  placing  the  lands  on  the  market  for  sale  for  home-makers.  Prior 
to  that  time,  nothing  had  been  surveyed  by  legal  authority,  except  those 
lands  known  as  the  old  French  and  Spanish  claims.  The  survey,  however, 
progressed  slowly  and  intermittently,  and  it  was  not  until  Aug.  3,  1918, 
when  by  order  of  the  President's  proclamation  the  land  sale  was  held  at 
St.  Louis.  The  President  also  issued  a  proclamation  that  the  land  sales 
at  Franklin.  Howard  County,  would  begin  Sept.  7,  1818,  but  there  was 
quite  a  spirited  controversy  about  the  legality  of  offering  the  lands  for 
sale,  as  they  were  thought  yet  to  be  within  the  boundary  lines  of  the  Sac 
and  Fox  Indian  Reservation,  and  one  officer  to  conduct  the  sale  resigned. 
The  sales,  in  consequence  thereof,  were  continud  to  Nov.  2,  1818.  at  which 
day  the  land  sales  began,  Gen.  Thomas  A.  Smith  being  receiver,  and 
Charles  Carrol,  register.  The  crowd  in  attendance  upon  these  sales  was 
said  to  have  numbered  thousands  of  well-dressed  and  intelligent  men  from 
all  parts  of  the  east  and  south.  At  the  first  public  sales,  there  seems  to 
have  been  quite  a  spirit  of  competition  among  the  bidders,  but  this  was 
evidently  caused  by  those  from  a  distance,  for  the  settlers  had  a  tacit 
understanding  not  to  bid  against  each  other  for  the  land  they  wanted,  and 
in  after  years  there  seems  to  have  been  no  competition  for  the  lands  at 
public  sales. 


Preemption  Claims. — At  this  time  there  arose  the  very  interesting 
question  of  preemption  claims.  The  settlers  in  the  Franklin,  or  Howard 
land  district,  had  given  notice  to  the  officers  of  the  land  office  of  the  pre- 
emptions. So  universal  was  the  preemption  right  claimed,  that  the  settlers 
there  were  called  "preemptioners."  This  disputed  question  was  of  such 
deep  interest  and  import  to  the  settlers  and  was  so  much  discussed,  that 
it  became  the  all-absorbing  question,  to  the  exclusion  of  every  other. 

On  March  3,  1819,  Congress  passed  an  act  confirming  the  right  of 
preemption,  to  the  people  of  this  district.  It  is  said  that  many  of  the 
most  illustrious  men  of  our  state  were  among  the  preemptioners,  and  they 
in  after  years  became  potent  factors  in  the  evolution  and  progress  of 
our  great  state. 

Levens  and  Drake,  in  their  "History  of  Cooper  County,"  give  some 
amusing  interesting  incidents  of  this  period: 

"Sometime  during  the  year  1817,  William  Gibson,  now  living  a  short 
distance  east  of  the  city  of  Boonville,  was  appointed  by  the  Territorial 
Court,  constable  of  that  part  of  Howard  County  lying  south  of  the  Mis- 
souri River.  His  jurisdiction  extended  from  the  Missouri,  on  the  north, 
to  the  Osage  River  on  the  south.  Soon  after  his  appointment,  there  being 
some  trouble  down  on  the  Osage,  he  was  sent  there  with  a  warrant  for 
the  arrest  of  the  man  who  had  caused  the  trouble.  The  distance  was 
between  60  and  70  miles.  After  arresting  the  man,  he  returned  to  Boon- 
ville with  his  prisoner.  As  he  was  on  his  journey  back,  having  an  execu- 
tion against- a  man  who  lived  on  the  road,  he  stopped  at  his  house  and 
proceeded  to  levy  on  the  feather  beds,  as  nothing  in  those  days  was 
exempt  from  levy  under  execution.  But,  as  soon  as  he  made  his  purpose 
known,  four  women,  who  were  the  only  persons  at  home,  threatened  to 
give  him  a  thrashing,  so  he  was  forced  to  retire  as  fast  as  he  could,  and 
return  the  execution  unsatisfied.  To  add  to  this,  the  court  only  allowed 
him,  for  his  journey  of  140  miles,  which  occupied  four  days,  the  magni- 
ficent sum  of  25  cents.  Mr.  Gibson  thinking  the  office  not  quite  lucrative 
enough  to  justify  him  in  devoting  his  whole  time  to  its  duties,  arid  not 
wishing  to  risk  his  life  at  the  hands  of  angry  women,  quietly  sent  in  his 
resignation,  thus  establishing  the  precedent  that  officers  should  resign 
when  not  paid  a  living  wage. 

"While  Samuel  Cole  was  living  at  his  mother's  fort  in  East  Boonville, 
in  the  year  1817,  there  was  a  dance  at  William  Bartlett's  boarding  house, 
on  the  flat  near  the  ferry  landing,  at  the  mouth  of  Rupe's  Branch.  Al- 
though Samuel  wished  very  much  to  attend,  his  mother  refused  to  permit 


him,  as  his  wardrobe  at  that  time,  was  entirely  too  limited  to  permit  him 
to  associate  with  the  "elite."  He  had  no  pants,  his  sole  garment  consist- 
ing of  a  long  tow  shirt,  which  reached  entirely  to  his  heels.  But  Samuel, 
though  always,  from  his  own  statement,  an  obedient  son,  was  not  to  be 
deprived  of  so  great  a  pleasure,  by  this,  to  him,  a  very  trivial  excuse.  So 
he  determined  to  attend  that  dance,  and  then  make  the  best  arrangement 
he  could  to  meet  the  "wrath  to  come."  Not  having  any  horse,  he  bridled 
a  tame  bull,  which  was  at  the  fort,  and  thus  mounted,  rode  up  to  the  door 
of  the  house  in  which  they  were  dancing.  After  looking  in  for  some  time, 
and  by  his  strange  looking  steed  and  attire,  attracting  a  large  crowd  about 
him,  he  drove  his  bull  down  to  the  river,  and  riding  in,  he  slid  back  over 
its  haunches,  and  caught  hold  of  its  tail.  In  this  way  they  swam  down 
the  river  to  Hannah  Cole's  fort,  when  he  and  his  strange  companion  came 
out  of  the  water  and  sought  their  homes.  This  story  has  often  been  pub- 
lished, but  never  correctly,  as  all  former  accounts  represented  him  as 
swimming  the  river  to  attend  a  wedding,  but  our  version  is  correct,  as  it 
was  obtained  directly  from  Samuel  Cole  himself. 

"About  the  15th  day  of  November,  1817,  Joseph  Stephens,  with  his 
large  family  and  several  friends,  crossed  the  river  to  where  Boonville  now 
stands,  and  camped  near  the  foot  of  Main  street.  The  next  day  after 
they  crossed  Samuel  Cole,  who  was  then  a  boy  of  sixteen  years  of  age, 
appeared  at  their  camp  and  asked  Mrs.  Stephens  if  she  would  like  to  have 
some  venison.  Upon  her  replying  that  she  would,  as  she  was  nearly  out 
of  meat,  Samuel  shouldered  his  gun  and  marched  off  into  the  woods,  tell- 
ing her  to  wait  a  few  minutes  and  he  would  kill  her  some.  Samuel  Cole, 
at  that  time,  although  there  was  a  slight  snow  on  the  ground,  was  bare- 
footed and  bare-headed,  his  breeches  reached  only  to  his  knees,  the  collar 
of  his  shirt  was  open,  and  he  carried  an  old  flint  lock  rifle.  About  fifteen 
minutes  after  he  left  the  camp,  Stephens  and  his  family  heard  two  shots 
in  the  direction  in  which  he  had  gone.  Pretty  soon  Samuel  appeared,  and 
told  them  that  he  had  killed  two  deer,  that  they  must  go  out  and  bring 
them  to  the  camp,  as  he  could  not  by  himself  bring  in  even  one  of  them. 
So  they  started  out  and  found  the  two  deer  lying  on  the  side  of  the  hill 
just  north  of  the  present  residence  of  William  H.  Trigg.  After  they  had 
skinned  them  and  cut  them  up,  the  party  brought  them  to  the  camp  and 
presented  them  to  Mrs.  Stevens.  This  shows  what  little  exertion  was 
necessary  at  that  day  to  obtain  meat. 

A  few  days  afterwards,  Joseph  Stephens  moved,  with  his  family,  to 


the  farm  which  he  had  bought  about  one-quarter  of  a  mile  north  of  the 
present  site  of  Bunceton.  About  Christmas,  in  the  same  year,  Samuel 
Cole  rode  up  to  Joseph  Stephen's  camp,  and  Mrs.  Stephens  asked  him  to 
alight  and  take  dinner.  He  asked  her  whether  she  had  any  honey,  and 
she  told  him  she  had  not.  He  said  he  could  not  eat  without  honey.  And 
although  she  insisted  that  he  remain,  he  still  refused.  In  the  meantime, 
Larry  and  Joseph,  two  of  her  sons,  and  a  negro  named  Basil,  who  had 
been  cutting  wood,  came  up  to  the  camp  carrying  their  axes.  Samuel 
turned  to  them,  and  told  them  to  go  with  him  and  get  some  honey  for 
dinner.  They  at  first,  supposing  him  to  be  joking,  refused  to  go.  But  as 
he  still  insisted,  they  consented.  After  going  some  two  hundred  yards 
east  of  the  camp,  Samuel  suddenly  stopped,  and  pointing  to  a  tree,  told 
them  to  cut  it  down.  The  others  not  seeing  anything  about  the  tree  that 
would  induce  anyone  to  think  that  it  contained  honey,  yet  willing  to  accom- 
modate company,  cut  it  down,  and  it  was  found  to  be  filled  with  nice 
honey.  While  they  were  cutting  down  this  tree,  Samuel  found  another  a 
short  distance  away,  and  having  cut  down  this  one  also,  they  returned 
home  with  six  buckets  of  fine  honey,  having  taken  nothing  but  the  clear 
part.  Before  he  left,  Samuel  taught  them  the  way  in  which  he  found  the 
trees.  He  told  them,  that  if  they  would  examine  the  ground  around  the 
tree,  they  would  find  small  pieces  of  bee-bread,  and  occasionally  a  dead 
bee.  This  was  an  infallible  sign  of  a  bee  tree.  Then  afterwards,  following 
his  direction,  they  searched  and  found,  in  a  small  space,  thirteen  trees 
which  were  filled  with  honey;  and  as  they  had  no  sugar,  this  was  a  great 
help  to  them.  They  sometimes  had  as  much  as  four  hundred  pounds  of 
honey  on  hand  at  one  time." 

Early  Churches. — It  has  been  stated  with  authority,  that  on  the  8th 
day  of  April,  1812,  Mount  Pleasant  Church  was  organized  in  a  log  house, 
doubtless  at  Kincaid's  Fort,  situated  a  short  distance  from  Old  Franklin 
in  Howard  County.  In  the  year  1817,  there  came  renewed  activity  of 
church-building.  Of  the  five  churches  in  central  Missouri:  Mount  Pleasant, 
Bethel,  Concord,  Mount  Zion  and  Salem,  all  Baptist,  which  in  1818  united 
to  form  the  Mount  Pleasant  Baptist  Association,  three  had  organized  the 
previous  year. 

The  Concord  Church  was  organized  in  1817  by  Elders  William  Thorpe, 
Edward  Turner  and  David  McLain,  and  was  located  in  the  settlement  south 
of  Boonville.  In  1823,  the  church  gave  its  name  to  the  Concord  Baptist 
Association.    Elder  Luke  Williams  was  chosen  pastor,  at  the  second  meet- 


ing  of  the  church  in  1817,  and  continued  in  this  capacity  until  his  death 
six  years  later.  The  second  pastor  was  Elder  Kemp  Scott,  who  moved  to 
the  little  settlement  a  year  or  two  after  the  death  of  Elder  Williams. 

Among  the  pioneers  who  helped  to  organize  the  church  and  who  con- 
stituted its  first  membership,  were:  Luke  Williams,  Polly  Williams,  Wil- 
liam Savage,  Mary  Savage,  Delaney  Bolen,  Judith  Williams,  Absalom  Huff, 
Susanna  Savage,  Joseph  Baze,  Lydia  Turner,  Charles  Williams,  Patsey 
Bolen,  Sally  Baze  and  Elizabeth  Williams. 

Judge  Phillips,  of  imperishable  memory,  gives  the  following  vivid  de- 
scription of  the  old  Bethel  Church,  typical  of  the  church  of  the  period, 
as  he  recalled  it,  after  a  lapse  of  more  than  seventy  years: 

"Built  of  heavy,  flawless  ash  logs,  it  did,  indeed,  stand  'four  cornei'ed 
to  every  wind  that  blew.'  Measured  by  the  conception  of  its  architects  it 
was  quite  capacious,  but  in  fact  it  was  not  over  24x34  feet.  It  had  one 
door  and  two  small  windows  in  front,  one  window  in  each  end,  and  a  two 
pane  window  back  of  the  pulpit. 

"That  pulpit  when  the  door  of  ingress  and  egress  was  shut,  made  the 
preacher  look  as  if  he  were  forted  against  assault  from  without;  and  it 
might  be  aptly  termed  a  ministerial  sweat-box.  The  men  and  women 
were  entirely  separated  as  they  sat  in  church,  the  men  on  one  side  and 
the  owmen  on  the  other  side  of  the  single  aisle.  *  *  *  It  never  oc- 
curred to  the  church  committee  in  charge  that  to  enable  the  occupants 
of  the  rear  seats  to  see  the  speaker  in  front,  the  floor  should  be  con- 
structed on  a  rising  scale.  Instead  they  made  the  pews  on  an  ascending 
scale,  so  that  the  rearmost  pew  was  about  four  feet  from  the  floor,  and 
the  occupants  had  to  vault  or  climb  into  them  like  getting  into  the  upper 
berth  of  a  Pullman  sleeper  without  a  step  ladder. 

"The  pastor  of  Bethel  Church  during  the  greater  part  of  his  attend- 
ance there,  known  as  'Father  Jimmie  Barnes,'  was  recalled  by  Judge 
Philips  as  a  man  'powerful  in  exposition  and  fervid  in  delineation.'  He 
seldom  spoke  less  than  an  hour  and  it  seemed  to  me  that  the  hotter  the 
day  the  longer  the  sermon.  The  seasons  have  their  time  to  change  and 
the  leaves  their  time  to  fall,  but  Father  Barnes  never  changed  his  garb 
of  home  made  blue  jeans,  autumn,  winter,  spring  or  summer.  He  wore 
invariably  the  conventional  high,  stiff  black  stock,  over  which  timidly 
peeped  a  fringe  of  shirt  collar. 

"About  one  hundred  yards  to  the  northwest  of  the  church  was  the 
camp  ground.  I  can  see  the  log  huts,  with  bed  quilts  for  partitions  and 
straw  for  beds,  covered  with  sheets  and  quilts.     I  can  almost  catch  the 


aroma  of  roasting  beef,  chickens  and  sweet  potatoes  in  the  barbecue 
ditches.  There  was  one  figure  about  that  camp  ground  indelibly  fixed  in 
my  memory.  It  was  'Uncle  Billie  Street',  the  leader  of  revival  songs.  He 
was  a  mountain  of  flesh,  weighing,  when  in  good  singing  condition,  about 
three  hundred  pounds.  He  had  a  voice  that  out-bellowed  the  bulls  of 
Bashan,  and  when  sinners  were  to  be  called  to  the  mourner's  bench,  the 
very  air  vibrated  with  his  Olympian  verberation.  I  do  not  exaggerate  in 
saying  that  I  heard  him  one  day  from  a  pasture  three  quarters  of  a  mile 
away  singing  his  favorite  revival  song  with  the  refrain,  'When  this  world 
is  all  on  fire,  glory  Hallelujah.'  " 

One  hundred  years  ago  a  gentleman  by  the  name  of  A.  Fuller,  who 
had  been  in  the  Boonslick  country  a  few  months  wrote  to  his  chum  the 
following  descriptive  letter,  which  will  doubtless  be  read  with  interest. 

"Franklin,  Mo.,  Dec,  1819. 
Dear  Tom : 

You  need  not  scold;  I  have  had  too  much  to  do  to  write  to  you  fel- 
lows that  live  in  civilized  society.  Here  I  am,  on  the  extreme  frontier  of 
the  settlements  of  our  country,  but  would  not  exchange  places  with  you 
for  all  your  boasted  luxuries.  I  can,  within  a  mile  or  so,  kill  as  many 
prairie  chickens  as  I  choose,  and  all  other  game  of  the  season. 

The  settlers  of  the  country  moved  out  of  the  forts  last  spring,  and 
are  about  as  happy  a  set  as  you  can  find  on  the  earth  to  think  that  the 
Indians  are  to  let  them  alone  hereafter.  I  have  become  acquainted  with 
most  of  the  citizens  of  the  town.  The  Hon.  Judge  Todd  and  family  arrived 
here  last  summer,  one  of  the  most  agreeable  families  that  I  have  ever  met. 
He  is  too  liberal  and  kind  for  his  own  good;  also  Dr.  Hutchinson,  Dr. 
Lowry  and  General  Smith.  I  do  not  think  that  you  can  understand  the 
nobleness  of  such  minds,  as  it  is  only  here  in  the  extreme  west,  where  all 
have  been  accustomed  to  facing  dangers  every  day,  that  they  can  be 
appreciated.  We  have  three  stores  in  this  thriving  place,  an  old  gentle- 
man, Mr.  Gaw;  Stanley  and  Ludlow;  and  Sanganette  &  Bright,  all  doing 
fair  business.  We  had  two  arrivals  of  steamboats  during  the  summer, 
one  a  government  boat.  Western  Engineer,  on  an  exploring  expedition. 
In  place  of  a  bowsprit,  she  has  carved  a  great  serpent,  and  as  the  steam 
escaped  out  of  its  mouth,  it  runs  out  a  long  tongue,  to  the  pei-fect  con- 
sternation of  all  Indians  that  see  her.  They  say,  "White  man  bad  man, 
keep  a  great  spirit  chained  and  build  fire  under  it  to  make  it  work  a  boat." 
The  other  was  a  boat  loaded  with  government  supplies,  for  the  troops  in 
the  forts  above  here,  also  two  hundred  thousand   dollars  in  specie.     A 


large  portion  of  her  cargo  was  Monongahela  whiskey.  It  looks  like  a 
dispensation  of  Providence  that  she  should  be  sunk  soon  after  leaving. 
The  officers  and  visitors  were  desecrating  the  Sabbath  by  card  playing  and 
drinking.  She  left  here  and  ran  up  to  the  head  of  the  first  island  above 
here  when  she  struck  a  snag  and  sank  immediately,  without  the  crew 
being  able  to  save  anything  out  of  her.  There  she  lies  with  all  her  silver 
and  freight  on  her.  There  are  in  the  neighborhood  several  forts,  that 
were  used  by  the  people  during  the  Indian  difficulties.  Fort  Hempstead, 
about  three  miles  back  from  the  river;  Cooper's  Fort,  ten  miles  above 
here,  where  were  many  of  the  hairbreath  escapes  of  the  wild  west.  At 
one  time,  when  it  was  besieged  by  a  large  body  of  Indians,  and  they  needed 
to  communicate  with  the  fort  here,  not  having  men  to  spare,  a  daughter 
of  Colonel  Cooper  ventured  to  run  the  gauntlet,  and  mounting  a  fleet  horse 
dashed  through  the  Indians,  reached  the  fort  here,  got  the  assistance 
needed,  and  was  back  in  time  to  relieve  her  friends.  Is  there  one  of  your 
city  belles  who  could  accomplish  a  similar  feat?  I  guess  not.  I  tell  you, 
Tom,  there  is  an  independence  and  nobleness  in  the  bearing  of  the  young 
folks  here,  dressed  in  their  home-made  clothing, — the  ease  of  gait  and 
carriage, — that  puts  affectation  and  fine  dresses  in  the  shade.  I  am  not 
carried  away  entirely  by  the  nobleness  of  the  wild  frontier  people,  but 
there  is  a  frank  generosity  with  them  that  you  in  the  east  know  nothing 
of,  therefore  you  cannot  appreciate  it.  There  is  also  a  fort  across,  the 
river  from  here  called  Cole's  Fort,  that  had  its  share  of  trouble ;  also  one 
above  the  La  Mine  River.  One  of  them,  Mr.  McMahan,  from  there,  was 
coming  down  to  Cole's  Fort  on  business,  when  about  two  miles  above  here 
he  was  fired  upon  and  killed  by  the  Indians.  One  of  the  young  Coles  and 
one  of  the  Roups  were  cutting  a  bee-tree  in  the  woods  near  the  path,  and 
it  is  thought  the  Indians  were  crawling  upon  them,  when  Mr.  McMahan, 
passing,  was  fired  upon  and  killed.  The  men,  Cole  and  Roup,  hurried  back 
to  their  fort  for  aid,  and  went  to  see  what  mischief  the  redskins  had'  been 
doing.  Mr.  McMahan  was  shot  through  the  body.  He  ran  his  horse 
toward  the  river  for  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  when  he  fell  dead.  The 
Indians,  it  is  thought,  saw  the  two  men  running  for  the  fort  and  thought 
it  safest  to  leave,  which  they  did  without  following  the  flying  men.  I 
believe  I  could  have  set  till  this  time,  hearing  of  the  hairbreadth  escapes 
of  the  early  settlers.  They  have  laid  out  a  town  opposite  here  on  the 
river,  called  Boonville,  which  they  expect  to  eclipse  this  place,  but  the 
traders  think  Franklin  will  eclipse  any  town  out  west.  I  think  likely  it 
will  if  the  river  will  let  it  alone.     I  went  over  the  river  last  summer  to 


attend  the  first  sale  of  lots,  intending  to  purchase  some  to  build  on,  but 
they  were  run  up  to  a  fabulous  price,  away  beyond  my  reach.  There  were 
some  of  the  voters  who  appeared  to  be  affected  by  patriotism  acquired  at 
the  only  (what  was  termed)  tavern  in  the  place,  kept  by  a  hard  looking 
old  fellow  named  Reames,  who  bowed  politely  to  all  who  came  in  and  asked 
for  something  to  drink,  and  I  was  told  the  whiskey  had  actually  not  had 
time  to  cool  before  it  was  dealt  out  to  the  customers,  having  been  brought 
all  the  way  from  a  Mr.  Houxe's  where  there  is  a  horse  mill  and  distillery ; 
so  the  people  of  Boonville,  cannot  only  have  liquor,  but  can  have  their  corn 
ground  ready  for  sifting.  The  mill  and  distillery  are  about  a  mile  from 
the  town.    Adieu." 


FROM  1819  TO  1821. 


Two  years  after  the  organization  of  Howard  County  the  immigration 
began  to  flow  so  steadily  into  the  southern  part  of  the  county  that  there 
was  a  great  demand  for  the  division  of  Howard  County  and  for  the 
formation  of  another  county  south  of  the  Missouri  River.  Yielding  to 
and  in  compliance  with  this  demand  the  territorial  Legislature  on  Dec. 
17,  1818,  formed  the  new  county  of  Cooper  which  included  all  of  Howard 
County  south  of  the  Missouri  River  or,  in  other  words,  that  territory 
included  between  the  Missouri  River  and  the  Osage  River  extending  west- 
wardly  to  the  western  territorial  boundary.  This  territory  embraced 
what  are  now  eleven  whole  counties  and  five  parts  of  counties.  However, 
the  limits  of  Cooper  County  were  gradually  decreased  by  the  formation 
of  new  counties  and  in  1845  the  boundaries  of  Cooper  County  were  as  they 
are  today.  The  counties  formed  from  the  original  territory  of  Cooper 
and  when  organized  are  as  follows:  Bates  County,  Jan.  29,  1841;  Benton 
County,  Jan.  3,  1835;  Camden  County,  Jan.  29,  1841;  Cass  County,  Sept. 
14,  1835 ;  Cole  County,  Nov.  16,  1820 ;  Henry  County,  Dec.  13,  1834 ;  Jack- 
son County,  Dec.  15,  1826;  Johnson  County,  Dec.  13,  1834;  LaFayette 
County,  Nov.  16,  1820;  Miller  County,  Feb.  26,  1837;  Moniteau  County, 
Feb.  14,  1845,  being  the  last  county  organized  from  the  original  Cooper 
County;  Morgan  County,  Jan.  5,  1833;  Pettis  County,  Jan.  26,  1833;  St. 
Clair  County,  Jan.  29,  1841;  Saline  County,  Nov.  25,  1820.  leaving  the 
present  Cooper  County  with  its  present  boundaries.     Only  parts  of  the 


counties  of  Bates,  St.  Clair,  Benton,  Camden  and  Miller  were  included  in 

Although  the  act  of  the  territorial  Legislature  creating  the  county 
was  passed  and  approved  in  Dec,  1818,  it  was  not,  in  fact,  fully  organized 
as  a  county  vested  with  all  the  powers,  privileges  and  immunities  of  a 
separate  and  distinct  political  subdivision  until  March  1,  1819,  when  the 
first  Circuit  Court  was  held  in  the  county.  The  commissioners  appointed 
by  the  Legislature  to  locate  the  county  seat  were  Able  Owens,  William 
Wear,  Charles  Canole,  Luke  Williams  and  Julius  Emmons. 

First  Circuit  Court. — The  act  of  organization  provided,  that  "the 
courts  to  be  holden  in  the  said  county  of  Cooper,  shall  be  holden  at  such 
place  in  said  county  as  the  commissioners  of  said  county,  or  a  majority 
of  them,  shall  adjudge  most  convenient,  until  a  place  be  fixed  on  by  such 
commissioners,  and  a  court-house  and  jail  erected  thereon;  provided,  that 
the  first  court  for  said  county  or  Cooper  be  held  at  Boonville,"  and  in 
accordance  therewith,  the  first  court  of  the  newly  organized  county  of 
Cooper,  was  held  in  the  present  limits  of  the  city  of  Boonville,  on  the  first 
day  of  March,  1819.  It  was  held  at  the  boarding-house  of  William  Bart- 
lett,  called  the  Boonville  Tavern,  which  was  situated  on  the  flat  just  east 
of  the  mouth  of  Rupe's  branch,  and  south  of  the  Missouri  Pacific  passenger 
station.  This  court  under  the  territorial  laws  of  Missouri,  exercised  the 
present  duties  of  the  county,  probate  and  circuit  courts.  The  duties  of 
these  three  courts  continued  to  be  exercised  by  this  one  court  until  the 
year  1821,  when  the  duties  of  the  probate  and  county  courts  were  separated 
from  those  of  the  circuit  court,  and  a  new  court,  called  the  "county  court", 
was  organized. 

First  Record  of  Circuit  Court — March  Term  1819. — Be  it  remembered 
that  on  the  first  day  of  March  in  the  year  1819  at  the  house  of  William 
Bartlett  in  the  town  of  Boonville,  in  the  County  of  Cooper,  the  place 
directed  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature  of  the  Territory  of  Missouri  entitled 
"an  act  to  establishing  a  part  of  Howard  County  into  a  separate  county  by 
the  name  of  Cooper,  the  Honorable  David  Todd  produced  a  commission 
from  the  governor  of  this  territory  appointing  him  Judge  of  the  North- 
western Circuit  of  the  said  territory,  as  also  a  certificate  of  his  qualifica- 
tions which  are  in  the  words  and  figures  following,  to-wit:  Frederick 
Bates,  Secretary  of  the  Territory  of  Missouri  and  exercising  the  govern- 
ment thereof,  to  all  who  shall  see  these  presents — Greeting!  Know  ye 
that  reposing  special  trust  and  confidence  in  the  integrity,  ability  and 
diligence  of  David  Todd,  I  do  appoint  him  Judge  of  the  Court  of  the  North- 


western  Circuit,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Cooper,  Howard,  Montgom- 
ery, Lincoln  and  Pike,  and  empower  him  to  discharge  the  duties  of  the 
said  office  according  to  law:  To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  office,  with  all 
the  powers,  privileges  and  emoluments  to  the  same,  of  right  appertaining 
from  and  after  the  first  day  of  February  next.  In  testimony  whereof,  I 
have  hereunto  affixed  the  seal  of  the  said  territory.  Given  under  my  hand 
at  St.  Louis  the  first  day  of  January  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1819  and  of 
the  Independence  of  the  United  States,  the  forty-third — 

Territory  of  Missouri, 
County  of  Howard, 

Be  it  remembered  that  on  the  first  day  of  February  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  1819  personally  came  David  Todd  and  took  the  following  oath, 
to-wit:  An  oath  to  support  the  constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  an 
oath  to  discharge  the  duties  of  Judge  of  the  Court  of  the  Northwestern 
Circuit  in  Missouri  Territory  to  the  best  of  his  abilities  and  understanding 
and  without  fraud  or  partiality. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal  at  Franklin  the  day  and  year  written 

AUGUSTUS  STORES,  Justice  of  the  Peace. 

Who  then  proceeded  to  open  and  hold  a  court  for  the  said  County  of 

William  McFarland  produced  in  court  his  commission  from  the  gov- 
ernor of  this  territory  appointing  him  sheriff  of  Cooper  County  in  the 
following  words  and  figures,  viz:  Frederick  Bates,  Secretary  of  the  Tei 
tory  of  Missouri  and  exercising  the  government  thereof.  To  all  who  shall 
see  these  presents,  Greetings!  Know  ye  that  reposing  special  trust  and 
confidence  in  the  integrity,  ability  and  diligence  of  William  McFarland,  T 
do  appoint  him  sheriff  of  the  County  of  Cooper  and  to  administer  oaths  of 
office,  within  and  for-  the  said  county  and  empower  him  to  discharge  the 
duties  of  said  office  according  to  law.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  office, 
with  all  the  powers,  privileges  and  emoluments  to  the  same  of  right 
appertaining  for  two  years  from  first  day  of  February  next  unless  sooner 
removed.  In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  affixed  the  seal  of  the 
territory.  Given  under  my  hand  at  St.  Louis  the  first  day  of  January  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord,  1819  and  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States 
the  forty-third. 



as  also  certificate  of  his  qualification  in  the  words  and  figures  following, 

to-wit : 

Territory  of  Missouri, 

Northwestern  Circuit, 

To-wit : 

This  is  to  certify  that  on  this  17th  day  of  Feb.,  1819,  William  Mc- 
Farland  personally  appeared  before  me,  David  Todd,  the  judge  of  the  said 
circuit  aforesaid  including  the  County  of  Cooper,  and  took  the  oath  to 
support  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  faithfully  to  discharge 
the  duties  of  his  office  of  sheriff  of  said  County  of  Cooper,  according  to 
law.     Certified  under  my  hand  and  seal  the  date  above  named. 

Judge  of  the  Northwestern  Circuit. 

And  also  a  bond  executed  by  him  in  vacation  the  words  and  figures 
following,  to-wit :  Know  all  men  by  these  presents  that  we  William  McFar- 
land,  Robert  Wallace  and  Jacob  McFarland,  of  the  County  of  Cooper  in  the 
Territory  of  Missouri  and  held  and  firmly  bound  unto  William  Clark,  the 
governor  of  the  Territory  of  Missouri,  and  his  successors  in  office  in  the 
penal  sum  of  $5,000,  current  money  of  the  United  States,  to  which  pay- 
ment well  and  truly  to  be  made,  we  and  each  of  us  bind  ourselves  and 
our  heirs  executors  and  administrators  jointly  and  severally  firmly  by 
these  presents,  sealed  and  dated  this  17th  day  of  February  in  the  year 

The  condition  of  the  above  obligation  is  such  that  whereas  the  above 
bound,  William  McFarland  hath  been  appointed  and  commissioned  sheriff 
of  the  county  of  Cooper.  Now  the  said  William  McFarland  shall  faith- 
fu'ly  discharge  the  duties  appertaining  to  his  said  office  of  sheriff  of  the 
said  county  of  Cooper,  according  to  law  during  his  continuance  in  office, 
then  this  obligation  to  be  void  else  to  remain  in  full  force  and  virtue. 
William  McFarland,  Robert  Wallace.     Witness,  David  Todd,  J.  N.  McCart. 

March  Term,  1819. — John  S.  Brickey  produced  his  commission  from 
the  governor  of  this  territory  appointing  him  prosecuting  attorney  for  the 
Northwestern  Circuit,  in  the  words  and  figures  following,  to-wit:  "Fred- 
erick Bates,  Secretary  of  the  Territory  of  Missouri,  and  exercising  the 
government  thereof.  To  all  who  shall  see  these  presents,  Greeting.  Know 
ye  that  reposing  special  trust  and  confidence  in  the  integrity,  abilities 
and  diligence  of  John  S.  Brickey,  I  do  appoint  him  Circuit  Attorney  for 
the  Northwestern  Circuit,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Cooper,  Howard, 


Montgomery,  Lincoln  and  Pike  and  empower  him  to  discharge  the  duties 
of  said  office  according  to  law.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  office  with 
all  the  power,  privileges  and  emoluments  to  same  of  right  appertaining 
during  the  pleasure  of  the  Governor  of  the  Territory.  In  testimony 
whereof  I  have  hereunto  affixed  the  seal  of  the  Territory.  Given  under 
my  hand  at  St.  Louis  the  first  day  of  January  in  the  year  of  our  Lord 
1819  and  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States  the  43d. 


As  also  certificate  of  his  qualification  as  following,  to-wit: 

Missouri  Territory, 
Northwestern  Circuit : 

I  do  hereby  certify  that  the  within  named  John  S.  Brickey  appeared 
before  me  this  first  day  of  March,  in  the  year  1819  and  took  the  oath  to 
support  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  also  to  discharge  the 
duties  of  prosecuting  attorney  for  the  Northwestern  Circuit  of  Missouri 
Territory  according  to  law. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal  the  day  and  date  above  written. 

Judge  of  Northwestern  Circuit. 

Samuel  Peters  foreman  and  Muke  Box,  John  Savage,  James  Cham- 
bers, Britan  Williams,  John  Roberts,  Carroll  George,  John  Davis,  James 
Savage,  Clatian  Hurt,  Joseph  Smith,  William  Gibson,  Eliot  Henry,  Fred- 
erick Haux,  Thomas  Twentyman,  William  Noland  and  Delaney  Bolin  were 
sworn  a  Grand  Jury  of  inquest  for  the  body  of  this  county  and  having 
received  their  charge  retired  and  after  some  time  returned  and  having 
nothing  to  present  were  discharged. 

Ordered  that  process  issue  against  John  Cathy,  Zephmiah  Bell,  Henry 
Geiger,  George  Cathy,  Daniel  Doogan  and  James  Campbell,  to  cause  them 
to  appear  at  our  next  term  to  show  cause  if  any  they  have  or  can  say  why 
the  court  should  not  proceed  to  fine  them  for  not  attending  at  this  term 
as  Grand  Jurors  returnable  here  at  the  next  term. 

Ordered  that  court  be  adjourned  until  tomorrow  morning  at  10  o'clock. 









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Tuesday,  March  2,  1819. 
Present  the  Judge. 

Ordered  that  county  be  laid  off  into  five  townships  as  follows,  to-wit: 

Moreaa  Township:  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Saline  Creek  thence 
up  the  creek  till  the  range  line  between  ranges  15  and  16  strikes  it,  thence 
with  that  line  south  to  the  River  Osage  down  the  same  to  its  mouth  and 
up  the  Missouri  River  to  the  beginning. 

Lamine  Township:  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Saline  Creek  thence 
up  the  Missouri  River  to  the  mouth  of  Lamine  River,  thence  up  the  same 
and  its  south  fork,  to  where  the  range  line  between  ranges  21  and  22 
strikes  the  same  thence  south  with  said  line  to  Osage  River  and  down  the 
sarrte  to  range  line  between  15  and  16  ranges  will  strike  it,  thence  north 
with  the  line  to  the  Saline  Creek  and  down  to  its  mouth,  the  place  of 

Arrow  Rock  Township:  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Lamine 
River  up  the  Missouri  to  where  the  range  line  between  ranges  20  and  21 
strikes  the  river,  thence  with  said  line  south  to  the  south  fork  of  Lamine 
River  and  down  said  river  to  its  mouth,  the  place  of  beginning. 

Miami  Township:  All  that  part  of  Cooper  County,  bounded  on  the 
north  by  Missouri  River,  on  the  east  by  range  line  between  ranges  20  and 
21,  on  the  west  by  the  range  line,  between  ranges  24  and  25,  and  south  by 
the  Osage  River  and  county  line. 

Tebo  Township:  All  Cooper  County  bounded  north  by  the  River 
Missouri,  east  by  range  line  between  ranges  24  and  25,  west  by  county  and 
territorial  line,  and  south  by  Osage  River  and  county  line. 

First  Judge  of  Election  in  Cooper. — Ordered  that  William  Weir,  John 
Vertain  and  John  Alexander  be  appointed  judges  of  the  election  in  Moreau 
Township  and  that  said  elections  be  held  at  Paul  Whitneys  in  said  town- 

Ordered  that  James  Bruffey,  Robert  Wallace  and  Benjamin  F.  Hicock 
be  appointed  judges  of  election  in  Lamine  Township  and  that  said  election 
be  held  at  the  house  of  William  Bartlett  in  said  township. 

Ordered  that  William  Lillard,  Benjamin  Chambers  and  James  Ander- 
son be  appointed  judges  of  election  in  Arrow  Rock  Township  and  that  said 
election  be  held  at  the  house  of  William  Cooper  in  said  township. 

Ordered  that  Col.  Jno.  R.  Thomas,  Paul  Eastes  and  John  Evans  be 
appointed  judges  of  election  in  the  township  of  Miami,  and  that  such 
election  be  held  at  the  house  of  Andrew  Rupels  in  the  said  township. 


Ordered  that  Julius  Emmans,  Gilliad  Rupe  and  Abel  Owens  be  ap- 
pointed judges  of  election  in  the  Tebo  Township  and  that  such  elections 
be  held  at  the  house  of  Mathew  Coxe  in  the  said  township. 

First  Constable  Appointed. — This  court  appoints  Paul  Whitley 
constable  in  the  Moreau  Township  upon  his  entering  into  bond  and 
security  in  the  clerks  office  in  the  penalty  of  $500  conditioned  according 
to  law. 

This  court  apoints  John  Potter  constable  in  Lamine  Township  upon 
his  entering  into  bond  with  security  in  the  clerk's  office  in  the  penalty  of 
$1,000  conditioned  according  to  law. 

This  court  appoints  Jacob  Ish  constable  in  Arrow  Rock  Township  upon 
his  entering  into  bond  with  security  in  the  clerk's  office  in  the  penalty 
of  $800,  conditioned  according  to  law. 

This  court  appoints  Elisha  Eva  constable  in  Miami  Township  upon  his 
entering  into  bond  with  security  in  the  penalty  of  $400,  conditioned  as 
the  law  directs. 

This  court  appoints  Green  McCofferty  constable  in  Tebo  Township 
upon  his  entering  into  bond  with  security  in  the  clerk's  office  in  the  penalty 
of  $500  conditioned  as  the  law  directs. 

On  the  motion  of  Stephen  Turley  a  license  is  granted  him  to  keep  a 
public  ferry  across  Lamine  River  from  the  north  side  thereof,  in  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  10  in  range  18  and  township  48,  to  the  south 
side  of  the  river  and  it  ordered  that  he  charge  and  receive  only  the  follow- 
ing rates  for  transportation,  to-wit :  For  man  and  horse,  25c ;  for  each 
of  either,  121/oc  for  wagons  and  teams  of  four  horses,  if  loaded,  $1.00;  for 
wagon  and  team  if  empty  with  four  horses,  75c;  for  each  2  wheel  carriage 
with  horse,  50c ;  for  horned  cattle,  3c  one  head ;  for  meat  cattle,  2c  per 
head,  and  it  is  further  ordered  that  he  pay  a  tax  therefor  of  five  dollars 
who  together  with  Henry  Terrell  his  security  entered  into  and  acknowl- 
edges bond  in  the  penalty  of  $400,  conditioned  according  to  law. 

On  the  motion  of  Bazadeel  W.  Leving,  a  license  is  granted  Bazadeel 
W.  Leving,  Ward  and  Parker  and  Georgia  Karr  to  keep  a  ferry  from  the 
south  bank  of  the  Missouri  River  in  section  numbered  33  of  township 
numbered  49  of  range  numbered  15  west — to  the  opposite  bank  of  the 
said  river  and  it  is  ordered  that  he  pay  therefor  a  tax  of  five  dollars  and 
charge  and  receive  only  the  following  rates  for  transportation,  to-wit: 
For  man  and  horse,  50c;  for  either,  25c;  for  four  wheeled  loaded  wagon 
and  team  of  four  horses  or  more,  $3.00 ;  if  unloaded,  $3.00 ;  for  2  wheeled 


carriage  and  load,  $1.00;  for  homed  cattle,  4c  per  head;  for  meat  cattle, 
3c  per  head — who  together  with  Andrew  Reaves  their  security  entered 
into  and  acknowledged  bond  in  the  penalty  of  $500,  conditioned  as  the  law 

On  the  motion  of  William  McFarland,  high  sheriff  of  this  county, 
ordered  that  Williamson  H.  Curtis  be  appointed  under  sheriff  for  this 
county,  who  took  the  oath  as  required  by  law  for  an  under  sheriff. 

On  the  motion  of  Bazadeel  W.  Leving  who  presented  a  partition  for 
the  same  therefore'  ordered  that  Richard  Stanford,  David  Troller,  William 
George  and  Benjamin  Clark  or  any  three  of  whom  being  first  sworn  do 
proceed  to  view  and  mark  out  a  way  for  a  road  proposed  to  be  opened 
from  the  town  of  Boonville  to  the  bank  of  the  Missouri  River  opposite  the 
mouth  of  Moniteau  Creek  which  enters  into  said  Missouri  River  on  the 
north  side  and  make  report  to  this  court  as  the  law  directs. 

Bird  Lockhart  and  George  Tompkins  who  were  appointed  to  examine 
the  qualifications  of  the  applicants  for  the  office  of  surveyor,  for  the 
County  of  Cooper  made  their  report,  therefore  this  court  doth  nominate 
to  the  governor  of  this  territory,  William  Ross  as  a  fit  and  proper  person 
to  discharge  the  duties  of  the  said  office  to  be  commissioned  according  to 

On  the  motion  of  Andrew  Reaves  who  filed  a  petition  therefor,  ordered 
that  Francis  Travis,  William  Lewis  and  John  Savage  or  any  three  of  whom 
being  first  sworn  do  proceed  to  view  and  mark  a  way  for  a  road  beginning 
on  the  Missouri  River,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  grand  Moniteau  from 
thence  in  the  most  direct  way  towards  Potosi  so  as  to  intersect  the  pro- 
posed road  from  Boonville  to  Potosi,  near  where  it  crosses  little  Moniteau 
Creek,  and  make  report  as  the  law  directs  to  the  court. 

John  Potter  with  Ada  Morgan  and  William  Ross  his  securities  entered 
into  and  acknowledged  bond  as  constable  in  Lamine  Township  in  the 
penalty  of  $1,000  conditioned  according  to  law  and  also  made  law  as 
directed  by  law. 

This  court  appointed  James  Bruffer,  Benjamin  F.  Hicock  and  Robert 
Wallace  commissioners  to  superintend  the  building  of  a  court  house  and 
jail  for  this  county  and  to  perform  all  other  duties  as  required  by  the  act 
establishing  Cooper  County. 

On  the  motion  of  Peyton  Thomas  who  filed  a  petition,  therefor — 
Ordered  that  William  Savage,  David  Reaves,  Frederick  Haux  and  Halbert 
Cole  or  any  three  of  whom  being  first  sworn  do  proceed  to  view  and  mark 


out  a  way  for  a  road  from  Boonville  to  Turley  ferry  on  Lamine  River  and 
reoprt  the  same  to  this  court  as  the  law  directs. 

Ordered  that  court  be  adjourned  until  court  in  course. 


July  Term,  1819. — At  a  court  held  within  and  for  the  county  of 
Cooper,  at  the  house  of  William  Bartlett  in  the  town  of  Boonville  on  Mon- 
day, the  fifth  day  of  July,  in  the  year  1819.  Present,  the  Honorable 
David  Todd,  Esq. 

Robert  P.  Clark  produced  in  court  a  commission  from  the  governor 
of  this  territory  appointing  him  clerk  of  the  Circuit  Court  for  the  County 
of  Cooper. 

Peyton  R.  Hayden,  Esq.,  produced  in  court  a  license  and  certificate 
of  qualification  as  an  attorney  and  counselor  at  law  in  this  territory  which 
was  examined  by  the  court.  He  is  therefore  allowed  to  practice  as  such 
in  this  court. 

James  Bruffer,  foreman ;  Peter  Stephens,  Henry  Small,  Mansfield  Hat- 
field, Stephen  Tate,  Joseph  Biler,  Benjamin  F.  Heckcose,  James  Turner. 
Joshua  W.  Butcher,  Spear  Fort,  William  Savage,  Humphrey  Gibson, 
Edward  Robison,  John  Brock,  Ephraim  Elison,  John  Ross. 

David  Burris,  Joseph  Westbrook  and  James  D.  Campbell  were  sworn 
a  grand  jury  of  inquest  for  the  body  of  this  county  and  having  received 
their  charge  retired  and  after  some  time  returned  an  indictment  against 
Stanley  G.  Morgan  for  assault  and  battery,  a  true  bill  and  having  more 
business  to  consider  of,  retired. 

United  States,  plaintiff  vs.  John  Cathey,  defendant,  for  contempt. 
This  day  came  as  well  the  prosecuting  attorney  as  the  defendant  in  his 
proper  person  and  after  hearing  the  defense  of  the  defendant  it  is  con- 
sidered that  he  pay  the  cost  herein  expended,  therefore  it  is  considered 
that  the  United  States  recover  against  the  said  defendant  the  cost  herein 
expended  and  defendant  may  be  taken,  etc. 

Same,  plaintiff  vs.  Henry  Geyer,  defendant,  for  contempt.  This  day 
came  as  well  the  prosecuting  attorney  as  the  defendant  in  his  proper 
person  and  after  hearing  the  defendant  it  is  considered  by  the  court  that 
he  make  his  fine  to  the  United  States  by  the  payment  of  one  dollar  and 
the  cost  hereof  and  may  be  taken,  etc. 

United  States,  plaintiff  vs.  George  Cathey,  defendant,  for  contempt. 

This  day  came  as  well  the  prosecuting  attorney  as  the  defendant  in 
his  proper  person  and  after  hearing  the  defendant  it  is  considered  by  the 
court  that  he  pay  the  cost  hereof  and  may  be  taken,  etc. 


United  States,  plaintiff  vs.  Zephimah  Bell,  defendant,  for  contempt. 
This  day  came  as  well  the  circuit  attorney  who  prosecutes  for  the  United 
States  as  the  defendant  in  his  proper  person  and  after  hearing  the  defend- 
ant it  is  considered  by  the  court  that  the  said  defendant  make  his  fine  to 
the  United  States  by  the  payment  of  one  dollar  and  pay  the  cost  herein 
expended  and  may  be  taken,  etc. 

First  Letters  of  Administration. — On  the  motion  of  Joseph  Irwin, 
letters  of  administration  is  granted  him  on  the  estate  of  Joseph  Irwin, 
deceased,  who  made  oath  and  together  with  David  James  and  William 
McFarlin  his  securities  entered  into  and  acknowledged  bond  in  the  penalty 
of  $4,000  conditioned  as  the  law  directs. 

On  the  motion  of  Joseph  Irwin,  administrator  of  the  estate  of  Joseph 
Irwin,  deceased,  ordered  that  Littleberry  Estes,  John  Evans  and  Anthony 
Thomas,  who  being  first  sworn  do  inventory  and  appraise  the  personal 
estate  and  slaves  (if  any)  of  the  estate  of  Joseph  Irwin,  deceased  and 
make  return  thereof  to  this  court  as  the  law  directs. 

First  Case  Tried  Before  a  Jury. — United  States,  plaintiff  vs.  Stanley 
G.  Morgan,  defendant,  case.  This  day  came  as  well  the  defendant  in 
discharge  of  his  recognizance  as  the  prosecuting  attorney,  whereupon  the 
said  defendant  being  arraigned  upon  the  indictment  in  this  cause  plead 
not  guilty  and  for  his  trial  put  himself  upon  God,  and  his  country,  and 
circuit  attorney  also,  whereupon  came  a  jury,  viz:  William  Burk,  William 
Black,  Gabriel  Titsworth,  William  Dillard,  Michael  Hornbeck,  Nicholas 
Houck,  William  Reed,  Alexander  Dickson,  David  Reavis,  Frederick  Houk, 
David  McGee,  and  Samuel  Peters,  who  being  elected,  tried  and  sworn  the 
truth  to  say,  of  and  upon  the  issue  joined  upon  their  oaths  do  say  that  the 
defendant  is  guilty  of  the  assault  and  battery  whereupon  it  is  considered 
by  the  court  that  the  said  defendant  make  his  fine  to  the  United  States 
by  the  payment  of  the  sum  of  five  dollars  and  pay  the  cost  hereof  and  be 
taken,  etc. 

Proceedings  to  Divide  Property  on  Which  BoonviHe  is  Now  Located. — 
Ada  Morgan,  plaintiff  vs.  Mary  Gillman  and  the  representative  of  Charles 
Lucas,  defendant.  Petition  for  division  of  land.  The  commissioners  ap- 
pointed by  an  order  of  the  Howard  Circuit  Court  on  the  petition  of  Ada 
Morgan,  to  divide  the  land  held  jointly  between  said  parties  above  named 
returned  this  day  a  report  of  having  in  part  executed  said  order,  and  a 
majority  of  said  commissioners,  to- wit:  Gray  Bynum  and  Augustus 
Storis  appeared  in  court  and  acknowledged  the  said  report  to  have  been 
signed  and  executed  by  them  which  being  examined  was  approved  of  by 


the  court  and  together  with  the  plat  of  the  town  of  Boonville  the  lots  of 
which  were  divided  and  which  plat  was  returned  by  them  as  a  part  of  their 
report  is  ordered  to  be  recorded. 

William  Ross  produced  in  court  a  commission  from  the  governor  of 
this  territory  bearing  date  the  28th  day  of  April  1819,  appointing  him 
surveyor  of  the  county  of  Cooper,  who  made  oath  as  the  law  directs,  and 
who  together  with  William  Gibson  and  Stephen  Cole  his  securities  entered 
into  and  acknowledged  bond  in  penalty  of  $2,000  conditioned  according 
to  law. 

At  the  July  term,  1819,  the  Grand  Jury  shows  activity.  The  offenses 
were  trivial.  The  early  settlers  were  gradually  learning  obedience  to 
written  statutes. 

The  Grand  Jury  impanelled  and  sworn  this  court  returned  again  into 
court,  presented  an  indictment  against  John  H.  Moore  and  Churchwell 
Box.  Stephen  Cole,  Jr.,  Stephen  Cole,  Sr.,  and  John  Roberts  "a  true  bill" 
and  then  they  retired  and  after  some  time  returned  an  indictment  against 
Stanley  G.  Morgan  "a  true  bill"  also  an  indictment  against  William  War- 
den "a  true  bill",  also  an  indictment  against  Jesse  Mann,  "a  true  bill"  also 
an  indictment  against  Isaac  Renfro  "a  true  bill"  also  an  indictment  against 
William  Bryant,  "a  true  bill",  also  an  indictment  against  Williamson  H. 
Curtis,  "a  true  bill"  also  an  indictment  vs.  Samuel  Potter,  "a  true  bill" 
and  having  nothing  further  to  present,  were  discharged. 

Further  reproductions  of  the  records  of  the  court  would  doubtless  be 
wearisome  to  the  reader.  There  were  a  number  of  petitions  for  roads 
presented  and  as  one  would  judge  from  the  licenses  issued  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  ferries  across  the  Missouri  River  and  other  streams  it  would 
verify  the  fact  that  immigration  south  of  the  Missouri  River  was  increas- 
ing from  day  to  day. 

That  the  settlers  were  beginning  to  feel  the  force  and  effect  of  written 
statutes  and  courts  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  at  the  March  term,  1820, 
the  following  men  were  indicted  by  the  Grand  Jury  for  swearing:  Jesse 
Mann,  Isaac  Renfro,  William  Warden,  William  Bryant,  Thomas  Brown, 
Stephen  Tate,  John  S.  Moreland,  David  Fine.  This  action,  however, 
seemed  to  be  more  to  caution  than  to  punish.  These  indictments  were 
afterwards  dismissed  by  the  court  for  want  of  jurisdiction. 

Up  to  Jan.  23,  1821,  the  following  attorneys  were  enrolled  and  prac- 
ticing in  this  coui't:  Peyton  R.  Hayden,  being  the  first  enrolled;  George 
Tompkins,  John  S.  Brickey,  Cyrus  Edwards,  John  S.  Mitchell,  Hamilton  R. 
Gamble,    Andrew   McGirk,    Robert    McGavock,    Abiel    Leonard,    John    F. 


Ryland,  Arinstedd  A.  Grundy,  Dabney  Carr,  William  J.  Redd  and  John 
Payne.  Among  these  we  find  the  names  of  many  who  afterwards  occu- 
pied offices  of  trust  in  the  state  of  Missouri.  Indeed,  all  of  them  are  noted 
as  being  fine  lawyers  and  honorable  men. 

The  records  of  the  court  show  that  during  the  year  1819,  there  were 
but  four  peddlers  and  six  merchants  within  the  limits  of  Cooper  County, 
and  that  the  total  amount  of  revenue  on  the  tax-book  for  1819,  as  charged 
to  William  Curtis,  sheriff,  at  the  July  term  of  this  court,  1819,  was  $488.34. 

All  these  terms  of  court  were  held  at  William  Bartlett's  boarding 
house  called  the  Tavern  of  Boonville.  This  was  but  a  crude  log  cabin 
but  answered  well  the  purpose  of  those  early  days.  During  the  year  1819 
there  were  but  seven  marriage  certificates  recorded.  We  herewith  give 
some  of  the  (jrst  marriages.  On  the  11th  day  of  February,  1819,  John 
Turner  and  Nancy  Campbell  were  united  in  marriage  by  Benjamin  Proc- 
ter, a  minister  of  the  gospel.  On  the  3d  day  of  May,  1819,  Peyton  Newlin, 
M.  G.,  joined  together  in  the  bonds  of  matrimony,  John  Smith  and  Sally 
McMahan.  William  Weir,  on  the  28th  day  of  June,  1819,  solemnized  the 
nuptials  of  Jeremiah  Meadows  and  Anne  Music.  The  same  William  Weir, 
Justice  of  Peace,  on  the  8th  day  of  July,  1819,  performed  the  ceremony 
uniting  Henry  Cowin  and  Honor  Howard.  On  the  6th  day  of  May,  1819, 
Benjamin  F.  Hickcox,  Justice  of  Peace,  performed  the  marriage  ceremony 
between  John  Green  and  Nancy  Boyd.  On  the  12th  day  of  Sept.,  1819, 
James  Bruffee,  J.  P.,  joined  together  in  the  holy  state  of  matrimony, 
Charles  Force  and  Betsy  Connor.  On  the  13th  day  of  April,  1820,  David 
Coulter  and  Eliza  Stone  were  united  in  marriage  by  William  Weir,  J.  P., 
and  on  the  17th  day  of  July,  1820,  Finis  Ewing,  M.  G.,  who  was  the  father 
of  Cumberland  Presbyterianism,  performed  the  marriage  ceremony 
between  Larkin  Dewitt  and  Hannah  Ewing. 

Beginning  in  1817  the  settlers  of  the  territory  of  Missouri  were 
clamoring  steadily  and  strenuously  for  statehood.  In  Jan.,  1818,  a 
memorial  was  presented  to  Congress  by  the  Hon.  John  Scott,  the  delegate 
from  the  territory.  In  this  memorial  the  petitioners  gave  potent  reasons 
why  the  new  state  should  be  organized.  Other  petitions  were  sent  up 
from  various  sections  of  the  state  and  many  of  the  settlers  of  Cooper 
County  were  signers  of  the  petitions,  and  active  in  the  movement  to  have 
the  territory  admitted  as  a  state.  All  these  petitions  §have  been  lost 
except  one.  A  few  years  ago  Representative  Bartholt,  of  St.  Louis,  acci- 
dentally discovered  one  of  these  petitions,  said  to  be  the  only  one  in  exist- 
ence, in  the  capitol,  at  Washington,  and  had  it  sent  to  the  M.  S.  S.  Division 


of  the  Library  of  Congress  where  it  has  been  framed  and  is  thus  perm- 
anently preserved.  In  Dec,  1818,  the  territorial  Legislature  of  Missouri 
took  up  this  subject  and  also  adopted  a  memorial  praying  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  state  government,  supplementing  the  original  petition.  This 
agitation  at  this  time  marks  the  beginning  of  the  great  contest  between 
the  advocates  of  slavery  and  those  who  opposed  that  institution.  The 
controversy  in  Congress  was  bitter  and  the  admission  of  the  territory 
into  the  union  as  a  state  was  delayed  by  reason  of  slavery  restrictions 
sought  to  be  placed  upon  the  admission  of  the  Missouri  territory  as  a  state 
into  the  union.  The  admission  of  the  territory  into  the  union  as  a  state 
thus  became  a  national  question,  eliciting  the  deepest  interests  and 
energies  of  the  greatest  intellects  of  our  nation.  The  anti-slavery  move- 
ment was  strong,  especially  in  the  east.  So  vital  had  beconfe  this  ques- 
tion which  was  involved  in  the  formation  of  the  new  state  of  Missouri  that 
Thomas  Jefferson,  erudite,  scholarly  and  a  deep  student  of  governmental 
affairs,  expressed  the  fear  that  it  would  eventually  disrupt  the  Union. 
Cooper  County  at  this  time  was  a  slave  holding  county  and  its  citizens 
largely  from  the  southern  states,  were  deeply  interested  in  the  terms  upon 
which  the  state  would  be  formed.  However,  a  bill  was  passed  by  the 
House  and  Senate  generally  known  as  the  "Missouri  Compromise"  author- 
izing the  people  of  the  Missouri  territory  to  form  a  constitution  and  state 
government  and  for  the  admission  of  such  state  into  the  Union  on  an  equal 
footing  with  the  original  states  and  limiting  slavery  in  other  territory. 
This  act  was  approved  the  6th  day  of  March,  1820.  The  state  of  Missouri 
had  at  this  time  been  organized  into  15  counties.  An  election  was  held 
on  the  first  Monday  and  two  succeeding  days  of  May,  1820,  to  choose 
representatives  to  a  state  convention  which  was  to  meet  at  the  seat  of 
government  (then  St.  Louis),  on  Monday,  June  12th  of  the  same  year. 
Cooper  County  sent,  as  its  representatives,  Robert  P.  Clark,  Robert  Wal- 
lace and  William  Lillard. 

Forty-one  representatives  met  at  the  designated  time  in  St.  Louis 
at  the  Mansion  House  on  the  corner  of  Vine  and  Third  streets  and  con- 
cluded their  labors  by  signing  the  constitution  that  was  framed  on  the 
19th  day  of  July.  David  Barton  was  the  president  of  the  convention. 
Barton  was  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  remarkable  men  that  Missouri  has 
ever  produced.  On  the  admission  of  the  state  into  the  union,  he  was 
unanimously  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate  and  it  was  through  his 
influence  that  Benton,  at  the  same  session  of  the  legislature,  was  elected 
to  the  Senate  as  his  associate.     He  served  in  the  United  States  Senate 


from  1821  to  1831,  was  afterwards  elected  to  the  State  Senate  while  a 
citizen  of  Cooper  County,  and  finally  ended  his  brilliant  career  by  depart- 
ing this  life,  demented,  at  the  house  of  William  Gibson,  one  mile  from 
Boonville.  His  remains  are  interred  in  Walnut  Grove  cemetery  at  Boon- 

It  would  be  going  too  far  afield  for  us  to  go  farther  into  the  history 
of  the  admission  of  our  state  into  the  Union.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  on  the 
26th  day  of  July,  1821,  the  territorial  Legislature  of  Missouri  in  special 
session  adopted  a  solemn  public  act  declaring  assent  of  the  state  to  the 
fundamental  condition  of  admission  and  forthwith  transmitted  to  the 
president  a  copy  of  same.  On  Aug.  10,  1821,  President  Monroe  proclaimed 
the  admission  of  Missouri  into  the  Union  to  be  complete  and  the  state 
took  its  rank  as  the  24th  of  the  American  Republics. 


FROM  1821  TO  1834. 


The  territory  of  Cooper  County  was  considerably  decreased  in  size 
in  Nov.,  1820,  by  the  formation  of  the  counties  of  Saline,  Lafayette  and 

The  first  county  court  held  in  the  county  was  on  the  8th  day  of  Jan., 
1821,  and  its  first  session  was  held  at  the  house  of  Robert  P.  Clark,  on 
High  street,  in  the  city  of  Boonville.  This  court  then  exercised  the  powers 
and  performed  the  duties  of  the  present  county  and  probate  courts.  Here- 
tofore these  duties  had  been  performed  by  the  Circuit  Court. 

The  County  Court  continued  to  perform  the  duties  of  both  County 
and  Probate  Court  until  the  year  1827,  when  by  act  of  the  Legislature,  the 
Probate  Court  was  separated  from  the  County  Court,  and  invested  with 
separate  powers  and  prerogatives  and  was  required  to  perform  certain 
duties,  and  so  continues  separate  till  the  present  time. 

James  McNair,  the  governor  of  the  Territory  of  Missouri,  appointed 
as  the  justice  of  the  County  Court,  James  Bruffee,  James  Miller  and  Archi- 
bald Kavanaugh.  Robert  P.  Clark  was  appointed  by  the  court  as  its 
clerk,  and  William  Curtiss  as  sheriff. 

On  the  9th  day  of  April,  1821,  Robert  P.  Clark  produced  his  commis- 
sion from  the  governor,  as  clerk  of  the  County  Court,  "during  life  or  good 

After  Missouri  entered  into  the  sisterhood  of  states,  and  these 
officers  became  elected,  it  would  seem  that  the  people  confirmed  the  judg- 
ment of  Governor  McNair,  for  they  kept  Clark  in  office  during  life  and 
determined  that  his  behavior  was  good. 


George  Crawford  was  appointed  assessor  and  Andrew  Briscoe  col- 
lector of  Cooper  county.  On  the  same  day  the  will  of  Thomas  McMahan, 
deceased,  was  probated,  this  being  the  first  will  proved  before  this  court. 
Also  constables  were  appointed  for  the  different  townships  of  the  county 
as  follows:  Boonville  township,  John  Potter;  Lamine  township,  Bryant 
T.  Nolan ;  Moniteau  township,  Martin  Jennings ;  Clear  Creek  township, 
James  C.  Berry. 

George  C.  Harte  was  appointed  commissioner  to  run  a  dividing  line 
between  Cooper  and  Cole  Counties. 

When  Messrs.  Morgan  and  Lucas  laid  out  the  town  of  Boonville,  they 
donated  fifty  acres  to  the  county  on  condition  that  the  commissioners 
selected  to  locate  the  county  seat  would  locate  the  same  at  Boonville.  The 
commissioners,  named  in  the  preceding  chapter,  located  the  county  seat 
at  Boonville,  deeming  it  the  best  place  to  hold  the  courts.  A  part  of  the 
land  donated  by  Morgan  and  Lucas  was  sold  by  the  county,  and  the  County 
Court  thereupon  commenced  the  building  of  a  court  house,  which  was 
located  on  the  land  donated  to  the  county.  It  was  adequate  for  the  courts 
of  the  period  and  sufficient  for  the  needs  of  the  officers  of  the  court. 

It  was  a  small  two-story  brick  building,  very  much  the  style  of  the 
one  recently  torn  down  by  the  present  generation,  although  much  smaller. 
It  was  completed  in  1823.  It  was  torn  down  at  the  time  the  second  court 
house  was  built,  and  some  of  the  brick  were  used  in  the  construction  of 
the  second  court  house.  It  will  be  remembered  that  the  present  court 
house  is  the  third  one  erected  by  Cooper  County.  The  second  court  house, 
which  was  situated  on  the  same  spot  on  which  the  old  one  was  located, 
was  completed  in  the  year  1840.  It  was  a  large  and  commodious  two-story 
brick  building,  and  was  situated  on  a  high  piece  of  ground  overlooking  the 
river,  from  the  cupola  of  which  an  excellent  view  could  be  had  of  Cooper 
and  Howard  Counties.  The  present  elegant  court  of  justice  occupied  prac- 
tically the  same  location,  being  somewhat  further  west  of  the  site  of  the 
second  building. 

The  first  will  proved  in  the  County  Court,  which  then  had  jurisdiction 
in  probate  matters,  was  that  of  Thomas  McMahan,  Sr.  Its  quaint  phrase- 
ology, as  well  as  the  time  it  was  made,  may  interest  the  reader,  and  we 
here  reproduce  it.  "In  the  name  of  God,  Amen,  I,  Thomas  McMahan,  Sr., 
of  the  Arrow  Rock  township  in  Cooper  County  and  State  of  Missouri, 
being  weak  in  body,  but  of  sound  mind  and  memory,  thanks  be  given  unto 
God,  calling  unto  mind  the  mortality  of  my  body,  etc.,  do  make  and  ordain 
this  my  last  will  and  testament.     That  is  to  say  principally  and  first  of 


all  I  give  and  recommend  my  soul  into  the  hand  of  Almighty  God,  who 
gave  it,  and  my  body  I  recommend  to  the  earth  to  be  buried  in  decent 
Christian  burial  at  the  descretion  of  my  friends.  And  as  touching  such 
worldly  estate  wherewith  it  hath  pleased  God  to  bless  me  in  this  life,  I 
give  demise  and  dispose  of  the  same  in  the  following  manner  and  form. 

First,  I  lend  to  by  beloved  wife,  Diana  McMahan,  during  her  natural 
life,  the  whole  of  my  estate,  real  and  personal  for  her  own  proper  use  and 
benefit.     Under  the  care  of  my  executors  hereinafter  named. 

Second.  At  the  death  of  my  wife,  I  will  that  all  my  personal  estate 
be  equally  divided  amongst  my  four  children  hereinafter  named  or  their 
representatives.  (That  is)  I  will  that  all  the  children  of  my  daughter, 
Elizabeth  McGee,  deceased,  have  one  childs  part  equally  divided  amongst 
them.  I  will  that  my  daughter,  Mary  McMahan,  have  one  child's  part, 
which  I  give  to  her  and  her  children  forever.  I  give  to  the  children  of 
my  son,  Samuel  McMahan,  deceased,  one  child's  part  of  my  personal  estate 
to  be  equally  divided  amongst  them  as  their  property  forever.  I  will 
that  my  daughter,  Susannah  McMahan,  shall  have  a  child's  or  fourth  part 
of  my  personal  estate  to  her  and  her  heirs  forever. 

Third.  After  the  death  of  my  said  wife  I  give  and  bequeath  unto 
my  son,  Thomas  McMahan,  my  negro  man,  Samuel,  instead  of  giving 
him  any  part  of  my  personal  estate,  which  negro  Samuel,  I  give  to  him 
and  his  heirs  forever. 

Fourth.  After  the  death  of  my  said  wife,  I  give  and  bequeath  to 
my  son,  James  McMahan,  my  negro  woman,  Edey,  instead  of  giving  him 
any  part  of  my  personal  property,  which  negro  woman  and  her  increase 
after  the  death  of  my  wife,  I  give  to  him  and  his  heirs  forever;  but  in 
case  either  of  the  aforesaid  negroes,  Samuel  or  Edey,  should  die  or 
lost  before  the  death  of  myself  and  wife  then,  and  in  that  case  I  will  that 
my  son,  Thomas  or  James,  or  both,  as  the  case  may  be  should  have  an 
equal  child's  part  of  my  personal  estate  with  the  afore  named  children 
that  are  to  share  my  personal  estate,  or  if  my  negro  woman,  Edey,  should 
have  any  living  children  in  the  lifetime  of  myself  or  wife  aforesaid,  I 
leave  it  with  my  said  children  to  divide  such  increase  amongst  them  as 
they  may  think  fit  and  proper,  or  should  the  personal  estate  amount  to 
more  by  valuation  at  the  time  of  the  division,  to  each  share  than  the  value 
of  one  of  the  said  negroes  then  my  will  is  that  after  each  sharer  getting 
the  value  of  one  of  said  negroes  the  over  plus,  if  any,  be  equally  divided 
amongst  all  my  children  or  their  representatives  as  aforesaid.  And  lastly 
I  do  hereby  constitute  and  appoint  my  two  sons,  Thomas  McMahan  and 


James  McMahan  executors  of  this  my  last  will  and  testament,  requesting 
and  enjoining  it  on  them  to  faithfully  execute  every  part  of  this  my  will 
and  make  all  such  dividend  with  the  other  heirs  as  are  herein  mentioned. 

And  I  do  hereby  utterly  disallow,  revoke,  and  disannul  all  and  every 
other  former  testaments,  wills,  legacies,  bequests  and  executors  by  me 
in  any  wise  before  named,  willed,  or  bequeathed,  ratifying  and  confirming 
this  and  no  other  to  be  my  last  will  and  testament — IN  WITNESS  whereof, 
I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal  this  twenty-first  day  of  January  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  1821. 

P.  S. — Should  myself  or  wife,  or  both,  become  helpless  and  dependent 
on  our  children,  I  also  will  that  them  that  takes  care  of  us  should  be  paid 
for  their  trouble  out  of  my  personal  estate  before  any  division  is  further 
made.  THOMAS  McMAHAN. 

Signed  and  sealed  in  the  presence  of  us  who  in  his  presence  and  at 
his  request  and  in  presence  of  each  other  have  hereunto  set  our  names. 
Peyton  Nowlin,  Bryan  T.  Nowlin,  Pewton  W.  Nowlin." 

During  the  year  1821,  John  V.  Sharp,  a  soldier  who  had  served  in  the 
Revolutionary  War,  and  who  was  living  in  Cooper  County,  became  paralyzed 
and  as  helpless  as  a  child.  He  soon,  not  having  any  means  of  his  own, 
became  a  charge  upon  the  county.  The  cost  of  to  the  County  Court  was 
two  dollars  per  day  for  his  board  and  attention  to  him,  besides  bills  for 
medical  attention. 

After  having  endeavored  in  vain  to  raise  sufficient  funds  to  take  care 
of  him,  the  County  Court,  in  the  year  1822,  petitioned  the  General  As- 
sembly of  this  state  to  defray  the  expenses  of  his  support,  stating  in  the 
petition,  that  the  whole  revenue  of  the  county  was  not  sufficient  for  his 
maintenance.  This  may  sound  strange  to  a  person  living  in  a  county  in 
which  thousands  of  dollars  are  levied  to  defray  its  expense.  But  the 
whole  revenue  of  the  county  for  1822,  as  shown  by  the  settlement  of  the 
collector,  was  only  $718,  and  the  support  of  Mr.  Sharp,  at  two  dollars  per 
day,  cost  $730  per  year,  besides  the  cost  of  medical  attention,  which  left 
the  county,  at  the  end  of  the  year  1822,  in  debt,  without  counting  in  any 
of  the  other  expenses  of  the  county.  The  petition  not  having  been 
granted  by  the  General  Assembly,  the  court  levied,  for  his  support,  during 
all  the  years  from  1823  to  1828,  a  special  tax  of  50  per  cent,  of  the  state 
revenue  tax,  being  an  amount  equal  to  the  whole  of  the  general  county 
tax ;  and  in  1828,  ten  per  cent,  of  the  state  revenue  was  levied  for  the  same 
purpose.  He  must  have  died  some  time  during  the  year  1828,  as  no 
further  levy  for  his  support  appears  upon  the  records  of  the  county,  thus 


relieving  the  county  of  a  burdensome  tax.     If  these  facts  were  not  matters 
of  record,  they  would  seem  too  incredible  to  be  believed. 

In  the  heated  contest  for  the  presidency,  between  Clay  and  Jackson 
in  the  year  1824,  Cooper  County  cast  her  vote  for  Clay.  It  was  to  pay  a 
debt  of  gratitude  to  Henry  Clay  for  his  great  services  as  a  member  of 
Congress  in  the  struggle  of  the  state  of  Missouri  for  admission  into  the 
Union.  The  vote  of  the  county  for  President  at  this  election  cannot  be 
found.  Only  four  books  of  this  election  are  obtainable.  They  show  that 
Henry  Clay  had  136  and  Andrew  Jackson  53  votes  according  to  these  four 
poll  books.  Of  course  this  was  but  a  small  part  of  the  vote  cast  by  the 
county  at  that  election. 

On  the  eighth  day  of  December,  1825,  there  was  held  a  special  elec- 
tion for  governor,  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  Frederick 
Bates.  David  Todd,  the  first  circuit  judge  of  Cooper  County  and  holding 
that  office  at  this  time,  John  Miller,  Wm.  C.  Carr  and  Rufus  Easton  were 
the  candidates.  David  Todd  received  a  large  majority  in  Cooper  County. 
At  the  election  on  the  first  Monday  in  August,  1826,  John  Scott  and 
Edward  Bates  were  candidates  for  Congress.  Scott  had  a  majority  of 
124  in  the  county. 

Michale  Dunn,  Jordan  O'Bryan,  James  L.  Collins  and  John  H.  Hutch- 
ison were  candidates  for  representatives.  Michale  Dunn  and  Jordan 
O'Bryan  were  elected.  W.  H.  Anderson  and  David  P.  Mahan  were  candi- 
dates for  sheriff.  Anderson  was  elected  by  53  majority ;  and  Hugh  Allison 
was  elected  coroner. 

This  was  the  first  election  in  which  party  lines  were  closely  drawn, 
for  before  that,  men  had  voted  for  the  man  whom  they  considered  best 
qualified ;  and  not  because  he  belonged  to  any  party.  The  poll  books  of 
the  presidential  election  could  not  be  found,  but  the  August  election  for 
Representative  in  Congress  and  county  officers,  having  the  same  principles 
at  issue,  will  show  pretty  clearly  how  the  presidential  election  went.  There 
were  two  tickets,  viz:  Adams  and  Jackson,  and  the  tickets  on  which  the 
men  were,  who  were  elected  is  marked  opposite  their  names. 

At  the  election  in  Nov.,  1828,  the  county  voted  for  Jackson  over 
Adams,  by  a  majority  of  about  230  votes ;  and  also  in  1832  Jackson  was 
re-elected,  and  received  a  large  majority  in  this  county. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  up  to  1826,  Franklin  was  the  mart  of 
commerce  and  the  thriving  metropolis  of  that  section  of  territory  formerly 
known  as  the  central  Boonslick  country.  It  had  sprung  into  opulence  on 
the  banks  of  the  turbulent  Missouri  as  if  a  magician  had  waved  his  magic 


wand  over  the  wilderness.  It  became  the  center  of  a  great  trade,  and 
here  the  caravans  destined  for  Santa  Fe  and  the  great  southwest  were 
equipped  and  supplied  for  that  trade.  Its  local  trade  reached  out  for 
many  miles  in  every  direction,  and  settlers  of  Cooper  traded  and  bartered 
there.  Boonville  was  then  but  a  hamlet  of  log  cabins  of  the  period  plain, 
unadorned,  but  comfortable. 

In  1826,  Franklin  had  a  population  variously  estimated  at  from  1,800 
to  3,000,  a  substantial  population  in  part.  Some  of  whom,  however,  were 
of  the  shifting,  adventurous,  speculating  element.  It  numbered  among 
its  residents  wealthy,  enterprising  and  cultured  men,  mostly  from  Tenn- 
essee, the  Carolinas,  Virginia  and  Kentucky,  and  some  from  the  eastern 
states,  many  of  whom  rose  to  prominence,  and  left  their  ineffaceable 
impress  upon  our  state. 

In  the  spring  of  that  year,  the  Missouri  river  overflowed  its  banks. 
Franklin  was  built  upon  shifting  sand  and  because  of  its  low  and  flat  loca- 
tion, suffered  greatly  from  the  high  water,  and  as  well  from  the  malaria 
which  followed. 

The  constant  falling  in  and  washing  away  of  the  river  banks  inun- 
dated the  buildings.  This  occurred  to  a  great  extent  in  1826,  many 
houses  going  into  the  river.  Its  citizens  became  satisfied  that  every 
future  effort  to  protect  the  banks  from  the  river  would  be  futile  upon  their 
part,  and  thus  believing,  many  residents  and  business  men  left  the  place, 
some  of  them  settling  in  the  town  of  New  Franklin,  two  and  a  half  miles 
back  from  the  river  in  Howard  County,  just  in  edge  of  the  hills;  some  in 
Fayette,  then  the  county  seat  of  Howard;  and  some  came  to  Boonville,  a 
few  of  the  latter  bringing  not  only  their  goods,  but  their  houses. 

This  marked  the  beginning  of  the  rapid  growth  of  Boonville,  and  the 
time  when  she  became  the  supply  center  for  the  Santa  Fe  trade  and  of  the 
great  southwest  territory. 

Franklin  had  been  greatly  shorn  of  its  influence.  The  county  seat 
had  been  moved  to  Fayette.  Much  of  the  business  which  had  been  trans- 
acted by  its  merchants  and  tradesmen  had  been  withdrawn  and  turned 
into  other  channels. 

James  L.  Collins,  William  Harlin,  Andrew  Adams  and  others,  had 
located  at  Boonville  and  were  conducting  a  successful  and  extensive  trade 
with  the  Santa  Fe  country  a  trade  which  had  heretofore  contributed  to 
the  business  of  Franklin  and  the  wealth  of  those  who  were  thus  engaged. 

This  year  also  marked  the  beginning  of  a  rapid  settlement  and  de- 
velopment of  Cooper  County. 


FROM  1834  TO  1847. 


The  county  gave  a  small  majority  to  Martin  Van  Buren,  in  1836. 
The  county  remained  Democratic  until  1840,  when  the  Whigs  made  a  clean 
sweep,  electing  their  full  ticket.  Reuben  A.  Ewing,  a  Whig,  was  elected 
State  Senator  over  David  Jones,  Democrat;  and  Jno.  G.  Miller,  Jordan 
O'Bryan  and  Lawrence  C.  Stephens,  Whigs,  over  John  Miller,  B.  F.  Hickox 
and  Henry  Crowther,  Democrats,  by  an  average  majority  of  about  75 
votes.  There  was  great  excitement  during  this  election  and  politics  ran 
very  high.  The  Whigs  held  public  meetings  in  regular  order  on  each  suc- 
ceeding Saturday  in  each  township,  until  the  full  rounds  were  made.  They 
had  a  band  of  music  engaged  for  the  occasion,  flags  and  banners,  with 
mottoes  inscribed  thereon  also  with  songs  appropriate  for  the  occasion, 
and  eloquent  speakers,  the  prominent  ones  among  which  were  John  G. 
Miller,  Jordan  O'Bryan,  John  C.  Richardson,  Robert  C.  Harrison  and  others. 

The  Democrats,  however,  made  little  or  no  display,  condemned  the 
tactics  of  the  Whigs  as  noisy,  boisterous  and  unseemly;  pronounced  the 
Whigs  as  deceivers  and  humbuggers  and  taunted  them  with  using  cain 
efforts  to  win  votes  by  exciting  the  people.  The  Democrats  held  their 
meetings  and  had  frequent  public  speakings  without  any  display  or  show. 
Their  candidates  for  the  Legislature  were  John  Miller,  Benjamin  F.  Hickox 
and  Henry  Crowther.  The  campaign  was  lively,  vigorous,  stormy  and 
frequently  the  personal  element  entered  bitterly  in  the  discussion. 

The  county  remained  Whig  as  long  as  the  Whig  party  remained  in 


existence.  The  last  candidate  on  the  Whig  ticket  was  General  Scott,  who 
was  succeeded  by  Franklin  Pierce. 

The  campaign  of  1844  was  lively  with  more  parade  and  ostentation 
on  the  part  of  the  Whigs  than  was  exhibited  in  1840  or  the  years  before. 
For  President,  Henry  Clay,  of  Kentucky,  was  the  nominee  of  the  Whig 
party,  and  James  K.  Polk,  of  Tennessee,  of  the  Democratic  party. 

During  this  exciting  campaign,  many  songs  were  written,  but  none 
was  more  popular  than  the  following,  which  was  the  effusion  of  some 
Boonville  poet.  It  was  written  for  the  Boonville  Register  during  the  cam- 
paign of  1843. 

Henry  Clay  and  James  K.  Polk. 

"The  whigs  call  Henry  Clay  a  coon, 
And  say  he'll  be  elected  soon; 
But  James  K.  Polk  will  got  it  alone, 
And  make  old  Henry  walk  jaw-bone. 
So  get  out  of  the  way,  old  Kentucky, 
And  clear  the  track  for  one  more  lucky. 

"The  whigs  cried  out  for  'home  perfection,' 
And  think  to  gain  old  Clay's  election. 
They  hold  conventions,  shout  and  sing, 
'Huzza  for  Clay!'  he  is  our  king. 
But  get  out  of  the  way,  old  Kentucky,  etc. 

"The  whigs  of  '40  did  invent 
All  schemes  to  elect  their  president, 
And  were  successful,  it  is  true, 
But  now  'humbuggery  will  not  do. 
So  get  out  of  the  way,  etc. 

"Their  coon-skins  and  barrels  of  cider 
Have  opened  the  people's  eyes  some  wider; 
They  cannot  now  be  gulled  so  soon 
By  this  very  same  old  coon. 
So  get  out  of  the  way,  etc. 


"The  squatters  on  the  public  land 
Will  all  unite  into  one  band; 
Then  will  the  'lawless  rabble'  say, 
You  cannot  come  it,  Henry  Clay. 
So  get  out  of  the  way,  etc. 

"The  people  of  this  mighty  nation 
Will  not  submit  to  coon  dictation ; 
So  Mr.  Clay  may  rest  content, 
He  never  can  be  president. 
So  get  out  of  the  way,"  etc. 

Not  long  ago  the  following  query  appeared  in  the  "Evening  Post" 
of  Indiana:  "People  constantly  write  the  letters  '0.  K.'  to  say  all  right. 
How  did  this  practice  originate?"  The  Post  gave  the  following  answer: 
"The  practice  got  its  start  in  the  days  of  General  Jackson,  known  to  the 
men  of  his  time  as  Old  Hickory.  It  was  said  that  General  Jackson  was 
not  as  proficient  in  spelling  as  in  some  other  things,  and  so  in  the  abbre- 
viating which  he  practised,  '0.  K.'  stands  for  'all  correct'  ('Oil  Korrect.') 
This  is  as  near  as  our  data  at  present  allows  us  to  come  to  the  origin  of 
the  now  wide  practice. 

Reading  this  answer,  a  gentleman  who  signs  his  initials  J.  W.  D., 
addressed  the  editor  of  the  "Evening  Post,"  the  following:  "I  note  what 
you  say  about  the  origin  of  the  practice  of  using  the  letters  '0.  K.'  to 
signify  'correct'  or  'all  right.'  It  seems  to  be  that  your  informant  is 
wrong.  I  am  quite  sure  that  this  practice  originated  during  the  Clay 
and  Polk  campaign.  At  that  time  the  writer  was  a  boy,  living  in  Boon- 
ville,  Mo.  You  all  know  what  a  lively  campaign  the  Clay  and  Polk  cam- 
paign was.  Mr.  Clay  was  the  idol  of  the  Whigs,  and  was  affectionately 
called  'Old  Kentucky.'  Those  who  favored  his  election  put  up  their  flags 
on  ash  poles,  at  all  the  cross-roads,  country  taverns  and  wood  yards  on 
the  river,  while  the  Dmocrats  put  up  hickory  poles  with  poke  bushes 
at  the  top,  the  Whigs  using  for  a  flag  a  square  of  whole  cloth  with  the 
letters  '0.  K.'  signifying  'Old  Kentucky.'  The  Democrats  used  a  streamer 
with  'Polk  and  Dallas,'  Oregon  and  Texas.' 

"The  town  of  Boonville  boasted  two  newspapers,  one  the  'Observer,' 
a  Whig  paper,  conducted  by  one  Caldwell,  a  very  brilliant  young  man, 
the  other  the  'Boonville  Register,'  conducted  by  one  Ira  Van  Nortrick. 
Toward  the  close  of  the  campaign  the  editor  of  the  'Register'  came  out 


in  a  very  salty  editorial,  denouncing  the  ignorance  of  the  Whigs  and 
demanding  to  know  'What  does  "0.  K."  mean  anyhow?'  Caldwell  came 
back  at  him  with  the  information  that  he  would  find  out  '0.  K.'  meant 
'Oil  Korrect'  in  November.  The  expression  took  like  wildfire;  the  boys 
yelled  it,  chalked  it  on  the  fences.  Like  other  slang,  it  seemed  to  fill  a 
want,  and  upon  the  inauguration  of  the  telegraph,  in  '46,  the  adoption 
of  '0.  K.,'  I  was  informed  by  one  of  the  first  operators  in  the  country, 
Mr.  E.  F.  Barnes,  introduced  to  the  business  public,  as  he  was  one  of  the 
parties  organizing  the  system  of  signals  used  by  the  company.  Then  it 
passed  into  general  use.  Of  course  Missouri  was  not  the  only  place 
where  Mr.  Clay  was  called  'Old  Kentucky.'  A  favorite  song  of  the  Whigs, 
both  in  Missouri  and  Kentucky,  only  a  line  or  two  of  which  I  can  now 
recall  to  mind,  sung  to  the  tune  of  'Old  Dan  Tucker,'  ran  about  thus : 

"  'The  balky  hoss  they  call  John  Tyler, 
We'll  head  him  soon,  or  bust  a  biler !' 
"Chorus : 

"  'So  get  out  of  the  way,  you're  all  unlucky. 
Clear  the  track  for  "Old  Kentucky" !'  " 

An  incident  of  this  campaign,  illustrative  of  the  attendant  excite- 
ment, and  doubtless  bitterness  engendered  among  the  thoughtless  and 
reckless  class,  is  referred  to  in  an  article  we  take  from  the  "Boonville 
Observer."  It  will  be  noted  that  the  "Observer"  in  no  mincing  or  apolo- 
getic words  condemns  the  rowdyism  mentioned,  though  evidently  com- 
mitted by  one  or  more  persons  of  its  political  persuasion: 

"One  of  the  most  shameful  acts  that  we  have  ever  known  perpe- 
trated in  any  community  or  on  any  occasion,  was  committed  in  this  city 
on  last  Friday  night,  at  the  Whig  gathering  in  the  court-house,  where 
a  part  of  the  convention  had  assembled  to  hear  speaking.  Some  debased 
'  tch  during  the  evening  cut  the  Howard  and  Lafayette  banners  which 
had  the  portraits  of  Mr.  Clay  on  them.  They  were  cut  about  the  throat 
of  the  picture,  and  also  in  other  places.  If  a  Democrat  used  the  hand 
and  knife  that  slit  those  banners,  we  do  not  know  that  it  would  be  much 
too  severe  a  punishment  upon  him  to  be  served  likewise.  No  prudent 
Democrat  can  object  to  the  Whig  party's  emblem  or  banners.  It  is  the 
privilege  of  all  parties  in  this  country  to  have  them,  and  an  uplifted 
voice  of  indignation  should  chase  the  wretch  who  will  molest  the  banner 
of  his  opponent  when  exercising  only  the  same  privilege  that  our  insti- 


tutions  guaranteed  to  him.  As  a  Democrat,  we  sincerely  regret  that  so 
mean  an  act  could  have  been  committed  here  on  that  occasion.  The 
Club  here,  we  understand,  has  offered  a  reward  of  $100  for  the  detection 
of  the  man  who  committed  this  foul  stain  upon  our  community ;  and  the 
Democrats  will  do  their  utmost  also,  to  detect  him.  In  the  political  point 
of  view  it  will  do  no  harm,  but  good  citizens  want  no  man  who  is  capable 
of  such  a  deed  among  them." 

We  will  at  this  time  continue  no  further  the  political  history  of 
Cooper  County,  but  will  revert  to  the  year  1836.  In  that  year,  wild 
reports  and  rumors  were  circulated  that  the  Indians  had  broken  out, 
and  were  attacking  the  settlers  living  within  the  present  limits  of  Pettis 
County,  then  part  of  Cooper  and  Saline  counties,  and  were  slaying  men, 
women  and  children  as  they  went.  The  excitement  was  great,  and  men 
began  to  assemble  in  that  portion  of  the  county  to  aid  in  the  defense  of 
the  homes  of  their  neighbors.  The  place  of  rendezvous  for  those  who 
went  from  Cooper  County  was  Wooley's  Mill,  on  the  Petit  Saline  Creek. 
Here  they  organized  and  elected  their  officers.  After  doing  so,  they 
marched  to  the  supposed  seat  of  war,  but  on  their  arrival,  they  found  no 
Indians  had  been  there,  and  that  it  had  been  entirely  a  false  alarm.  It 
was  a  practical  joke.  It  seems  that  some  men,  for  their  own  amusement, 
dressed  themselves  as  Indians,  and  went  down  to  a  cornfield  where  some 
men  were  at  work,  and  giving  the  Indian  yell,  shot  off  their  guns,  pointed 
in  the  direction  of  the  settlers.  They,  supposing  that  the  disguised  men 
were  hostile  Indians,  endeavoring  to  slay  them,  took  to  their  heels,  and 
spread  the  alarm,  which,  like  a  tale  of  scandal,  traveled  from  mouth  to 
mouth,  and  gathered  momentum  and  new  versions  as  it  went  from  lip 
to  lip.  It  is  stated  that  a  wealthy  farmer  of  Cooper  County,  catching  the 
alarm,  buried  his  bacon  to  save  it  from  the  bloodthirsty  savages.  Then 
going  to  a  field  in  which  a  large  number  of  his  negroes  were  at  work 
waved  his  hand  and  shouted  at  the  top  of  his  voice,  "Run.  run,  the  In- 
dians will  be  upon  you,  the  Indians  will  be  upon  you."  The  negroes  tak- 
ing the  alarm,  stood  not  on  the  manner  of  their  going,  but  scattered  in 
every  direction  as  though  the  frightful  savages  with  tomahawks  and 
hunting  knives  were  close  upon  their  heels. 

The  Mormon  War,  in  1838,  created  considerable  excitement  in  the 
State  and  roused  to  action  the  citizens  of  Cooper  County.  When  the 
Mormons  first  came  to  Missouri,  they  located  in  Jackson  County,  and 
the  citizens,  liking  neither  their  doctrines  nor  their  customs,  forced  them 
to  leave.    They  then  settled  in  Caldwell  County,  Missouri,  but  the  citizens 


in  that  part  of  the  State,  favoring  them  no  more  than  did  the  citizens 
of  Jackson  County,  determined  to  expel  them  from  the  State.  They 
called  upon  Gov.  Lilburn  W.  Boggs  for  assistance,  and  to  furnish  troops. 
Governor  Boggs  called  for  7,000  volunteers  to  assist  in  driving  the  Mor- 
mons from  the  territory  over  which  he  had  control. 

In  response  to  this  call  three  companies  were  raised  in  Cooper  Coun- 
ty. One,  called  the  "Boonville  Guards,"  composed  entirely  of  citizens 
of  Boonville  this,  under  the  existing  laws  of  the  State,  was  a  standing 
company,  and  equipped  at  the  expense  of  the  State  government.  The 
second,  a  volunteer  company  raised  at  Boonville,  composed  of  citizens 
of  Boonville  and  the  surrounding  neighborhood.  Of  this  company,  Jessie 
J.  Turley  was  captain,  Marcus  Williams,  Jr.,  first  lieutenant,  and  J.  Logan 
Forsythe,  second  lieutenant.  The  third  was  raised  at  Palestine,  the  offi- 
cers of  which  are  not  known.  Of  the  forces  raised  in  Cooper  County, 
Joel  E.  Woodward  was  brigadier  general,  Joseph  Megguire,  inspector 
general,  and  Benjamin  E.  Ferry,  aide-de-camp  to  Gen.  Henry  W.  Crowther. 

These  companies  marched  twice  towards  the  Mormon  settlement  and 
the  seat  of  war.  The  first  time  they  marched  as  far  as  Jonesborough, 
Saline  County,  where  the  commanders,  supposing  from  reports  which 
reached  them  that  there  were  sufficient  troops  already  at  the  scene  of 
war  to  conquer  the  Mormons,  ordered  them  to  return.  They  were  shortly 
afterwards  again  ordered  to  the  seat  of  war,  and  marched  to  Lexington, 
where  they  crossed  the  Missouri  River.  They  then  advanced  about  two 
miles  into  the  prairie,  and  there  camped  for  two  days.  The  Mormon 
troops  having  in  the  meantime  surrendered  to  Gen.  John  B.  Clark,  Sr., 
these  companies  returned  home  without  having  the  pleasure  of  meeting 
the  enemy  or  having  the  opportunity  of  testing  their  valor.  On  their 
arrival  at  Boonville  these  troops  were  disbanded. 

The  Mormons  during  this  short  war  were  commanded  by  General 
Weite,  an  old  British  officer,  who  fought  against  General  Jackson  in 
the  battle  of  New  Orleans.  The  Mormons,  after  the  conclusion  of  this 
war,  left  the  State  and  located  at  Nauvoo,  Illinois,  where  they  remained 
for  several  years.  Having  had  a  difficulty  with  the  authorities  of  the 
State  of  Illinois,  and  their  prophet  and  leader,  Joseph  Smith,  having  been 
assassinated,  they  again  "pulled  up  stakes"  and  emigrated  to  the  shores 
of  the  "Great  Salt  Lake."  where  they  have  ever  since  remained,  believ- 
ing and  feeling  that  they  are  a  persecuted  people. 

The  prisoners  taken  and  retained  in  jail  as  the  leaders  of  the  Mor- 
mons were  Joseph  Smith,   Lyman  Weite,  Hiram  Smith,  Sydna  Regdon, 


Roberts,  Higby,  and  two  others.  These  men  were  first  imprisoned  in  the 
jail  at  Richmond,  Ray  County,  and  were  afterwards  removed  to  the  jail 
at  Liberty,  Clay  County,  where  they  broke  jail,  escaped  pursuit,  and 
were  never  tried. 

The  unprecedented  and  most  disastrous  rise  in  the  Missouri,  Missis- 
sippi, and  Illinois  Rivers  occurred  in  1844.  About  the  tenth  of  June,  the 
river  at  St.  Louis  commenced  to  rise  rapidly,  while  intelligence  was 
received  of  the  rising  of  the  Illinois  and  Missouri  Rivers,  and  by  the  six- 
teenth, the  curbstones  of  Front  street  were  under  water,  and  the  danger 
to  property  and  business  became  quite  alarming. 

At  first  it  was  thought  along  the  Missouri  to  be  merely  the  usual 
June  rise  but  the  continued  expansion  of  the  flood  soon  convinced  the 
inhabitants  of  its  unprecedented  and  alarming  character.  All  the  bottom 
lands,  or  lowlands  of  the  Missouri  River  overflowed  and  many  farms  were 
ruined,  many  being  as  much  as  15  feet  under  water.  Houses,  barns  and 
fences  were  swept  away,  and  in  many  instances  human  lives  were  lost. 
In  others,  human  beings  clung  to  floating  dwellings,  or  immense  piles 
of  driftwood,  and  some  of  them  were  rescued  by  passing  boats,  and 
devices  improvised  especially  to  save  them.  The  front  streets  of  many 
of  the  towns  along  the  river  were  completely  submerged.  Between  400 
and  500  persons  in  St.  Louis,  and  vicinity  were  driven  from  their  homes, 
and  great  distress  prevailed. 

At  St.  Louis  the  river  reached  its  greatest  height  on  the  24th  of 
June.  It  was  seven  feet  seven  inches  above  the  city  directrix,  and  in  its 
abatement  the  water  did  not  reach  the  city  directrix  until  the  14th  day 
of  July. 

A  farmer  who  lived  in  the  bottom  about  a  mile  south  of  New  Frank- 
lin by  the  name  of  Lloyd,  waited  during  the  rise,  thinking  every  day 
that  the  river  would  reach  its  highest  point,  and  did  not  leave  his  cabin, 
until  he  was  compelled  one  morning  to  make  a  hasty  exit  through  the 
roof.  While  getting  out  some  of  his  household  plunder,  he  spilt  some 
corn  meal  on  the  roof  of  this  cabin.  The  third  day  after  leaving,  Lloyd 
returned,  and  found  to  his  surprise  that  the  roof  of  his  cabin  had  been 
transformed  into  a  menagerie  of  birds  and  animals.  Among  these  were 
a  cat,  a  dog,  a  coon,  a  fox,  a  rat,  two  chickens,  and  a  turkey.  He  ob- 
served that  the  meal  was  gone  and  was  greatly  surprised  to  find  these 
animals  living  together  in  amity  and  perfect  harmony.  A  common  mis- 
fortune had  created  among  them  a  sympathetic  feeling.     The  presence 


of  the  great  flood  had  seemingly  overawed  and  overpowered  their  antag- 
onistic natures,  and  like  the  lion  and  the  lamb,  of  prophetic  history,  they 
were  dwelling  together  in  peace. 

Another  farmer  who  resided  in  the  bottoms,  lost  a  very  valuable 
horse.  The  day  he  left  his  cabin,  this  horse  was  driven,  with  other  horses, 
and  stock,  to  the  hills  for  safe  keeping.  Some  days  afterwards  the  horse 
was  missing,  and  was  not  found  until  the  waters  had  receded,  when  he 
was  discovered,  or  at  least  such  portions  of  him  as  were  left,  hanging 
by  one  of  his  hind  feet  in  some  grape  vines  fully  fifteen  feet  above  the 
ground,  having  on  the  same  halter  that  he  wore  when  he  left.  The  rise 
of  1844  obtained  a  greater  elevation. 

History  records  three  great  disastrous  floods  prior  to  this  one.  The 
great  flood  of  1785,  known  as  "L'anee  des  Grandes  Eaux,'  and  the  floods 
of  1811,  and  1826;  the  latter  being  that  which  set  the  seal  of  fate  upon 
the  future  prosperity  of  Franklin,  now  referred  to  as  Old  Franklin. 

Again  the  tocsin  of  war  was  sounded,  in  1846.  In  the  month  of 
May  of  that  year,  the  President  of  the  United  States  called  for  volunteers 
to  assist  in  the  Mexican  War.  One  company  from  Cooper  County  was 
called  upon  to  join  the  troops  in  Mexico. 

The  alleged  cause  of  the  declaration  of  war  by  Mexico  against  the 
United  States  in  April,  1846,  was  the  annexation  of  Texas,  but  the  more 
immediate  cause  was  the  occupation  by  the  American  army  of  the  dis- 
puted territory  lying  between  the  Nueces  and  Rio  Grande  River. 

On  the  21st  day  of  May,  of  that  year,  the  "Boonville  Observer" 
issued  the  following  bulletin,  or  "extra,"  which  we  give  verbatim: 

"Volunteers. — A  proper  spirit  seems  to  animate  the  citizens  of  our 
country  and  especially  the  young  men. 

The  call  for  one  company  from  the  fifth  division  has  been  promptly 
responded  to.  Forty-three  volunteers  were  raised  by  General  Ferry  on 
Monday  in  Boonville,  and  on  Tuesday,  at  Palestine,  under  the  direction 
of  Generals  Ferry  and  Megguire,  the  number  was  increased  to  61.  They 
then  elected  their  officers,  and  the  following  gentlemen  were  chosen: 

Joseph  L.  Stephens,  captain,  without  opposition,  who  delivered  to 
the  volunteers  on  that  occasion  a  spirited  and  handsome  address;  first 
lieutenant,  Newton  Williams;  second  lieutenant,  H.  C.  Levens;  first  ser- 
geant,'John  D.  Stephens;  second  sergeant,  William  T.  Cole;  third  ser- 
geant, Richard  Norris ;  fourth  sergeant,  James  S.  Hughes;  first  corporal, 
Tipton  Prior;  second  corporal,  A.  B.  Cele;  third  corporal,  Wesley  Amick; 


fourth  corporal,  A.  G.  Baber.  The  company,  thus  organized,  assembled 
in  Boonville  on  Wednesday,  where  they  were  exercised  in  military  duty 
by  their  accomplished  and  gallant  young  captain. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  privates:  Thomas  Bacon,  Samuel  D. 
Burnett,  Jacob  Duvall,  Charles  Salsman,  Ewing  E.  Woolery,  Heli  Cook, 
Joel  Coffee,  Joel  Epperson,  Jesse  Epperson,  Hiram  Epperson,  John  Mc- 
Dowell, J.  R.  P.  Wilcoxson,  T.  T.  Bowler,  William  Sullans,  Horatio  Bruce, 
William  J.  Jeffreys,  James  M.  Jeffreys,  Hiram  Burnam,  Edward  S.  D.  Miller, 
John  Whitley,  Benjamin  P.  Ford,  Philip  Summers,  George  W.  Campbell, 
Samuel  R.  Lemons,  John  R.  Johnson,  Thompson  Seivers,  Charles  F.  Kine, 
Jesse  Nelson,  John  Colbert,  Robert  Rhea,  Edmond  G.  Cook,  John  B.  Bruce, 
James  P.  Lewis,  Benjamin  C.  Lampton,  Oliver  G.  Ford,  U.  E.  Rubey,  W.  B. 
Rubey,  W.  H.  Stephens,  John  M.  Kelly,  George  Mock,  Samuel ,  Elliott, 
Alpheus  D.  Hickerson,  Edmond  Eubank,  Henderson  C.  Martin,  Sprague 
White,  William  Woolsey,  Martin  Allison,  Henry  Francis,  Robert  H.  Bowles, 
Justinian  McFarland,  Nathaniel  T.  Ford,  James  H.  Jones,  James  C.  Ross, 
Richard  Hulett. 

They  departed  today  (Thursday)  on  the  steamer  L.  F.  Linn  for  St. 
Louis,  where  they  will  be  armed  and  equipped,  and  immediately  trans- 
ported to  the  army  of  occupation  on  the  Rio  Grande.  Our  best  wishes 
attend  them.  May  victory  ever  perch  upon  their  banners,  and  may  they 
all  return  to  their  friends  full  of  honors,  with  the  proud  reflection  that 
they  have  served  their  country  faithfully. 

When  the  steamer  Louis  F.  Linn,  Eaton,  captain,  Jewell,  clerk,  ar- 
rived in  Boonville,  on  her  downward  trip,  the  company  formed  in  line 
on  the  upper  deck  and  many  friends  passed  along  the  line,  bidding  fare- 
well and  shaking  each  volunteer  by  the  hand.  The  landing  was  crowded 
with  people.  The  boat  soon  started,  with  cheers  from  the  multitude,  and 
waving  of  handkerchiefs  by  the  ladies. 

The  steamer  laid  up  for  the  first  night  at  Nashville,  which  is  about 
fifteen  miles  below  Rocheport.  The  members  of  the  company  were  all 
jolly  fellows,  and  jest  and  laughter  made  the  time  pass  pleasantly  and 
quickly.  The  most  of  them,  had  never  been  from  home,  and  longed,  with 
the  anxiety  of  children,  to  see  new  countries  and  to  take  part  in  other 
than  every  day  affairs  of  their  lives. 

Lieutenant  Levers  being  on  watch  the  latter  part  of  the  night  after 
they  had  left  Boonville,  heard  a  terrible  splash  in  the  water,  and  on 
inquiring  for  the  cause  discovered  that  one  of  his  men  had  fallen  over- 
board.    The  deck-hands  rescued  him,  and  soon  afterwards  one  of  the 


company  folowed  the  example  of  his  comrade,  and  was  rescued  by  the 
same  men.  The  lieutenant  becoming  alarmed  for  the  safety  of  the  men 
of  the  company,  waked  up  the  captain,  informed  him  of  what  had  hap- 
pened, and  told  him  that  if  he  did  not  take  measures  to  prevent  it  he 
might  have  his  company  considerably  diminished  before  they  reached 
St.  Louis,  if  the  men  continued  to  fall  overboard  as  rapidly  as  they  had 
commenced.  The  captain  was  greatly  surprised  at  such  unexpected  acci- 
dents, and  placed  out  a  strong  guard,  which  prevented  any  more  occur- 
rences of  the  kind.  The  trouble  was  that  some  of  the  men  before  leaving 
Boonville  had  imbibed  rather  freely  of  intoxicants,  and  having  never  been 
on  board  of  a  boat  before,  imagined  they  were  on  land  and  walked  off 
without  being  aware  of  their  changed  circumstances. 

They  arrived  at  St.  Louis  without  further  accident,  and  were  quar- 
tered at  the  court-house  without  any  blankets  to  cover  them,  or  any 
place  except  the  naked  benches  on  which  to  sleep.  Most  of  the  company 
expecting  to  draw  their  clothing  and  blankets  at  Jefferson  barracks,  had 
nothing  but  the  shirt  and  pants  which  they  had  worn  from  home. 

Captain  Stephen's  company  was  mustered  into  service  by  Gen.  Robert 
Campbell.  General  Taylor,  having  gained  an  important  victory  over  the 
Mexicans,  and  it  being  thought  that  he  would  be  able  to  conquer  his 
enemies  without  any  further  reinforcements,  Captain  Stephens'  company 
was  ordered  back,  and  directed  to  report  to  Adjutant  General  Parsons  at 
Jefferson  City,  whither  they  hastened  on  the  same  boat,  expecting  orders 
from  him  to  join  Doniphan's  expedition  to  New  Mexico.  General  Parsons 
informed  the  captain  that  he  had  nof  requisition  for  Cooper  County,  but 
to  hold  his  company  in  readiness  to  march  when  called  on.  The  members 
of  the  company  were  very  much  disappointed  at  being  thus  summarily 
dismissed  to  their  homes,  and  felt  very  indignant  at  what  they  considered 
such  shabby  treatment;  and  though  the  company  was  ready  and  willing, 
during  the  whole  of  the  war,  to  go  to  the  field  of  battle  on  the  shortest 
notice,  it  was  not  called  upon.  Some  of  the  members  of  the  company 
were  so  determined  to  go  that  they  joined  other  companies  of  General 
Doniphan's  command.  The  company,  although  gone  from  home  only  a 
short  time,  had  a  rough  introduction  to  military  life,  having  been  forced 
to  live  on  "hard  tack"  on  the  trip  to  St.  Louis  and  return,  without  bedding 
of  any  kind,  and  many  of  the  men  without  a  change  of  clothes.  Mrs. 
Andrews,  an  estimable  lady  of  St.  Louis,  treated  the  company  to  as  many 
pies  as  the  men  could  eat,  for  which  they  felt  always  grateful  to  her. 

But  very  few  of  the  company  had  ever  seen  St.  Louis,  or  any  other 


city,  and  it  was  a  pleasing  and  wonderful  sight  to  these  men,  who  had, 
during  all  of  their  lives,  been  accustomed  only  to  the  quiet  scenes  of 
their  every-day  life.  The  company,  as  it  passed  through  the  streets, 
seemed,  from  the  numbers  who  stopped  to  gaze  at  it,  to  attract  as  much 
attention  as  a  fantastic  company,  on  account  of  the  queer  costumes,  arms 
and  manners.  As  the  company  expected  to  draw  its  uniforms  at  the 
"Great  City,"  and  as  the  men  expected  to  throw  their  citizen's  suits 
away,  they  were  not  particular  what  they  wore  when  they  started  from 
home.  Most  of  them,  being  dressed  in  backwoods  style,  without  uni- 
form or  arms,  made  a  rather  ludicrous  appearance  to  city  folks.  But  the 
men  cared  little  for  that,  and  some  of  the  city  gents  were  made  to  meas- 
ure their  lengths  upon  the  pavement  for  their  uncalled-for  remarks  in 
regard  to  the  personal  appearance  and  manners  of  the  strangers. 

Some  of  the  men  of  the  company,  while  in  St.  Louis,  had  a  row  with 
some  merchants  on  Water  street  for  insulting  one  of  their  number.  After 
some  little  quarreling,  the  merchants  threatened  to  have  them  arrested 
and  confined  in  the  calaboose;  but  they  were  told  if  that  threat  was 
executed,  they  would  level  the  calaboose,  and  if  that  was  not  sufficient 
to  show  their  power,  they  would  level  the  whole  city,  and  that  they  had 
sufficient  men  to  accomplish  that  undertaking.  So,  the  merchants,  be- 
coming alarmed,  did  not  attempt  to  have  the  threat  executed,  and  the 
difficulty  was  finally  arranged  without  any  serious  consequences.  On  their 
return  up  the  Missouri  River,  on  the  same  boat  on  which  they  had  gone 
down  to  St.  Louis,  a  finely  dressed  "gentleman"  unthoughtfully  made  the 
.remark  that  "these  soldiers  were  a» rough  set."  The  officers  of  Captain 
Stephens'  and  Captain  Reid's  companies  demanded  that  he  should  be  put 
ashore,  and  at  the  next  landing  he  was  made  to  "walk  the  plank,"  amidst 
shouts  and  cheers  from  the  crowd.  They  thus  gave  him  an  opportunity 
of  traveling  on  the  next  boat,  where,  perhaps,  he  might  meet  with  pas- 
sengers more  congenial  to  his  nature,  and  where  he  would  not  be  forced 
to  associate  with  those  whom  he  considered  beneath  him  in  the  social 

After  this  they  proceeded  without  further  incident  to  Boonville, 
where  they  were  met  by  crowds  of  their  friends  and  acquaintances,  who, 
with  loud  cheers,  welcomed  them  home.  Soon  after  they  arrived,  the 
company  was  disbanded  by  the  captain,  with  orders  to  be  ready  to  as- 
semble and  march  to  the  seat  of  war  on  very  short  notice.  From  that 
time  to  the  close  of  the  war  the  members  of  the  company  were  prepared 
at  all  times  to  march  to  the  front,  whenever  their  services  should  be 


required,  but  they  were  never  ordered  forward  to  take  part  in  the  great 
struggle  which  had  then  been  transferred  to  the  enemy's  country. 

This  is  the  only  part  the  citizens  of  Cooper  County  took  in  the  war 
of  1846,  and  though  they  did  not  partake  directly  in  the  struggle,  they 
showed  their  readiness  to  do  so,  by  organizing  and  keeping  in  readiness 
to  march  a  company  composed  of  some  of  the  best  citizens. 


CONTINUATION  OF  1834-1847  AND  UP  TO  1861 


It  is  not  our  intention,  nor  have  we  attempted  to  chronicle  the  events, 
that  make  the  history  of  Cooper  County,  in  absolute  chronological  order. 
Frequently  historical  data  are  so  closely  correlated,  one  with  the  other 
that  we  are  forced  to  pass  through  a  series  of  years  to  follow  the  logical 
chain  of  events,  and  are  then  compelled  to  "roll  back  the  scroll  of  time" 
to  take  up  another  line  of  equally  important  facts.  The  preceding  chap- 
ter deals  with  the  history  of  Cooper  County  from  1834  to  1847,  yet  there 
are  events  of  that  period  worthy  of  historical  preservation  not  recorded 
therein  to  which  we  will  now  revert. 

The  period  between  1830  to  1847  marks  a  rapid  and  increasing  tide 
of  immigration  to  Cooper  County.  Large  wholesale  establishments  were 
established  at  Boonville  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  the  great  trade  of 
the  southwest  as  well  as  to  outfit  and  provision  the  great  caravans  bound 
for  the  Santa  Fe  trail.  Among  those  who  located  here  at  that  time  are 
recalled  A.  L.  and  C.  D.  W.  Johnson,  who,  in  addition  to  their  mercantile 
establishment  operated  a  large  grist  mill  which  was  perhaps  the  'first 
flouring  mill  erected  at  Boonville ;  J.  Mansker  and  Company ;  N.  \V.  Mack ; 
Thomas  M.  Campbell ;  Charles  W.  Smith ;  Caleb  Jones ;  Walter  and  H.  B. 
Benedict,  who  were  engaged  in  the  sale  of  dry  goods  and  groceries,  etc. 


Also  Allen  Porter,  the  druggist;  H.  and  J.  Rhea,  tobacconist;  H.  W. 
Crowther,  the  rope-maker,  which  at  that  time  seemed  to  be  a  profitable 
and  necessary  vocation;  Jeremiah  Rice,  tanner;  W.  P.  Roper,  a  saddler; 
Hook,  a  gunsmith;  David  Andrews,  a  tinner;  George  W.  Caton,  a  tailor. 
John  Dade  and  James  Patton  were  among  the  principal  hotelkeepers,  yet 
at  this  time  there  were  several  others  whose  names  we  are  unable  to 
give.  Isaiah  Hanna  was  one  of  the  blacksmiths  yet  there  were  several 
others  at  that  time  in  Boonville  and  Cooper  County.  George  C.  Hart, 
John  W.  Martin  and  J.  McCutchen  are  mentioned  in  the  early  records 
among  the  physicians  who  were  then  at  Boonville,  yet  there  were  a 
number  of  other  physicians  in  other  sections  of  the  county.  The  first 
newspaper  in  Cooper  County  was  also  established  during  this  period, 
about  the  year  1834  and  was  called  the  "Boonville  Herald,"  reference  to 
which  will  hereafter  be  made  in  the  special  chapter  on  newspapers. 

The  foregoing,  located  at  Boonville,  as  above  stated,  between  the 
years  1830-1840.  From  the  years  1840-1850  the  county  enjoyed  an  era 
of  prosperity  that  had  not  been  known  "in  its  prior  history.  The  census 
of  Boonville  in  1840  gave  the  population  as  1,660.  Other  newspapers 
were  established  and  a  number  of  educational  institutions  sprang  up  in 
different  sections  of  the  county.  A  number  of  new  hotels  were  erected 
among  which  may  be  recalled  the  City  Hotel,  Peter  Pierce,  proprietor; 
The  Union  Hotel,  Lewis  Bendele,  proprietor;  The  Virginia  Hotel, 
John  Dade,  proprietor;  and  Baley's  Mansion  House.  These  were  located 
in  Boonville.  The  latter  house  was  the  central  office  of  the  stage  line 
running  from  St.  Louis  to  Independence,  Mo.  At  this  time  Boon- 
ville was  the  most  prosperous  and  flourishing  town  west  of  St.  Louis 
and  the  prosperity  and  trade  of  Boonville  materially  effected  and 
added  to  the  thrift  and  enterprise  of  other  sections  of  Cooper  County. 
Business  men  were  attracted  and  among  those  who  came  to  Cooper 
County  and  settled  in  Boonville  may  be  mentioned  E.  F.  Gillespie,  whole- 
sale and  retail  dealer  in  drugs  and  medicines ;  Bremermann  and  Cuno, 
forwarding  and  commission  merchants ;  Dr.  William  H.  Trigg,  forward- 
ing and  commission  merchant,  extracts  from  whose  interesting  diary 
will  be  found  in  the  preceding  chapter;  Moseley  and  Stanley,  forward- 
ing and  commission  merchants ;  Hammond  and  Judd,  lumber  merchants ; 
N.  Hutchison,  wholesale  druggist;  S.  D.  Falls,  dry  goods;  Thomas  B. 
Veasey,  hardware  merchant;  Aehle  and  Kuechelhan,  wholesale  druggists; 
Walter  and  Keill,  liquors,  dry  goods  and  clothing;  Nelson  Jones  and  Com- 


pany,  dry  goods,  groceries,  etc. ;  Peters  and  Hill,  forwarding  and  commis- 
sion merchants;  and  Talbot  and  Lanny,  clothing. 

In  the  year  1844,  Prof.  F.  T.  Kemper  arrived  in  Boonville  and  estab- 
lished here  a  private  school  laying  broad  and  wide  the  foundation  for  the 
Kemper  Family  School  which  through  years  of  prosperity  and  to  meet 
changing  conditions  became  the  Kemper  Military  School  under  the  super- 
intendency  of  Col.  T.  A.  Johnston.  This  prosperous  military  school  has 
just  closed  the  year  and  celebrated  its  75th  anniversary  with  about  500 
pupils  and  a  graduating  class  of  77. 

It  was  during  this  period,  at  different  times,  that  great  interest  was 
taken  by  the  citizens  of  Cooper  County  in  changing  the  county  seat.  It 
will  be  recalled  that  Boonville  was  made  the  county  seat  and  the  first 
court  house  was  completed  in  1823.  Asa  Morgan  and  Charles  Lucas, 
when  they  laid  out  Boonville,  agreed  to  donate  50  acres  of  land  to  the 
county  provided  that  Boonville  was  made  the  permanent  county  seat. 
Lucas,  however,  did  not  live  to  carry  out  his  agreement.  He  was  killed 
in  a  duel  with  Thomas  H.  Benton  on  Sept.  27,  1817,  on  Bloody  Island 
near  St.  Louis.  However,  on  Aug.  13,  1819,  in  compliance  with  this  agree- 
ment a  deed  was  executed  by  Asa  Morgan  and  Mary  Gilman  as  the 
executrix  of  Charles  Lucas,  deceased,  conveying  to  the  commissioners 
of  Cooper  County  50  acres  of  land  bound  on  the  north  by  the  Missouri 
River,  on  the  west  by  the  west  line  of  Main  street,  and  on  the  south  by 
Chestnut  street,  on  the  east  by  a  line  30  feet  west  of  Eighth  street, 
parallel  with  Eighth  street.  This  tract  of  land  embraced  all  of  lots  num- 
ber 9,  10,  11,  12,  13,  14,  15,  16,  17,  18,  19,  52,  53,  54,  55,  56,  57,  58,  59,  60, 
61,  62,  79,  80,  81,  82,  83,  84,  85,  86,  87,  88,  89,  also  what  was  known  as  , 
the  Court  House  Square,  being  that  land  lying  and  situated  between 
Main  and  Fifth  streets  and  Sixth  street  and  High  and  Court  streets,  and 
also  the  following  lots:  122,  123,  124,  125,  126,  127,  128,  145,  146,  147,  1 
149,  150,  151,  152,  153,  154,  155,  172,  173,  174,  175,  176,  177  (being  the 
lot  upon  which  the  jail  is  located),  178,  179,  180,  181,  182,  199,  200,  201, 
202,  203,  204,  205,  206,  207,  208,  209,  236,  237,  238,  239,  240,  211,  242,  243, 
244,  245,  246,  249,  250,  251,  252,  253,  254,  255,  256,  257,  258,  259,  and 
a  strip  60  feet  wide  off  of  the  west  side  of  lots  8,  63,  78,  129,  144,  183, 
198,  247  and  248,  all  in  the  city  of  Boonville,  Cooper  County,  Mo. 

The  commissioners  to  locate  the  permanent  county  seat  were  Robert 
Wallace,  Benjamin  F.  Hickcox,  and  James  Bruffee.  The  property  above 
donated  to  the  county  is  at  this  time  the  heart  of  Boonville  and  its  value 
would  run  into  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars. 


Four  distinct  efforts  were  made  to  change  the  county  seat  from 
Boonville.  The  first  attempt  was  made  in  1832,  the  second  in  1838,  the 
third  in  1842  and  the  fourth  in  1844.  These  attempts  to  change  the 
county  seat  resulted  in  spirited  campaigns  and  aroused  some  temporary 
bitterness  which  is  usually  the  result  of  county  seat  removal  contests. 

The  third  campaign  (in  1842)  is  of  some  historical  interest  and 
was  very  bitter.  The  bitterness  arose  largely  from  an  unfortunate  occur- 
rence that  gave  soul  and  life  to  the  desire  to  change  the  county  seat 
from  Boonville.  It  had  its  origin  in  the  intense  excitement  existing  be- 
tween the  militia  and  an  organization  known  as  the  "Fantastic  Com- 
pany," of  which  we  here  give  an  account. 

From  the  organization  of  the  government  of  the  state  until  the 
year  1847  there  existed  a  militia  law,  requiring  all  able-bodied  male  citi- 
zens, between  the  ages  of  18  and  45  years,  to  organize  into  companies 
and  to  muster  on  certain  days.  They  had,  during  the  year,  at  different 
times,  a  company,  a  battalion,  and  a  general  muster.  A  company  muster 
was  the  drilling  of  the  members  of  one  company ;  a  battalion  muster 
consisted  in  drilling  the  companies  of  one-half  of  a  county ;  and  a  gen- 
eral  muster  was  a  meeting  of  all  the  companies  of  a  county. 

Muster  day  was,  for  a  long  time  after  the  commencement  of  the 
custom,  a  gala  day  for  the  citizens,  and  was  looked  forward  to  with  con- 
siderable interest,  especially  by  the  different  officers,  who  appeared  in 
full  military  dress,  captains  and  lieutenants  with  long  red  feathers  stuck 
in  the  fore  part  of  their  hats,  and  epaulettes  upon  their  shoulders.  The 
held  officers  mounted  on  their  fine  steeds,  with  continental  cocked  hats, 
epaulettes  upon  their  shoulders  and  fine  cloth  coats  ornamented  with  gold 
fringe,  rode  around  among  the  men  and  gave  orders,  making  themselves 
the  "observed  of  all  observers."  Also  the  venders  of  Avhiskey,  ginger- 
cakes,  apples  and  cider  took  no  small  interest  in  the  anticipated  muster 
clay,  for  on  that  day,  every  person  being  excited,  bought  more  or  less 
of  these  things.  Always  on  muster  days,  after  the  muster  was  over, 
the  rival  bruisers  of  a  neighborhood  tried  their  strength  upon  one  an- 
other, thus  furnishing  a  great  deal  of  amusement  for  those  who  attended. 
The  little  folks  were  also  happy  in  the  anticipation,  if  not  in  the  enjoy- 
ment, of  being  presented  with  a  ginger-cake  and  an  apple  upon  that  day. 

But  after  a  lapse  of  time  these  musters  became  tiresome  to  a  por- 
tion of  the  citizens,  as  they  were  obliged  to  lose  so  much  of  their  valuable 
time  in  order  to  attend  them,  or  were  compelled  to  pay  a  fine  of  one  dollar 
for  each  failure  to  attend  on  muster  day;  besides  they  could  see  no  real 


use  in  continuing  the  organization,  as  there  seemed  no  prospect  soon  of 
the  state  requiring  any  troops,  as  all  was  peaceful  and  quiet  within  its 
borders.  Also,  at  the  elections  for  officers,  many  of  them  were  chosen 
on  account  of  their  personal  popularity,  instead  of  their  qualifications  to 
fill  the  office  for  which  they  were  elected.  Musters,  after  their  novelty 
had  worn  off,  became  very  unpopular,  the  citizens  believing  them  to  be 
an  unnecessary  burden  upon  them. 

Therefore,  some  time  before  the  battalion  muster,  which  was  to  take 
place  at  Boonville,  during  the  year  1842,  a  company,  the  existence  of 
which  was  known  only  to  its  members,  was  formed  at  that  place,  among 
the  members  of  which  were  some  of  the  best  citizens  of  the  city.  This 
company  was  styled  the  "fantastic  company,"  on  account  of  the  queer 
costumes,  arms,  etc.,  of  its  members,  they  being  dressed  in  all  manner 
of  outlandish  costumes,  carrying  every  conceivable  kind  of  a  weapon, 
from  a  broom-stick  to  a  gun,  and  mounted  upon  horses,  mules  and  jacks. 
The  company  was  intended  as  a  burlesque  upon  the  militia,  and  to  have 
some  fun  at  their  expense. 

The  regiment  of  the  state  militia  which  was  to  be  mustered  out  at 
the  above  mentioned  time  was  commanded  by  Col.  Jesse  T.  Turley  and 
Maj.  J.  Logan  Forsythe,  and  was  composed  of  all  the  companies  then  in 
the  north  half  of  the  county.  On  the  morning  of  the  muster  day  Colonel 
Turley  formed  his  regiment  in  front  of  the  court  house.  After  they 
were  organized  and  ready  for  muster  and  drill,  the  fantastic  company, 
which  was  commanded  by  John  Babbitt,  each  member  dressed  in  his 
peculiar  costume  and  carrying  his  strange  weapon,  marched  up  into  full 
view  of  Colonel  Turley's  command,  and  commenced  preparations  to  drill. 
Colonel  Turley,  feeling  indignant  that  his  proceedings  should  be  inter- 
rupted by  such  a  "mob,"  and  believing  that  it  was  intended  as  an  insult, 
ordered  his  command  to  surround  the  fantastic  company. 

There  was  a  high  fence  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  vacant  lot  on 
which  they  were  mustering,  and  Colonel  Turley's  command  surrounded 
the  "Fantastic  Company."  by  approaching  on  High  street,  on  the  alley 
between  Fifth  and  Sixth  streets,  and  on  Sixth  street,  thus  hemming  them 
in  on  the  vacant  lot.  The  latter,  being  closely  pressed,  retreated  back 
across  the  fence,  and  then  commenced  a  fight  by  throwing  brickbats.  The 
fight  immediately  became  general  and  promiscuous,  and  resulted  in  seri- 
ous damage  to  several  members  of  the  State  militia.  Col.  J.  J.  Turley 
was  struck  in  the  side  by  a  stone,  and  two  or  three  of  his  ribs  broken. 
Maj.  J.  Logan  Forsythe  was  struck  by  a  brickbat  in  the  face,  just  below 








his  right  eye,  and  died  the  next  day  of  his  wounds.  The  members  of 
the  fantastic  company  then  dispersed  and  scattered  in  every  direction. 

The  death  of  Major  Forsythe  caused  great  excitement  throughout 
the  county,  and  great  indignation  was  felt  against  the  citizens  of  Boon- 
ville,  so  much  so,  that  a-  petition  was  immediately  circulated,  asking  that 
the  "county  seat  of  Cooper  County  be  removed  from  Boonville,"  to  a 
more  central  point  of  the  county."  So  great  was  the  excitement  that  some 
persons  living  within  three  miles  of  Boonville  signed  this  petition.  But 
the  county  seat,  after  a  severe  struggle  before  the  County  Court,  was 
retained  at  Boonville. 

The  death  of  Major  Forsythe  was  greatly  regretted  by  all  parties, 
for  he  was  an  excellent  citizen  and  a  very  popular  officer.  It  produced 
an  ill-feeling  throughout  the  county,  which  lasted  many  years.  After 
the  fight  was  oVer,  the  militia  went  through  with  their  usual  exercises, 
under  the  command  of  their  subordinate  officers,  as  Colonel  Turley  and 
Major  Forsythe  were  unable,  on  account  of  their  wounds,  to  drill  them. 

The  last  effort  was  as  stated,  in  1844,  by  the  people  of  Palestine 
township.  The  citizens  of  that  township  held  a  meeting  in  March  of 
that  year,  and  agreed  to  submit  the  question  of  changing  the  county  seat 
to  a  vote  of  the  people,  which  was  accordingly  done  at  the  succeeding 
August  election.  The  question  was  decided  adversely  to  those  who  favored 
the  change. 

The  second  court  house  erected  was  completed  in  the  year  1840.  The 
County  Court  at  its  May  term  ordered  that  the  public  square  be  laid  off 
into  lots  and  sold  to  raise  money  to  build  a  new  court  house  and  at  the 
same  time  it  was  ordered  that  the  old  court  house  (the  first  court  house) 
be  sold.  The  money,  however,  realized  from  the  sale  of  these  lots  and 
the  sale  of  the  old  court  house  was  not  sufficient  to  erect  the  new  build- 
ing. The  first  appropriation  made  in  money  for  this  purpose  by  the 
court  was  the  sum  of  $10,800.  Other  appropriations  were  made  from 
time  to  time  until  the  completion  of  the  building,  the  entire  amount  appro- 
priated being  about  $30,000.  This  building,  now  wrecked  and  upon  whose 
site  stands  the  present  handsome  court  house,  was  the  scene  of  many 
political  gatherings  of  the  past  and  spirited  legal  contests  by  the  best 
legal  minds  of  the  state.  It  will  be  cherished  in  the  memory  of  the  pres- 
ent generation.  A  picture  of  this  building  appears  in  this  volume,  as 
well  as  one  of  its  successor,  the  present  elegant  structure.  We  can  but 
wonder  how  those  that  come,  after  us  will  look  upon  our  last  effort  in 


erecting  a  court  of  justice.  In  50  years  will  they  consider  it  as  inade- 
quate, as  antiquated,  as  dangerous  and  unsanitary,  as  we  of  today  con- 
sidered its  predecessor?  Doubtless  more  so,  for  the  human  race,  not  with 
mincing  steps  but  with  giant  strides,  is  moving  forward. 

There  are  few  living  at  the  present  time  who  recall  the  intense 
excitement  of  the  years  1849  and  1850  caused  by  the  discovery  of  gold 
in  California.  At  this  time,  the  period  of  its  greatest  excitement,  the 
people  generally  throughout  the  American  Union  became  deeply  inter- 
ested and  thousands  upon  thousands  were  filled  with  the  lust  for  gold. 
It  would  be  strange  indeed,  if  this  mania  did  not  penetrate  Cooper  County 
and  arouse  to  action  the  hardy  and  adventurous  settlers  of  that  day. 
While  it  may  not  be  a  beautiful  sentiment,  yet  in  a  measure  mankind 
responds  to  the  expression  of  the  poet, 

"Gold  is  the  strength,  the  sinews  of  the  world ; 
The  health,  the  soul,  the  beauty  most  divine." 

Cooper  County  sent  forth  to  the  gold  fields  of  California  many  of 
her  sons,  some  of  whom  were  past  the  middle  age  with  silvered  locks, 
others  were  boys  still  in  their  teens,  all  animated  with  the  hope  and 
strong  desire  that  their  labors,  their  sacrifices,  their  dangers,  and  their 
bravery  would  be  rewarded  with  an  abundance  of  the  glittering  and 
precious  ore.  The  desert  plains  over  which  they  traveled  to  reach  the 
gold  fields  were  littered  with  broken  wagons  and  carcasses  of  beasts  of 
burden  and  here  and  there  the  mouldering  remains  of  men.  Joaquin 
Miller,  the  poet  of  the  Sierras,  has  said,  "The  coward  never  started  and 
the  weak  did  not  arrive."  We  are  unable  to  give  the  names  of  all  those 
hardy  seekers  after  gold  who  left  our  county  at  this  time,  however,  we 
here  give  the  names  of  a  portion  of  the  companies  of  Capt.  Robert  Mc- 
Culloch  and  Solomon  Houck: 

Robert  McCulloch's  company:  Spotswook  McCulloch,  Joseph  McCul- 
loch,  John  McCulloch,  Robert  Douglass,  Charles  Lewis,  Merriweather 
Lewis,  Nicholas  Lewis,  Abraham  Weight,  John  Simmons,  Joseph  Potter, 
Nelson  Potter,  John  Hornbeck,  Perry  Taylor,  Alfred  Hornbeck,  C.  W. 
Sombart,  Julius  Sombart,  Robert  Allison,  Love  Wadly,  Erhart,  Sr.,  Au- 
gust Erhart,  Albert  Erhart,  William  Hardcastle,  Reuben  Stevens  and 
James  Humes,  of  Moniteau  County;  Ewing  Kelly,  Joseph  Hess,  John 
Kelly,  Peter  Kelly,  Bear,  Sr.,  Frank  Bear,  John  Carey,  William  Son,  George 
Kelly,  Oldhausen  and  son  and  Richard  Bidel,  of  St.  Louis  County;  Louis 
Brant,  Dr.  Antrim,  and  Abraham  Reidmeyer,  William  Reidmeyer  and 
John  Hahn,  from  Ohio ;  Joseph  Byler,  Calvin  Wilson,  Simon  Boyd,  Doctor 


Cooper,  Universalist  preacher;  C.  B.  Combes,  Thomas  Chambers,  Charles 
Mitchell,  Absalom  Meredith,  John  Baldwin,  Jacob  Gype,  John  Mars,  Cal 
Mason,  John  Oglesby,  Thomas  Mitchell,  Jacob  Harrier,  Horace  Hutchin- 
son, William  Samuels,  William  Wheatley,  Samuel  Row,  John  Porter. 

Upon  the  eve  of  his  departure  for  California,  one  of  the  Cooper 
County  boys  thought  to  be  the  late  Col.  Horace  A.  Hutchison  penned  the 
following  beautiful  and  touching  farewell: 

Farewell,  farewell,  my  native  land, 
I  leave  thee  only  with  a  sigh, 
To  wander  o'er  a  foreign  strand, 
Perchance  to  live,  perchance  to  die. 
Adieu,  my  friends,  whom  kindred  ties 
Unite,  though  distant  we  may  rove, 
•      How  ardent  as  time  onward  flies, 

Fond  memory  clings  to  those  we  love. 

O'er  the  broad  plains,  far  away, 
Beyond  the  Rocky  Mountain's  crest, 
Our  wayward  feet  awhile  shall  stray, 
And  press  the  gold-besprinkled  west. 
But  'mid  the  gaudy  scenes  of  strife, 
Where  gold  to  pride  enchantment  lends, 
We'll  ne'er  forget  that  boon  of  life — 
Companions  dear  and  faithful  friends. 

And  in  the  lapse  of  coming  years, 
Should  fortune  be  not  too  unkind, 
We'll  hope  reward  for  parting  tears, 
In  smiles  from  those  we  left  behind. 
We  go — yet  hoping  to  return, 
Friends  of  our  youth,  to  home  and  you, 
For  these  do  cause  our  hearts  to  yearn, 
E'en  when  we  sigh  Adieu — Adieu. 

There  are  few  now  living  in  Cooper  County  who  were  old  enough 
in  1853  to  remember  the  intense  excitement  and  the  bitterness  incident 
thereto,  caused  by  the  temperance  movement  inaugurated  by  the  Crystal 
Fount  division  of  the  Sons  of  Temperance  in  that  year. 


Sixty-six  years  ago  saloons  were  common  in  Boonville,  and  in  all 
probability,  there  were  four  times  as  many  as  at  the  present  time. 
Whiskey  was  cheap,  and  its  use  was  common.  The  "worm  of  the  still" 
could  be  found  wherever  the  thirst  demanded.  As  a  rule  drug  stores, 
grocery  stores,  general  merchandise  stores,  dry  goods  stores,  and  nearly 
all  mercantile  establishments  carried  their  barrel  or  barrels  of  whiskey. 
Although  a  merchant  may  have  depreciated  the  sale  of  intoxicating 
liquors,  he  was  practically  forced  to  yield  to  the  common  custom  by 
reason  of  the  practise  of  his  competitors. 

The  Sons  of  Temperance  secured  the  services  of  Rev.  William  Ross, 
Deputy  Grand  Worthy  Patriarch  of  Missouri,  who  delivered  a  number 
of  stirring  lectures  in  the  Methodist,  Episcopal  and  Presbyterian 
churches  in  this  city.  The  Reverend  Ross  was  pugnacious,  possessed  of 
fervent  eloquence,  and  used  a  trenchant  tongue.  Like  the  woodman 
he  cared  not  where  the  chips  flew.  He  was  more  belligerent  than  dis- 
creet, but  withall,  his  methods  were  well  calculated  to  arouse  intense 
interest  and  excitement  in  his  hearers.  He  was  radical  in  his  views,  and 
by  the  bold  and  denunciatory  manner  in  which  he  spoke  of  the  liquor 
traffic,  and  those  who  drank,  incurred  the  resentment  and  displeasure  of 
the  saloon-keepers  of  the  town,  as  well  as  those  who  patronized  them. 

The  interest  in  his  subject  by  his  listeners  deepened  and  continued 
to  increase  from  day  to  day  until  it  reached  its  culminating  point  on 
July  17,  1853.  Upon  that  Sunday,  a  meeting  of  the  friends  of  temper- 
ance was  advertised  to  be  held  at  the  Presbyterian  Church,  where  Rev. 
William  Ross  would  deliver  one  of  his  interesting  lectures. 

H.  D.  Benedict  was  the  mayor  of  the  city  of  Boonville  at  that  time. 
Fearing  serious  results  from  the  bitterness  manifested  on  both  sides, 
on  the  16th  of  July,  the  day  preceding  the  day  of  the  lecture,  he  had 
published  the  following  proclamation,  which  speaks  for  itself: 

"Whereas,  a  certain  itinerant  lecturer,  calling  himself  "Billy  Ross," 
has  been  disseminating  discord  and  dissention  in  this  community,  by 
vituperation  and  abuse,  under  the  guise  of  temperance  lectures;  and, 
whereas,  it  is  said  that  sundry  persons  have  armed  themselves  and 
threatened  to  assemble  for  combat — some  to  encourage  and  others  to 
stop  said  Ross  in  his  course — these  are  therefore  to  forbid  all  such  riotous 
and  unlawful  assemblages.  And  the  police  of  this  city  are  hereby  re- 
quired to  suppress  and  disperse  all  riotous  and  unlawful  assemblies  in 
this  city. 


In  testimony  whereof,  I,  H.  B.  Benedict,  mayor  of  the  city  of  Boon- 
ville,  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  caused  to  be  affixed  the  seal  of  the 
city,  at  office,  this  16th  day  of  July,  1853. 

"H.  B.  BENEDICT,  Mayor." 

Following  his  proclamation  by  action,  the  mayor  immediately  organ- 
ized a  force  numbering  62  men,  of  which  he  was  the  leader,  and  marched 
to  the  Presbyterian  Church  on  the  17th  of  July,  where  he  took  posses- 
sion of  the  church  and  premises.  Many  came  to  the  church,  at  the  ap- 
pointed hour,  but  were  prevented  from  entering  the  building  by  the 
mayor  and  his  force,  and  the  assembled  crowd  was  quietly  dispersed.  No 
resistance  was  offered  nor  was  there  any  riotous  demonstration.  The 
partisan  of  the  respective  parties  to  the  controversy  commended  and 
condemned  in  turn  the  action  of  the  mayor,  according  to  the  respective 
inclinations,  and  their  interest  in  the  imbroglio. 

However,  a  committee  was  appointed  by  the  temperance  organiza- 
tion of  Boonville,  and  in  the  following  language.,  gave  vent  to  their  feel- 
ing, and  thus  expressed  their  views  of  the  action  of  the  police  force: 

"Who  made  up  that  (so-called)  police  force?  Everybody  in  Boon- 
ville knows.  Whisky  traders,  grog-shop  keepers  and  their  bloated  cus- 
tomers, black-legs,  infidels — some  known  long  and  truly,  to  be  infidels 
alike  towards  all  that  is  divine  in  Christianity,  and  pure  and  sacred  in 
the  principles  of  a  well-ordered  domestic  and  social  life.  When  Mr.  Ross 
together  with  his  peacable,  forbearing,  but  deeply  outraged  audience, 
assembled  at  the  church-yard  gate,  around  the  church  enclosure,  and 
looked  over,  they  saw  men  who  for  weeks  before  had  been  breathing 
"threatenings  and  slaughter"  against  Mr.  Ross  (for  no  other  reason 
than  this  only;  that  he  had  assaulted  within  the  walls  of  the  churches 
of  this  city,  the  Hydra  monster  whisky),  herded  together,  all  who  heart- 
lessly trade  in,  and  fatten  upon  the  profits  of  the  poison. 

"Large  numbers  of  ladies,  with  the  general  multitude,  lingered 
around  the  gate,  and  gazed  with  mingled  feelings  of  pity,  suppressed 
indignation  and  contempt  upon  the  motley  mass  of  disgusting,  animan 
and  moral  putrescence  that  made  up  almost  the  entire  number  of  the 
legalized  mob  that  invested,  by  barbarian,  bacchanalian  authority  the 
peaceful  premises  of  that  deeply  dishonored  sanctuary." 

From  the  past,  we  often  learn  the  present.  Thus  it  is  seen  that  in 
those  years  long  past,  the  men  and  the  women  who  passed  their  brief 
hour  upon  the  stage,  and  whose  memory  we  honor  and  revere,  gave  vent 


to  their  feelings  and  convictions,  in  language  at  times  virile,  vigorous 
and  bitter,  much  as  we  today  are  wont  to  do,  losing  sight  of  the  senti- 
ment and  the  poet's  vision, 

"Life  is  too  brief 
Between  the  budding  and  the  falling  leaf, 
Between  the  seed  time  and  the  golden  sheaf, 
For  hate  and  spite. 

"Life  is  too  swift 
Between  the  blossom  and  the  white  snow's  drift, 
Between  the  silence  and  the  lark's  uplift, 
For  bitter  words." 

As  heretofore  stated,  the  admission  of  Missouri  into  the  Union 
aroused  such  intense  and  bitter  agitation  throughout  the  whole  country 
that  it  was  feared  by  some  of  the  wisest  statesmen  of  the  day  that  it 
would  disrupt  the  Union.  Thi-oughout  the  years  succeeding  the  admis- 
sion of  Missouri  until  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  the  pro-slavery  and 
anti-slavery  agitators  were  busy  and  active.  In  1855  the  feeling  became 
intensified.  Cooper  County  at  that  time  was  settled  mostly  by  people 
from  the  southern  states  and  their  deep  sympathy  was  with  the  pro- 
slavery  cause.  At  this  time  the  German  population  of  Cooper  County 
was  not  large,  yet  not  being  slave  holders  nor  attached  by  tradition  to 
the  slave  holding  cause,  they  were  not  in  sympathy  with  the  pro-slavery 

At  a  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Cooper  County,  held  at  Bell  Air,  on 
Saturday,  June  30,  1855,  for  the  purpose  of  appointing  delegates  to  attend 
the  pro-slavery  convention  to  be  held  at  Lexington,  Mo.,  on  the  12th  day 
of  July,  1855,  the  following  delegates  were  appointed:  Boonville  town- 
ship. J.  L.  Stephens,  W.  Douglass,  A.  W.  Simpson,  J.  M.  Nelson,  J.  W. 
Torbert,  W.  N.  Ragland,  Isaac  Lionberger,  John  Combs,  T.  V.  Hickox, 
Benjamin  Tompkins;  Lamine  township,  Freeman  Wing,  Jesse  B.  Tiuiey, 
S.  W.  McMahan;  Saline  township,  John  L.  O'Bryan,  W.  T.  Thorton,  J.  K. 
Ragland,  A.  W.  Lucky;  Clarks  Fork  township,  Robert  McCulloch,  Henry 
Mills,  A.  Greenhalgh,  Charles  Q.  Lewis;  Moniteau  township,  A.  K.  Longan, 
D.  Jones,  D.  P.  Swearingen,  J.  Baughman,  Dr.  William  H.  Ellis:  Kelly 
township,  W.  McCurdy,  A.  Nelson,  Dr.  E.  Chilton;  Palestine  township, 


William  Bradley,  R.  L.  Bradley,  B.  C.  Clark,  R.  H.  Menefee,  James  L. 
Bell,  L.  C.  Stephens,  R.  A.  Ewing;  Clear  Creek  township,  James  B.  Harris, 
George  S.  Cockrill,  Samuel  B.  Mahan;  Pilot  Grove  township,  Dr.  W.  W. 
Harriman,  Dr.  J.  K.  McCabe,  W.  M.  Taylor,  John  Miller;  Blackwater 
township,  N.  Sutherlin,  Thomas  L.  Williams,  Richard  Marshall,  John  A. 
Trigg;  Lebanon  township,  Richard  Willis,  Thomas  McCulloch,  Dr.  Sam- 
uel H.  Saunders,  H.  W.  Ferguson,  Geo.  Harland.  L.  C.  Stephens,  presi- 
dent; William  Bradley  and  J.  M.  Nelson,  vice-presidents;  Bennett  C. 
Clark,  secretary. 

About  this  time  great  efforts  were  being  made  by  both  the  contend- 
ing forces  in  the  slavery  controversy  to  settle  the  State  of  Kansas  with 
their  respective  adherents.  It  would  be  difficult  and  it  is  not  the  purpose 
in  this  volume  to  portray  the  unreasonable  bitterness  arising  therefrom, 
but  that  our  old  citizens  of  Cooper  were  active  in  the  controversy  and 
the  Kansas  troubles  of  1856  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  on  Aug.  20, 
1856,  a  call  was  made  in  Boonville  for  men  and  money  from  the  citizens 
of  Cooper  County  to  aid  the  pro-slavery  party  in  Kansas.  One  of  the 
posters  announcing  the  call  is  as  follows:  "A  meeting  of  the  citizens 
of  Cooper  County  will  be  held  at  the  court-house,  in  Boonville,  on  Satur- 
day, the  23rd,  for  the  purpose  of  raising  men  and  money  to  aid  the  law 
and  order  men  in  Kansas.  Let  every  pro-slavery  man  attend.  Bring 
your  guns  and  horses.  Let  us  sustain  the  Government,  and  drive  back 
the  abolitionists  who  are  murdering  our  citizens."  The  above  was  signed 
by  some  of  the  prominent  citizens  of  the  town,  who  sent  men  and  money 
to  Kansas. 

The  practical  unanimity  among  the  citizens  of  Cooper  County  as  to 
the  slavery  issue  was  manifested  in  the  elections  of  1856  and  1860.  In 
1856  there  were  three  candidates  for  President  in  the  field,  namely: 
James  Buchanan,  Democrat;  Millard  Fillmore,  American;  and  John  C. 
Freemont,  Republican.  There  was  no  ticket  in  Cooper  County  for  Free- 
mont.  Millard  Fillmore  carried  the  county  over  James  Buchanan  by 
about  eight  votes,  so  nearly  even  were  the  two  parties,  but  so  small 
the  adherents  of  the  Republican  pai'ty  that  no  ticket  was  in  the  field. 

At  the  next  presidential  election  in  1860  the  candidates  were  Stephen 
A.  Douglas,  Union  Democrat;  John  C.  Breckenridge,  Southern  Democrat; 
Abraham  Lincoln,  Republican;  and  John  Bell,  Union. 

Douglas  carried  Cooper  County  by  a  small  majority,  Bell  running 
him  close.    Breckenridge  had  a  small  vote  and  Lincoln  but  twenty  votes. 


So  strange  it  seemed  at  that  time  that  any  one  should  vote  for  Lincoln 
that  the  names  of  those  who  voted  for  him  were  afterwards  published 
in  the  newspapers  as  an  item  of  curiosity.  The  result  of  the  foregoing 
elections  demonstrates  that  while  the  citizens  of  Cooper  County  were 
for  slavery,  yet  they  were  against  secession  and  loyally  in  favor  of  the 




The  novelist  will  take  the  most  fragile  thread  of  fact,  and  from  this, 
with  cunning  skill,  weave  a  fabric  of  romantic  and  surpassing  beauty. 
The  historian  in  comparison  must  be  prosy,  eschewing  all  of  the  myths, 
and  avoiding  legends,  the  essence  of  poesy  and  songs.  As  one  has  said, 
he  must  "nothing  extenuate,  nor  set  down  aught  in  malice."  History  is 
a  skeleton  of  the  past.  It  is  not  in  the  power  of  man  to  visualize  it 
with  flesh  and  blood,  make  the  dead  past  the  living  present. 

After  the  lapse  of  more  than  half  a  century,  the  bitterness  of  the 
Civil  War  is  but  a  memory,  and  with  the  younger  generation,  only  a 
tradition.  It  is  not  intended  in  this  chapter  to  discuss  the  causes  and 
long  chain  of  events  that  led  up  to  the  sanguinary  and  internecine  war  of 
1861-65.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  human  slavery  is  abolished.  Who  can 
now  regret  it?  The  Union  is  established,  one  and  inseparable.  The 
hand  of  God  has  fashioned  a  nation.  In  the  time  of  need,  He  has  been 
the  giant  of  strength,  to  stay  the  ruthless  onward  rush  of  might.  To 
the  peoples  of  the  earth,  and  the  powers  of  the  world,  our  country  pro- 
claims the  doctrine  that  the  right  of  man  must  prevail  over  the  might 
of  kings  and  classes. 

To  give  a  detailed  account  of  all  that  transpired  here  in  the  war  of 
rebellion,  or  the  Civil  War,  would  require  a  much  larger  volume  of  space 
than  we  have  at  our  command.  The  following  pages  only  profess  to 
give  without  comment,  some  of  the  facts  as  they  occurred. 

Cooper  County  suffered  a  great  deal  during  the  war.  Her  territory 
was  nearly  all  the  time  occupied  by  either  one  party  or  the  other,  and 


the  citizens  were  called  upon  to  contribute  to  first  one  of  the  contending 
forces  and  then  the  other.  Again,  some  of  the  most  inexcusable  crimes 
and  murders  were  committed  within  the  territory  of  Cooper  County, 
which,  while  not  a  part  of  the  war  proper,  will  be  given  in  another  chapter. 

Battle  Below  Boonville. — Governor  Jackson  and  General  Price,  on 
June  11,  1861,  left  Jefferson  City,  where  the  Legislature  was  in  session, 
sought  an  interview  with  Generals  Lyon  and  Blair,  and  made  proposi- 
tions for  a  compromise,  on  the  basis  of  neutrality,  etc.  The  two  last 
mentioned  generals  refused  to  make  any  compromise  whatever.  They 
claimed  the  "unrestricted  right  to  move  and  station  the  troops  of  the 
United  States  throughout  the  State,  whenever  and  wherever,  in  their 
opinion,  they  thought  it  to  be  necessary,  either  for  the  protection  of 
loyal  citizens  of  the  Federal  Government,  or  for  the  repelling  of  an 

Governor  Jackson  and  General  Price,  after  this  unsuccessful  en- 
deavor to  bring  about  peace,  returned  to  Jefferson  City,  and  the  Governor 
issued  a  proclamation,  calling  into  the  active  service  of  the  State  50,000 
men.  General  Lyon,  a  few  days  afterwards,  issued  a  counter  proclama- 
tion, in  justification  of  his  course  in  refusing  to  compromise  with  Gov- 
ernor Jackson  and  General  Price. 

General  Lyon  then  moved  his  troops  to  Jefferson  City,  and  on  his 
arrival  at  that  place,  he  found  that  Governor  Jackson  had  moved  his 
forces  50  miles  above,  to  Boonville,  cutting  the  telegraph  lines,  and 
destroying  the  bridges  on  the  railway  as  he  proceeded.  General  Lyon, 
leaving  Colonel  Boernstein  in  command  of  a  small  force  at  the  capital, 
on  the  afternoon  of  the  16th  day  of  June,  1861,  embarked  his  forces  on 
three  steamers,  and  ascending  the  Missouri  River,  they  arrived  at  Roche- 
port  about  six  o'clock  on  the  following  morning.  There  he  ascertained 
that  the  State  troops,  under  General  Marmaduke  (Price  at  that  time 
being  sick),  were  in  full  force  a  few  miles  below  Boonville,  and  that 
resistance  might  be  expected  from  them1,  should  he  attempt  to  reach 
Boonville  by  that  road.  Leaving  this  place,  and  taking  the  steam  ferry- 
boat, Paul  Wilcox,  General  Lyon's  command  ascended  the  river  to  the 
island,  eight  miles  below  Boonville,  which  was  reached  at  about  seven 
o'clock  a.  m.,  and  on  the  southern  shore  of  which  the  command  disembarked. 

No  enemy  being  in  sight,  and  the  scouts  reporting  no  sign  of  any, 
the  troops  at  once  marched  up  the  Missouri  River  towards  Boonville,  and 
followed  the  road  about  a  mile  and  a  half,  to  the  place  where  it  ascends 
the  bluffs,  from  the  river  bottom.     At  this  place,  several  shots  from 


General  Lyon's  scouts  announced  the  driving  in  of  General  Marmaduke's 
pickets.  General  Lyon  then  advanced  for  nearly  a  mile,  and  found  Gen- 
eral Marmaduke  well  posted  at  the  brow  of  the  ascent.  Captain  Totten 
opened  the  engagement  by  throwing  a  few  nine  pound  bombshells  into 
the  entrenchments  of  the  State  troops,  while  the  infantry  commenced 
a  heavy  volley  of  musketry,  which  was  well  replied  to,  the  balls  flying 
thick  and  fast  among  the  ranks  of  the  troops,  and  wounding  several  on 
both  sides. 

The  State  troops,  under  the  command  of  General  Marmaduke,  were 
posted  in  a  lane  running  from  the  Rocheport  road  in  the  direction  of 
the  river,  and  west  of  the  residence  of  William  M.  Adams,  on  the  north- 
west corner  of  the  junction  of  the  two  roads.  During  the  fight  a  couple 
of  bombs  were  thrown  through  the  east  wall  of  Mr.  Adam's  house,  caus- 
ing the  inmates  to  retreat  to  the  cellar  for  protection.  A  heavy  fire  from 
Colonel  Shaefer's  German  infantry,  General  Lyon's  company. of  regulars, 
and  part  of  Colonel  Blair's  regiment  which  were  stationed  on  the  left 
of  the  road,  compelled  the  troops  of  General  Marmaduke  to  retreat. 

His  force  then  clambered  over  the  fence  into  a  field  of  wheat,  and 
again  formed  in  line  just  below  the  brow  of  the  hill.  They  then  advanced 
some  twenty  steps  to  meet  the  Federal  troops,  and  for  a  short  time  the 
artillery  of  Captain  Totten  was  worked  with  great  rapidity.  Just  at  this 
the  State  troops  opened  a  galling  fire  from  a  grove  just  on  the  left 
of  the  Federal  center,  and  from  a  shed  from  beyond  and  still  farther 
to  the  left. 

What  had  been  before  this  a  skirmish  now  assumed  the  magnitude 
of  a  battle,  which  continued  only  about  a  half  hour.  The  State  troops 
finding  the  Federals  too  strong  and  too  well  armed  and  drilled  to  be 
successfully  opposed  by  raw  recruits  (most  of  them  had  never  been  under 
fire)  and  having  no  artillery  with  which  to  return  the  fire  from  General 
Lyon's  batteries,  abandoned  the  fight  and  retreated.  Captains  Cole  and 
Miller  took  possession  of  "Camp  Bacon,"  where  the  State  troops  had  been 
encamped  for  two  days. 

General  Lyon  continued  his  march  towards  Boonville.  He  was  met 
on  the  hill  near  the  residence  of  T.  W.  Nelson,  by  James  H.  O'Bryan, 
acting  mayor  of  Boonville,  Judge  G.  W.  Miller,  and  other  prominent  citi- 
zens, who  formally  surrendered  the  town  to  him,  and  he  immediately 
marched  into  and  took  possession  of  it. 

General  Marmaduke  commanded  the  State  troops  on  this  occasion. 
General  Price  was  in  ill  health,  and  on  the  day  on  which  the  battle 


occurred  he  left  Boonville  on  a  steamboat  for  Lexington.  Governor  Jack- 
son was  on  the  battleground  in  the  forenoon,  but  left  Boonville  on  the 
Georgetown  road  about  11  o'clock  of  that  day.  In  this  engagement  two 
of  Lyon's  men  were  killed  and  nine  wounded.  Among  the  State  troops, 
three  were  killed  and  several  wounded,  but  the  number  of  these  is 

Kelly's  was  the  only  well  organized  and  well  drilled  company  under 
the  command  of  General  Marmaduke,  and  it  did  not  participate  in  the 
battle.  It  is  said  that  General  Price  was  opposed  to  making  a  stand 
against  General  Lyon  at  the  time,  as  all  of  his  troops,  except  Kelly's 
company,  were  raw  recruits  and  very  poorly  armed  and  drilled,  having 
rallied  at  Boonville  during  the  preceding  three  days.  There  was  consid- 
erable controversy  among  the  officers  and  men,  whether,  considering  the 
circumstances,  a  stand  or  retreat  should  be  made;  but  some  of  the  most 
enthusiastic,  whose  counsel  prevailed,  said  that  they  had  come  to  fight 
and  they  intended  to  do  so.  There  were  several  prisoners  taken  by  Gen- 
eral Lyon,  but  they  were  afterwards  released  on  parole. 

The  next  day  after  the  battle,  General  Lyon  issued  a  proclamation, 
offering  full  pardon  to  all  who  would  lay  down  their  arms,  return  to 
their  homes,  relinquish  their  hostility  to  the  United  States  Government, 
and  persons  who  did  this  were  assured  that  they  would  not  be  molested 
for  past  offenses.  Many  w'ho  had  taken  part  in  this  battle  availed  them- 
selves of  the  opportunity  offered  by  General  Lyon,  and  some  of  them 
never  took  up  arms  again  during  the  war. 

General  Lyon  remained  at  Boonville  for  several  weeks,  during  which 
time  he  purchased  a  large  outfit  of  wagons,  horses  and  mules,  paying 
fair  prices  for  them,  no  pressing  or  forced  sales  being  made.  He  a] 
captured  every  steamboat  that  passed  down  the  river.  On  the  third  day 
of  July,  having  received  reinforcements  of  an  Iowa  regiment,  he  took 
his  departure  for  the  southwest,  his  objective  point  being  Springfield. 
A  short  time  before,  General  Blair  left  for  Washington,  to  take  his  seat 
in  Congress,  he  having  been  elected  a  representative  from  St.  Louis. 

This  being  the  first  battle  of  the  Rebellion  which  was  fought  on 
land,  the  taking  of  Fort  Sumter  having  occurred  only  a  short  time  before, 
produced  great  excitement  throughout  the  United  States,  and  General 
Blair  on  his  way  to  Washington  was  met  by  great  crowds  of  his  friends, 
and  lionized,  feasted,  and  toasted,  as  the  "hero  of  the  hour." 

Before  General  Lyon  left  Boonville,  Maj.  Joseph  A.  Eppstein  organ- 
ized two  companies  of  home  guards,  composed  entirely  of  Germans,  which 


were  commanded  by  him.  They  thi-ew  up  fortifications  at  the  old  fair 
grounds.  When  he  moved  to  Springfield,  he  left  Major  Curly,  who  was 
shortly  afterwards  succeeded  by  Col.  John  D.  Stephenson,  in  command 
at  the  fortifications. 

Doctor  Quarles  was  among  the  killed  of  the  State  troops.  His  body 
was  found  in  the  wheat  field  late  in  the  evening  after  the  battle,  he  hav- 
ing been  severely  wounded  in  the  thigh,  and  not  being  discovered,  bled 
to  death.  Young  McCutchen  was  also  wounded  in  the  thigh,  and  although 
properly  cared  for,  all  their  efforts  could  not  save  him.  He  died  a  few 
days  after  the  battle.  The  death  of  these  two  gentlemen,  so  young,  so 
.remising  and  kindhearted,  cast  a  gloom  over  the  entire  community, 
and  their  loss  was  universally  regretted  by  all  parties.  The  other  gentle- 
man killed,  who  was  from  Pettis  County,  was  shot  in  the  head,  and  his 
name  is  not  remembered. 

General  Parsons,  with  the  artillery  belonging  to  the  State  troops, 
arrived  too  late  to  engage  in  the  Battle.  He  came  in  on  the  Boonville 
and  Tipton  road,  via  Wilkin's  bridge,  and  halted  at  the  top  of  the  hill, 
south  of  Boonville,  near  Dr.  William  Trigg's  present  residence,  where, 
learning  that  General  Marmaduke  had  been  defeated  and  was  retreating, 
he  took  the  road  leading  from  Boonville  to  Prairie  Lick  in  a  southwest 
direction,  and  soon  formed  a  junction  with  Governor  Jackson's  state  troops. 

General  Lyon,  two  days  after  the  battle  of  Boonville,  sent  a  detach- 
ment of  his  force  southwest,  by  way  of  Syracuse,  as  far  as  Florence, 
Morgan  county,  in  pursuit  of  Governor  Jackson.  But  finding  that  the 
state  troops  had  moved  still  farther  south,  the  command  returned  to 
Boonville  without  meeting  any  of  Jackson's  command. 

Home  Guards  in  Cooper  County. — General  Nathaniel  Lyon,  on  the 
20th  day  of  June,  1861,  organized  and  mustered  into  service  a  company  of 
German  home  guards,  consisting  of  135  men.  Of  this  company  Joseph  A. 
Eppstein  was  elected  captain ;  Emil  Haas,  first  lieutenant ;  Ernest  Roeschel, 
second  lieutenant;  and  John  A.  Hain,  orderly  sergeant.  This  company 
was,  on  the  fourth  day  of  August,  ordered  to  Jefferson  City  for  the  pur- 
pose of  aiding  in  the  protection  of  the  capital.  They  together  with  Colonel 
Brown's  7th  Missouri  regiment,  wei-e,  a  short  time  afterwards,  ordered  to 
Otterville.  They  went  by  rail  to  Syracuse,  and  marched  on  foot  the  bal- 
ance of  the  way  to  Otterville,  which  they  immediately  occupied. 

A  large  number  of  southern  men  living  in  the  vicinity  had  organized 
a  company,  and  under  the  command  of  Captain  Alexander,  James  B.  Harris, 
and  others,  were  camped  near  by.     These  two  commands  for  some  reason 


not  wishing  to  attack  each  other,  made  the  following  compromise  which 
was  suggested  by  the  southern  commanders,  and  after  some  parley,  ac- 
cepted by  Colonel  Brown.  It  was  agreed  that  if  the  Federal  troops  would 
withdraw  from  Otterville,  Captain  Alexander  would  disband  his  forces, 
and  Colonel  Brown  ordered  his  command  back  to  Jefferson  City. 

Afterwards,  the  home  guards,  with  part  of  Colonel  Worthington's 
command,  were  ordered  to  Boonville.  They  ascended  the  Missouri  River 
in  a  steamboat,  and  arrived  at  Boonville  very  early  on  the  morning  of 
the  day  following  their  start  from  Jefferson  City.  The  morning  was  very 
foggy,  so  that  the  boat  could  hardly  be  seen  from  the  shore.  It  passed 
Boonville  under  cover  of  darkness  and  the  fog,  and  landed  at  Haas'  brew- 
ery, situated  about  one-half  of  a  mile  west  of  the  city.  Here  the  home 
guards  disembarked,  and  from  thence  marched  around  and  surrounded 
the  town  before  the  citizens  were  aware  of  their  presence.  Colonel 
Worthington,  with  the  men  of  his  command,  dropped  down  on  the  steam- 
boat landing  at  the  foot  of  Main  street,  and  marched  up  into  the  town. 
He  then  took  a  number  of  prominent  citizens  prisoners,  and  confiscated 
the  contents  of  two  tin  stores  and  one  shoe  store,  the  owners  of  which 
were  charged  with  selling  goods  to  the  Confederates ;  he  also  took  posses- 
sion of  the  Observer  printing  establishment,  then  owned  by  A.  W.  Simp- 
son and  had  the  presses,  type,  etc.,  boxed  up  and  shipped  to  Jefferson  City. 
This  was  all  done  under  the  orders  of  Colonel  U.  S.  Grant  afterwards 
president  of  the  United  States,  who  was  then  in  command  at  Jefferson 
City.  The  home  guards,  together  with  Colonel  Worthington's  command, 
on  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day,  took  with  them  the  prisoners  and  the 
property  which  they  had  confiscated.  The  prisoners  were  afterwards 
released,  and  returned  home;  but  most  of  the  property,  except  that  be- 
longing to  the  printing  establishment,  was  never  seen  again  by  its  owners. 

Aug.  28th,  in  the  same  year,  Gen.  Jeff  C.  Davis  ordered  the  home 
guards  to  reinforce  Colonel  Mulligan  at  Lexington,  Missouri.  Two  days 
before  the  2d  Illinois  regiment  of  cavalry  had  been  ordered  to  the  same 
place,  and  had  started.  When  Colonel  Eppstein,  the  commander  of  the 
home  guards,  arrived  at  Tipton,  he  heard  that  a  part  of  the  2d  Illinois 
cavalry  was  at  Boonville,  and  concluded  to  go  there  also,  and  reported  to 
headquarters,  that  if  they  had  any  orders  for  him,  to  forward  them  to 
him  at  that  place. 

Colonel  Eppstein  was  ordered  by  Gen.  Jeff  C.  Davis,  then  stationed 
at  Jefferson  City,  to  remain  at  Boonville  and  occupy  the  breastworks, 
which  he  did. 


Sept.  1,  1861,  the  troops  around  Boonville  formed  themselves  into  a 
battalion,  consisting  of  two  and  one-half  companies;  companies  A  and  B, 
infantry,  and  one-half  a  company  of  cavalry.  The  officers  of  the  battalion 
were  Joseph  A.  Eppstein,  major;  Emil  Haas,  surgeon;  and  John  A.  Hayne, 
adjutant;  of  company  A,  infantry,  were  John  B.  Keiser,  captain;  John 
Roterd,  first  lieutenant;  Charles  Koch,  second  lieutenant;  of  company  B, 
infantry,  were  Charles  Beihle,  captain;  Joseph  Weber,  first  lieutenant; 
John  Fessler,  second  lieutenant.  The  half  company  of  cavalry  was  com- 
manded by  Peter  Ostermyer. 

About  four  days  afterwards,  this  battalion  received  information  that 
it  would  be  attacked  by  the  Confederates  from  several  surrounding 
counties.  Colonel  Eppstein  immediately  arrested  a  number  of  the  most 
prominent  southern  men  in  Boonville,  viz:  N.  H.  Ells,  Rev.  H.  M.  Painter, 
William  E.  Burr,  J.  W.  Draffen,  James  Harper,  and  Joseph  L.  Stephens, 
and  held  them  as  hostages,  hoping  thereby  to  prevent  the  contemplated 
attack.  But  about  six  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  13th  day  of  Sept., 
1861,  while  Eppstein's  command  was  at  breakfast,  the  pickets  having  all 
come  in,  the  breastworks  were  attacked  by  a  force  of  about  eight  hun- 
dred men  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Brown,  of  Saline  County.  The 
fortifications  were  attacked  on  the  west,  southwest  and  southeast  sides. 
The  first  attack  was  from  the  southwest,  the  next  through  Lilly's  field 
on  the  southeast,  and  finally  extended  around  to  the  west  side.  At  first, 
the  firing  was  very  rapid  from  the  southwest  and  southeast,  and  soon 
afterwards  from  the  side  of  the  fortifications,  the  balls  falling  thick  on 
every  side.  Colonel  Brown  led  the  attack  on  the  southeast,  and  made 
two  charges  upon  the  breastworks,  but  was  compelled  to  fall  back  each 
time  under  the  heavy  fire  from  the  intrenchments.  In  the  second  attack 
Colonel  Brown  was  mortally  wounded,  and  fell  within  50  feet  of  the  breast- 
works. A  short  time  afterwards,  his  brother,  Captain  Brown,  was  also 
mortally  wounded,  and  fell  about  ten  feet  behind  him.  The  Browns  were 
both  brave  men,  and  fought  with  desperation  and  with  utter  disregard 
of  their  own  safety.  After  the  two  Browns  had  fallen  mortally  wounded, 
and  Major  Poindexter  been  left  in  command  of  the  Confederates,  Mr. 
Burr,  who  was  one  of  the  prisoners  at  the  breastworks,  having  become 
satisfied  that  the  entrenchments  could  not  be  taken,  asked,  and  was 
granted  pel-mission  to  visit  the  Confederates,  under  a  flag  of  truce,  in 
order  to  see  what  arrangements  could  be  made  so  as  to  bring  about  a 
cessation  of  hostilities.  The  two  commanders  finally  agreed  upon  an 
armistice  for  seven  days,  Major  Poindexter's  troops  to  be  withdrawn  from 


the  breastworks  and  city,  a  distance  of  three  miles,  and  were  not  to  enter 
town  only  for  medicine  during  that  time;  Poindexter  was  to  return  all 
horses  taken  from  Union  men,  and  surrender  the  arms  of  the  men  who 
had  fallen  in  the  engagements.  If  the  terms  of  the  armistice  were  broken 
by  Poindexter,  then  Rev.  H.  M.  Painter  was  to  be  shot. 

The  home  guards  numbered  about  140  effective  men.  Their  loss  was 
two  killed  and  seven  wounded.  The  names  of  the  killed  were  John  A. 
Hayne,  adjutant,  and  Kimball,  a  private.  The  number  of  Colonel  Brown's 
command  who  were  killed  and  wounded  is  not  known.  Colonel  and 
Captain  Brown  were,  after  the  battle,  taken  to  a  hospital  at  Boonville. 
The  colonel  died  of  his  wounds  the  same  evening;  the  captain  lingered 
until  the  next  day,  when  he  too  died.  Their  bodies  were  taken  to  Saline 
County  for  burial. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  battle,  messengers  were  dispatched  by 
three  different  routes,  viz:  by  way  of  Tipton,  Jefferson  City  road  and 
down  the  river  in  a  skiff,  asking  for  reinforcements.  Of  these  messengers, 
none  reached  Jefferson  City  except  Joseph  Read  and  Joseph  Reavis,  who 
went  down  the  river.  Those  who  went  by  the  way  of  Tipton  and  the 
Jefferson  City  road,  were  captured  by  Colonel  Brown's  men  while  they 
were  on  the  way. 

On  the  14th,  at  10  o'clock  p.  m.,  the  force  at  Boonville  was  reinforced 
by  the  5th  Iowa  regiment,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Worthington, 
which  came  up  the  river  on  a  steamboat.  After  the  armistice  had  ex- 
pired, Major  Poindexter  drew  off  his  men  and  marched  up  the  river  to 
join  General  Price,  at  Lexington. 

In  Nov.,  1861,  a  scouting  party  of  three  men  belonging  to  the  home 
guards,  started  out  to  gain  information  in  regard  to  a  band  of  bush- 
whackers, who  were  thought  to  have  their  headquarters  somewhere  in 
Clark's  Fork  township,  in  this  county.  While  approaching  the  house  of 
William  George,  in  said  township,  they  were  fired  upon  from  the  house, 
and  one  of  their  number  killed.  The  scouts  then  returned  to  Tipton,  and 
having  obtained  reinforcements,  returned  and  burned  William  George's 

On  Sept.  16,  1861,  Colonel  Eppstein's  battalion  was  commanded  by 
Colonel  Worthington  to  take  possession  of  and  guard  the  bridge  across  the 
Lamine  River,  on  the  road  from  Boonville  to  Arrow  Rock.  Before  their 
arrival  at  the  bridge,  they  heard  the  firing  of  several  minute  guns  behind 
them,  which  were  intended  to  warn  the.  state  troops  of  the  approach  of 
Colonel  Eppstein's  men.     They  reached  the  bridge  in  the  night,  and  were 






fired  upon  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  by  the  state  troops,  who 
seemed  to  have  taken  possession  of  the  bridge.  Colonel  Eppstein  returned 
the  fire,  and  mortally  wounded  a  young  man  named  Herndon,  who  lived  in 
Lamine  township,  in  this  county.  He  was  taken  to  the  house  of  Mr. 
William  Higgenson,  where  he  soon  afterwards  expired.  The  state  troops 
soon  retreated  and  left  Colonel  Eppstein's  troops  in  possession  of  the 
bridge,  where  they  remained,  until  Sept.  19th,  when  they  were  ordered 
to  return  to  Boonville. 

Soon  afterwards,  Colonel  Worthington  ordered  Colonel  Eppstein  to 
take  his  command  with  him  and  burn  this  same  bridge,  it  having  been 
reported  that  General  Price's  army  was  marching  towards  Boonville  from 
that  direction,  and  would  probably  cross  the  Lamine  at  this  point.  Colonel 
Eppstein  endeavored  to  dissuade  him  from  this  purpose  by  telling  him 
that  this  would  only  delay  Price  a  single  day,  as  he  could  cross  a  short 
distance  above;  but  Colonel  Worthington  replied  that  it  must  be  done, 
as  he  deemed  it  to  be  a  military  necessity.  So  the  bridge  was  burned 
according  to  his  order.  This  proved  to  be  a  false  alarm,  as  Price  was  not 
on  his  way  to  Boonville,  and  did  not  attempt  to  march  in  that  direction. 

Under  a  special  law  of  congress,  passed  on  account  of  a  general  dis- 
satisfaction among  the  home  guards  all  over  the  state,  Colonel  Eppstein's 
battalion  was  reorganized,  and  became  a  part  of  the  Missouri  state  militia. 
Six  companies  were  raised  and  organized  at  Boonville,  and  to  these  were 
added  two  companies  from  St.  Louis,  thus  forming  the  13th  regiment 
of  the  Missouri  state  militia  cavalry.  The  company  of  infantry  which  was 
commanded  by  Capt.  Charles  Biehle,  joined  the  1st  Missouri  state  militia 
infantry.  Afterwards  the  13th  infantry  was  consolidated  with  four  com- 
panies of  the  12th  regiment,  and  Schofield's  "hussars",  and  from  that 
time  formed  the  5th  regiment,  the  old  5th  having  previously  been  dis- 

The  officers  of  this  regiment  were  Albert  Sigel,  colonel ;  Joseph  A. 
Eppstein,  lieutenant-colonel;  John  B.  Kaiser,  major;  and  John  Fetzer, 
surgeon.  This  regiment  after  being  thoroughly  organized  and  fully 
drilled  and  equipped,  was  ordered  to  Waynesville,  in  the  Rolla  district, 
where  they  remained  and  from  which  place  they  operated  during  the  war. 
Part  of  this  regiment  was  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Brown  during 
his  pursuit  of  Shelby,  when  in  October,  1863,  he  made  his  raid  through 
the  state  in  the  direction  of  Boonville. 

Price's  Raid. — Six  companies  of  the  5th  regiment,  under  the  command 


of  Colonel  Eppstein,  composed  a  portion  of  the  forces  of  General  Sanborn 
during  his  operations  against  General  Price  in  his  raid  through  Missouri 
in  the  fall  of  1864.  General  Sanborn,  at  first  supposing  that  General 
Price  would  march  in  the  direction  of  Rolla,  concentrated  his  forces  at  that 
place,  but  finding  that  General  Price  was  making  for  Jefferson  City,  he 
moved  his  command  to  the  latter  place,  on  the  way  marching  nearly 
parallel  with  the  Confederates ;  for  while  he  was  crossing  the  Osage  River 
at  Castle  Rock,  General  Price  was  crossing  the  stream  eight  miles  below. 
Colonel  Eppstein's  command  had  a  slight  skirmish  with  the  Confederate 
advance  guard  between  the  Osage  and  the  Moreau  creek,  but  he  succeeded 
in  reaching  Jefferson  City  first. 

General  Sanborn  had  concentrated  at  that  place,  3,000  infantry  and 
4,000  cavalry,  most  of  them  regulars,  and  all  of  them  well-armed  and 
drilled.  General  Price's  army  numbered  about  20,000  men,  yet  there  were 
thousands  of  them  who  had  no  arms,  and  had  never  seen  anything  like  a 
battle.  Neither  had  his  troops  been  organized  and  placed  under  com- 
manders, as  many  of  them  had  flocked  to  his  standard  as  he  had  marched 
through  the  state.  As  he  was  continually  on  the  march,  he  had  no  oppor- 
tunity to  effect  organization  in  the  ranks  at  this  time  although  shortly 
afterwards  he  had  them  under  perfect  control. 

Price  only  made  a  slight  attack  on  Jefferson  City  with  a  small  por- 
tion of  his  forces,  then  withdrew  without  a  general  battle,  and  marched 
across  the  country  in  the  direction  of  Boonville.  General  Sanborn,  as 
soon  as  he  learned  the  true  state  of  affairs,  started  his  cavalry  in  pursuit 
of  the  Confederates.  The  cavalry  had  skirmishing  with  the  Confederal  e 
rear  guard,  which  was  commanded  by  General  Fagan  at  Stringtown,  Rus- 
selville,  and  California,  on  the  10th  clay  of  Oct.,  1864.  During  these 
skirmishes,  three  of  Colonel  Eppstein's  men  were  killed  and  13  wounded. 
The  loss  of  the  Confederates  is  unknown.  Price  camped,  on  the  night  of 
the  10th,  on  the  Moniteau  creek  just  within  the  limits  of  Cooper  County, 
and  on  the  next  day  marched  to  Boonville. 

The  P'ederals  moved  west  and  camped  on  the  upper  Tipton  road, 
about  eleven  miles  south  of  Boonville,  at  Crenshaw's  farm.  On  the  12th 
of  Oct.,  Colonel  Graveley,  with  about  four  hundred  mounted  men  of  San- 
bora's  command,  advanced  by  way  of  the  Tipton  road  to  within  about 
one-half  of  a  mile  of  Boonville,  to  test  the  strength,  and  if  possible,  to 
find  out  the  contemplated  movements  of  General  Price's  command.  At 
what  is  known  as  the  Vollrath  place,  about  one-half  mile  south  of  Boon- 
ville, Colonel  Graveley  came  upon  some  Confederate  companies  in  camp, 


and  some  lively  fighting  ensued,  but  finding  the  Confederates  too  strong 
for  them,  the  Federals  retreated  to  the  main  army. 

On  the  12th,  Colonel  Eppstein  with  about  350  men  of  his  command, 
moved  toward  Boonville,  and  camped  at  Bohannon's  farm,  about  seven 
miles  south  of  Boonville.  Early  on  the  morning  of  the  13th,  he  was 
ordered  to  advance  as  far  as  he  could  in  the  direction  of  Boonville,  and 
reconnoitre  General  Price's  position.  Immediately  upon  receiving  this 
order  he  commenced  his  march  with  the  above  mentioned  number  of  men 
and  two  mountain  howitzers,  and  on  arriving  at  Wilkin's  bridge,  across 
the  Petite  Saline  creek,  his  command  was  fired  upon  by  a  band  of  about 
400  men  under  the  command  of  General  Fagan,  who  were  guarding  the 
bridge.  Colonel  Eppstein  returned  the  fire,  and  ordered  four  mounted 
companies  to  dismount  and  deploy  as  skirmishers.  After  some  little 
skirmishing  along  the  banks  of  the  creek,  General  Fagan,  leisurely  re- 
treated toward  Boonville.  After  going  north  about  one-half  of  a  mile, 
to  where  a  lane  crosses  the  main  road,  south  of  Mrs.  McCarty's  house, 
Colonel  Eppstein,  who  was  in  pursuit,  found  that  General  Fagan  had  barri- 
caded the  road  with  trees,  etc.  Here  Miller's  and  Murphy's  companies 
had  a  close  fight  with  the  Confederates,  even  using  swords  and  bayonets. 
These  two  companies  were  surrounded  at  one  time  and  ordered  by  the 
Confederates  to  surrender  but  the  other  two  companies  of  Colonel  Epp- 
stein's  command  coming  up  to  their  aid,  General  Fagan  again  fell  baei,\ 
At  this  place  two  of  the  Federals  were  wounded,  but  none  hurt  upon  the 
other  side. 

General  Fagan  next  made  a  stand  at  Anderson's  branch,  and  here 
the  two  forces  had  a  more  severe  battle.  Three  of  the  Federals  were 
killed,  and  seven  wounded.  The  killed  were:  Fred  Hoecher;  a  man 
named  Jones ;  while  the  name  of  the  other  is  not  known.  The  loss  of  the 
Confederates,  as  was  afterwards  learned,  was  considerable. 

General  Fagan  by  this  time  had  brought  up  four  pieces  of  artillery, 
and  commenced  shelling  the  woods  .-".long  Anderson';,  branch  in  which 
cnel  Eppstein  was  stationed.  The  Federals  then  received  orders  to  f?.ll 
back,  and  retreated  to  California,  Moniteau  County,  to  obtain  supplies. 
They  soon  afterwards  returned  to  Crenshaw's  farm,  and  there  halted 
and  took  dinner.  Here  General  Sanborn  learned  that  Price  had  left  Boon- 
ville, so  marching  west  he  camped  for  the  night  at  New  Nebo  church.  The 
next  morning  he  continued  his  march  in  the  direction  of  Georgetown. 

In. Aug.,  1864,  Captain  Parks  with  two  companies,  of  which  Franklin 
Swap  was  first  lieutenant  and  provost  marshal,  being  a  part  of  the  Iowa 


cavalry,  had  command  of  the  post  at  Boonville.  Finding  but  little  to  do 
on  this  side  of  the  river,  they  crossed  over  into  Howard  County,  in  search 
of  Anderson's  bushwhackers — passed  through  New  Franklin,  and  took 
the  road  east  leading  to  Rocheport.  Although  warned  by  the  citizens  of 
his  danger,  as  Anderson  was  known  to  be  in  full  force  'in  the  neighbor- 
hood, Captain  Parks  marched  on.  When  about  one  mile  east  of  >T 
Franklin,  his  command  was  suddenly  attacked  by  Anderson's  men,  and 
cut  into  two  parts,  seven  of  them  being  killed  by  the  first  fire.  The 
greater  part  of  his  command  retreated  to  a  house  in  the  Missouri  River 
bottom,  and  kept  Anderson  at  bay  by  firing  through  the  cracks  of  the 
house.  Captain  Parks,  at  the  outset,  became  separated  from  his  men. 
and  retreated  towards  Fayette  until  he  met  Major  Leonard's  command, 
which  happened  to  be  marching  in  that  direction.  With  this  he  returned 
to  the  relief  of  his  company,  and  Anderson  having  learned  of  his  approach, 
drew  of  his  men  and  retired. 

The  part  of  Captain  Park's  company  which  had  been  besieged  in  the 
house,  finding  that  Anderson  had  drawn  off  his  men,  mounted  horses, 
came  back  to  Old  Franklin  in  the  night,  and  crossed  the  river  in  safety, 
although  several  men  were  missing.  This  part  of  the  company  knew 
nothing  of  Captain  Parks  until  the  next  day,  when  he  made  his  appearance. 
They  then  recrossed  the  river,  and  having  recovered  the  bodies  of  their 
companions  who  had  ben  killed,  buried  them  in  one  grave  at  the  city  ceme- 
tery, in  the  southwest  part  of  Boonville. 

In  the  winter  of  1862  and  1863,  Colonel  Pope  was  the  commander  of 
several  companies  of  home  militia,  with  headquarters  at  the  fair  grounds 
at  Boonville.  They  disbanded  in  1863,  and  Colonel  D.  W.  Wear  formed  a 
battalion  and  was  commander  of  the  post  at  Boonville.  The  battalion  did 
considerable  scouting,  the  details  of  which  are  not  sufficiently  known  to 
be  given. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Reavis,  while  under  Colonel  Pope,  learning  that 
some  Confederate  recruiting  forces  had  crossed  the  river,  making  their 
way  in  a  southern  direction,  immediately  started  in  pursuit  and  overtook 
them  while  in  camp  in  the  brush,  near  Thomas  Tucker's  house,  about  two 
miles  east  of  Bunceton  in  Cooper  county.  He  fired  upon  them,  killing  two 
men  and  wounding  one.  The  recruits  then  separated  and  made  their  way 
out  of  the  country  by  different  routes.  The  names  of  the  Confederates 
who  were  killed  were  Joshua  Lampton  and  Jones,  from  Boone  County. 
They  were  buried  at  the  "Vine"  or  Concord  church.     The  wounded  man, 


after  recovering,  was  paroled  by  Colonel  Pope,  and  l-eturned  to  his  home 
in  Boone  County. 

Shelby's  Raid. — General  Joseph  Shelby,  of  the  Confederate  army, 
made  a  raid  into  Cooper  County  during  the  month  of  Oct.,  1863.  He 
passed  through  Otterville  on  the  night  of  the  9th  of  said  month,  and 
burned  the  Pacific  railroad  bridge  near  that  town.  On  the  night  of  the 
10th,  he  camped  near  Bell  Air,  in  a  pasture  belonging  to  Mr.  Nathaniel 
Leonard,  and  on  the  next  day  he  marched  to  Boonville.  His  movements 
becoming  known  in  Boonville  the  night  before,  a  meeting  of  the  citizens 
was  called  by  Mayor  McDeramon.  After  some  delay,  the  conclusion  was 
reached  that  the  only  alternative  was  to  surrender  the  city  to  General 
Shelby.  Citizens  were  sent  out  to  meet  him,  who  returned  without  being 
able  to  gain  any  information  as  to  his  whereabouts,  and  they  conveyed  the 
impression  that  he  would  not  pay  his  compliments  to  the  city  during  this 

Therefore,  his  arrival  at  Boonville  on  the  11th  day  of  October,  was 
quite  a  surprise  to  the  citizens.  Several  of  the  citizens  had  crossed  the 
river  into  Howard  County  the  night  before,  having  concluded  that  dis- 
cretion was  the  better  part  of  valor,  that  their  presence  in  Boonville  would 
accomplish  no  good,  and  that  there  would  be  more  safety  in  making  them- 
selves scarce.  J.  L.  Stevens,  R.  F.  O'Brien,  A.  H.  C.  Koontz,  Alex  Frost, 
D.  C.  Koontz,  Leonard  Ware  and  D.  S.  Kcontz  were  in  this  party. 

Just  as  General  Shelby  marched  into  Boonville  from  the  south,  Major 
Leonard,  with  about  250  Federal  troops,  appeared  on  the  north  side  of  the 
river  and  commenced  crossing  his  men.  The  first  boat  load  had  almost 
reached  the  Boonville  shore,  when  some  one  called  to  those  in  the  boat 
that  the  town  was  full  of  Confederates,  and  that  they  had  better  retreat. 
The  pilots  immediately  turned  the  boat  around  and  made  for  the  Howard 
shore.  At  this  time  some  of  Shelby's  men  appeared  and  commenced  firing 
upon  the  boat  with  muskets.  But  the  boat,  having  gotten  out  of  reach 
of  this  fire,  the  Confederates  brought  up  some  artillery  and  opened  fire  on 
the  boat,  two  shots  striking  it  before  it  reached  the  shore.  As  soon  as 
Major  Leonard  landed  his  forces,  the  artillery  was  turned  upon  them,  and 
they  were  soon  forced  to  retire  beyond  the  reach  of  the  shells. 

At  the  same  time,  Colonel  Crittenden,  with  about  one  hundred  men, 
was  seen  steaming  up  the  river  in  a  boat,  but  on  learning  the  situation 
of  affairs  at  Boonville,  he  droped  down  the  river  and  landed  a  short  dis- 
tance below,  in  Howard  county. 


General  Shelby  remained  in  Boonville  the  balance  of  the  afternoon 
of  that  day,  and  encamped  for  the  night  west  of  the  city  on  the  George- 
town road.  He  came  here  to  obtain  supplies,  such  as  clothing  and  pro- 
visions, which  they  found  in  great  abundance,  and  which  they  took, 
wherever  found.  M.  J.  Wertheimer  and  Messrs.  Lamy  &  McFadden  were 
the  greatest  sufferers,  each  losing  about  $4,000  in  clothing.  The  Con- 
federate troops  did  not  molest  any  person  during  their  stay ;  not  a  single 
man  was  killed  or  wounded,  and  they  were  very  polite  and  gentlemanly 
to  every  person. 

While  the  Confederates  were  in  Boonville,  the  Federals,  under  Gen- 
eral Brown,  were  close  behind  them,  and  on  the  11th  day  of  October,  were 
within  eight  miles  of  Boonville,  on  the  Bell  Air  road.  On  that  day  Gen- 
eral Brown  moved  a  portion  of  his  troops  west  to  the  junction  of  the 
Sulphur  Springs  and  the  Boonville  and  Georgetown  roads,  which  is  about 
seven  miles  southwest  of  Boonville.  But  during  the  night  he  marched 
his  command  back  again  to  the  Bell  Air  road,  and  camped  near  Billings- 
ville.  The  next  morning  after  General  Shelby  had  left,  the  Federals 
passed  through  Boonville  in  pursuit,  their  advance  just  behind  the  Con- 
federate rear  guard.  Two  of  General  Shelby's  men  who  had  stopped  at 
Mr.  Labbo's  house,  about  one  and  one-half  miles  west  of  Boonville  to  get 
their  breakfast,  were  killed  by  some  Federal  scouts  as  they  appeared  at 
the  front  door,  in  order  to  make  their  escape. 

A  running  fight  was  kept  up  at  intervals,  all  along  the  route  from 
Boonville  to  Marshall.  The  fight  became  pretty  spirited  between  the  Sul- 
phur Springs  and  Dug  Ford;  and  at  Dug  Ford  two  Federals  were  killed 
and  fell  from  their  horses  into  the  water.  During  the  long  running  fight 
there  was  quite  a  number  killed  on  each  side,  but  the  number  is  not  known. 

At  Marshall,  a  battle  took  place,  in  which  a  number  were  killed  and 
wounded  on  each  side.  But  General  Shelby  succeeded  in  escaping  from 
his  ursuers  with  the  loss  of  only  a  small  portion  of  the  stores  which  he 
had  obtained  at  Boonville. 

This  raid,  of  course  produced  great  excitement,  and  in  the  heat  of 
passion,  considerable  censure  was  heaped  upon  the  commanding  officer, 
whether  justly  or  unjustly,  is  left  to  the  reader  to  determine.  General 
Shelby  succeeded  in  getting  back  to  the  lines  without  any  great  loss,  but 
whether  his  entire  anticipations  in  regard  to  obtaining  supplies  and  rein- 
forcements were  fully  realized,  is  not  known.  Major  Leonard  and  Colonel 
Crittenden  crossed  their  commands  over  the  river  to  Boonville  about  ten 
o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  12th,  and  after  stopping  for  dinner,  they 


started  in  the  direction  of  Marshall.  Boonville,  then  was  once  more  clear 
of  troops,  and  the  citizens  had  time  to  gather  together  provisions  to  feed 
the  next  lot  of  hungry  soldiers  who  happened  to  land  whether  Federals 
or  Confederates.  Thus  ended  the  famous  "Shelby's  Raid,"  as  far  as 
Cooper  county  was  concerned. 

Price's  Raid  Into  Cooper  County. — The  Federal  troops  in  the  fall  of 
1864,  having  all  abandoned  Boonville,  three  companies  of  home  guards 
were  organized  for  the  protection  of  the  city  against  what  were  known 
as  the  bushwhackers.  Two  of  these  companies  were  composed  of 
men  belonging  to  both  parties,  who  had  joined  these  companies  with  the 
understanding  that  they  would  only  be  required  to  protect  the  city  against 
bushwhackers  and  plunderers,  and  would  not  be  compelled,  against  their 
wills,  to  fight  against  the  regular  southern  troops. 

Although  there  were  frequent  alarms,  the  bushwhackers  never 
attacked  Boonville,  but  often  during  the  war  made  raids  through  the 
county,  in  which  many  citizens  were  killed.  They  always  took  anything 
they  wished,  no  matter  in  whose  hands  it  was  found.  There  were  also 
bands  of  robbers  moving  continually  through  the  county,  who  cared  noth- 
ing for  either  party,  and  who  robbed  and  killed  without  discrimination  or 
regard  to  party.  During  the  year  1864,  many  good  citizens,  belonging  to 
each  side,  were  shot  down,  first  by  one  party  and  then  by  another,  and 
many  citizens  abandoned  their  homes,  seeking  places  of  more  security. 
The  details  of  these  murders  and  robberies  are  too  disgraceful  and  sicken- 
ing to  enumerate  in  this  brief  history. 

On  the  11th  day  of  October,  1864,  scouts  brought  information  that  a 
large  hostile  force  was  approaching  Boonville.  These  three  companies, 
being  under  the  impression  that  these  were  Andersons  bushwhackers, 
immediately  erected  a  strong  barricade  across  Fifth  street,  at  Thespian 
hall,  in  Boonville.  They  were  strengthened  in  the  belief  that  these  were 
bushwhackers  from  the  fact  that  they  had  received  a  dispatch  that  after- 
noon from  Mexico,  Missouri,  stating  that  General  Price  had  been  repulsed 
at  Jefferson  City,  and  was  retreating  by  way  of  Tipton. 

So  these  companies  of  home  guards,  expecting  no  quarter  from  Ander- 
son's men,  prepared  to  sell  their  lives  as  dearly  as  they  could,  thinking 
anyway,  that  it  would  be  certain  death  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  Bill  Ander- 
son. Soon  afterwards  Shelby's  command  entered  the  town  with  a  dash, 
killing  a  German  scout  near  Mrs.  Muir's  residence,  about  one  mile  east 
of  Boonville.  The  home  guard  fired  one  round  at  the  advance  guard  of 
Shelby's  command  as  they  advanced  along  Vine  street  near  the  Baptist 


church,  but  their  fire  injured  no  one. 

Learning  that  this  was  but  the  advance  guard  of  General  Price's  large 
army,  and  that  resistance  would  be  useless,  the  home  guards  surrendered 
as  prisoners  of  war.  These  prisoners  were  quartered  at  the  court  house 
and  closely  guarded,  but  the  commissioned  officers  were  paroled.  General 
Shelby,  with  his  command,  entered  about  sundown  on  the  above  mentioned 
day.  General  Price  and  his  staff  made  their  headquarters  at  the  City 
Hotel,  on  Morgan  street.  On  Tuesday,  the  13th  day  of  October,  the  prison- 
ers were  marched  in  front  of  the  city  hall,  ranged  in  line,  and  General 
Price  made  them  a  speech  and  gave  orders  for  their  parole,  on  the  condi- 
tion that  if  they  were  ever  found  with  arms  against  the  south  they  would 
be  shot. 

Price  had  about  20,000  men,  many  of  them  late  Missouri  recruits, 
without  arms.  Some  of  his  command  were  well  armed  and  drilled,  but 
the  greater  part  were  very  poorly  armed.  Their  general  conduct  toward 
the  citizens  during  their  stay  in  Boonville  was  good. 

On  the  night  of  the  13th,  while  Captain  Shoemaker,  who  was  on 
parole,  was  going  from  Capt.  John  Porter's  house  to  his  residence,  on  the 
corner  of  Central  avenue  and  Sixth  streets,  he  was  captured  by  some  men 
who  were  afterwards  discovered  to  be  Anderson's  men,  taken  to  the  fair 
grounds,  killed  and  his  body  thrown  into  the  river.  Two  men,  named  Neef 
and  Boiler,  were  killed  near  their  homes  about  four  miles  west  of  Boon- 
ville also  a  negro  man  who  was  concealed  in  a  corn-shock  on  the  farm  of 
J.  M.  Nelson,  situated  two  miles  west  of  Boonville.  These  were  all  the 
persons  killed  in  this  part  of  the  county,  who  were  not  slain  in  battle, 
whose  names  are  now  recollected. 

Thousands  of  volunteers  in  Missouri  flocked  to  the  standard  of  Gen- 
eral Price,  believing  that  he  would  be  able  to  hold  the  state.  The  rear 
guard  of  General  Price's  army  and  the  advance  guard  of  General  San- 
born's command,  skirmished,  at  intervals,  from  Jefferson  City  to  Boon- 
ville. General  Sanborn's  command  consisted  of  about  4,000  mounted  men. 
The  infantry  command  under  Gen.  A.  J.  Smith,  was  also  in  pursuit,  but 
never  came  within  fighting  distance  of  the  Confederates. 

There  was  considerable  skirmishing  and  some  hard  lighting  south  and 
southeast  of  Boonville,  during  Price's  three  day's  sojourn  at  that  place, 
in  which  a  number  were  killed  and  wounded  on  both  sides.  The  Arkansas 
militia,  under  the  command  of  General  Fagan,  who  were  left  to  protect 


the  rear  of  General  Price's  army,  were  the  greatest  sufferers  among  the 

A  dash  was  made  upon  General  Price's  outposts  by  a  few  companies 
of  Federals,  who  came  so  near  Boonville  that  the  firing  could  be  heard  and 
the  smoke  of  the  battle  seen  from  the  city.  General  Price's  artillery  was 
brought  into  requisition  and  soon  compelled  the  Federals  to  retire.  The 
greater  part  of  Price's  regulars  was  then  called  out,  and  a  general  charge 
having  been  made  all  along  the  line,  the  Federal  army  fell  back  on  the  road 
leading  from  Jefferson  City  to  Georgetown,  via  Bell  Air  and  following  that 
road,  camped  about  four  miles  west  of  Bell  Air,  near  the  farm  of  A.  J. 

Price's  army  left  Boonville  during  the  night  of  Oct.  14th,  having 
remained  three  days.  His  army  took  all  the  horses  in  the  northern  part, 
and  the  Federal  troops  all  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county.  Both  parties 
foraged  upon  the  people  of  the  county  for  the  support  of  their  respective 
armies,  and  left  the  county  pretty  destitute,  especially  of  horses,  hardly 
a  good  one  being  left.  This  was  virtually  the  end  of  the  war  as  far  as 
Cooper  county  was  concerned,  no  more  battles  being  fought  in  it  between 
organized  armies. 

Tompkin's  Inn  was  known  in  the  early  days  as  a  hostelry  of  some 
importance.  The  stage  coach  that  used  to  run  between  Boonville  and 
Jefferson  City  in  the  very  early  days,  during  the  Civil  War  times,  made  a 
stop  at  Tompkin's  Inn. 

This  inn  was  situated  just  below  Prairie  Home  and  was  known  as  the 
Albert  G.  Tompkins  Inn,  and  was  located  on  the  site  of  the  residence  of 
W.  F.  Carpenter.  Here  were  not  only  the  stage  coach  horses  changed, 
but  the  hungry  travelers  were  fed  from  the  substantial  fare  of  the  times, 
and  frequently  were  bedded  for  the  night. 

During  the  Civil  War,  a  squad  of  Federal  troops  came  from  Boonville, 
and  lodged  at  this  inn  one  night.  Captain  Boswell,  who  lived  at  the  time 
on  the  Henry  Kuhn  farm,  west  of  Prairie  Home,  in  command  of  a  squad 
of  Confederates  made  an  attack  upon  these  Federal  troops,  and  in  the  fight 
Captain  Boswell  was  wounded.  A  few  days  thereafter,  he  died  from  the 
effects  of  the  wound.  The  Union  troops  had  guards  out,  one  of  them 
being  Felix  Imhoff,  who  after  faithfully  patrolling  his  beat,  until  relieved, 
lay  down  on  the  ground,  weary,  and  went  to  sleep.  So  sound  and  peaceful 
were  his  slumbers,  during  these  war  times,  especially  on  this  particular 


occasion,  that  the  fight  above  referred  to  was  all  over  before  he  came 
from  slumberland.  He  was  aroused  from  his  sleep  by  one  of  the  men, 
and  told  of  the  fight.  The  story  goes  that  he  was  intensely  indignant 
because  he  had  been  thus  neglected,  and  it  was  several  years  before  he 
was  restored  to  good  humor.  It  seemed  to  be  a  matter  of  deep  regret  to 
him  that  he  had  missed  the  fun. 

Captain  Boswell  was  buried  in  the  Pisgah  cemetery  and  Albert  G. 
and  Tompkins,  who  was  the  proprietor  of  the  inn,  is  buried  about  150 
yards  south  of  the  Carpenter  residence. 




The  following  narration  of  the  incidents  and  killing  during  the  Civil 
war,  of  the  citizens  of  our  county,  by  lawless  bands,  upon  either  side,  is 
doubtless  correct  in  the  main,  yet  in  view  of  the  considerable  lapse  of  time 
since  the  occurrence  of  these  events,  the  fallibility  of  the  human  memory, 
and  many  other  circumstances  which  would  have  their  effect,  it  would  not 
be  strange  should  error  exist  in  some  of  the  more  minute  details. 

Considering  in  the  order  of  time  in  which  it  occurred,  we  mention  first 
the  killing  of  Joseph  Sifers,  two  miles  north  of  Pilot  Grove,  which  took 
place  about  the  beginning  of  the  war.  He  was  a  Union  man,  whose  house 
was  surrounded  at  night  by  unknown  men,  who  demanded  of  him  his  fire- 
arms. Purporting  to  have  them  hidden  upon  the  outside  of  his  dwelling, 
he  went  out  intending  to  discover  who  they  were,  when,  doubtless,  under 
the  belief  that  his  life  was  in  danger,  he  ran,  endeavoring  to  reach  a  corn- 
field adjacent,  but  in  the  attempt  was  shot  down  by  a  sentinel  of  the  party. 
It  was  never  known  who  perpetrated  this  outrage. 

In  the  summer  of  1864,  during  a  revival  meeting  in  the  Southern 
Methodist  Episcopal  church  at  Pilot  Grove,  Captain  Todd,  one  day  during 
the  hour  of  service,  surrounded  the  building  with  a  company  of  about  sixty 
savage  looking  bushwhackers,  who  rudely  entered  the  sacred  house,  stopped 


the  services,  and  uncermoniously  ej'ected  the  worshipers.  Aftei  refresh- 
ing themselves  with  the  eatables  prepared  for  the  occasion,  and  selecting 
such  horses  as  they  desired,  from  the  many  secured  to  the  trees  near  by, 
they  departed,  taking  with  them  two  citizens,  Peter  Mitzel  and  Otho  Zeller 
as  hostages,  as  they  called  them,  whose  safety  would  depend  on  the  good 
conduct  of  the  citizens,  in  not  pursuing,  intercepting  or  informing  on 
them,  there  being  at  that  time,  state  militia  stationed  at  various  places 

These  two  unfortunate  men  were  that  night  barbarously  butchered 
some  miles  east  of  Pilot  Grove,  near  Lone  Elm  Prairie,  and  their  bodies 
found  a  day  or  two  later.  Zeller  had  belonged  to  the  state  militia,  which 
fact,  to  those  who  knew  the  character  of  the  guerrillas,  accounts  for  the 
reason  of  his  being  killed.  Mitzell  was  loyal,  though  a  very  quiet  and 
inoffensive  man  he  had  a  short  time  previous,  met  a  squad  of  guerrilas 
and  mistaking  them  for  militia,  had  doubtless,  indiscreetly  expressed  his 
sentiments,  for  which  offense,  in  a  time  when  men  were  killed  for  opinion's 
sake,  he  paid  the  forfeit  with  his  life. 

The  same  party  of  bushwhackers,  returning  a  day  or  two  later,  passed 
through  the  German  settlement  three  miles  west  of  here,  and  killed  two 
citizens,  John  Diehl  and  Vollmer,  who,  it  seems,  unfortunately  fell  into 
the  same  error  as  Mitzell,  of  mistaking  them  for  Federal  troops,  as  a 
number  of  them  were  dressed  in  blue. 

A  Mr.  Nichols  was  killed  near  Bell  Air,  in  this  county,  during  the  same 
summer  of  1864.  This  act  was  committed  by  a  band  of  Hall's  state 
militia.  Mr.  Nichols  was  a  Kentuckian,  a  conservative  Union  man,  and 
very  quiet  and  peaceable.  The  provocation  of  this  crime,  if  any,  was 
never  known. 

Thomas  Cooper,  of  this  vicinity,  was  arrested  in  the  fall  of  1864,  in 
James  Thompson's  store,  in  Boonville,  by  militia,  taken  to  a  secluded  spot, 
near  the  fair  grounds,  and  brutally  murdered  and  his  body  mutilated. 
Cooper  was  a  southern  man,  and  known  to  his  neighbors  as  quiet,  tolerant 
and  inoffensive. 

In  1861,  a  number  of  horses  were  taken  from  Mr.  Richard  P.  Ellis,  by 
Mulligan's  men.  Mr.  Ellis  was  then  living  in  Cooper  County,  on  land 
entered  by  him  in  1839,  in  Lebanon  township,  near  Syracuse.  Some  time 
after  the  horses  were  stolen,  a  soldier  in  citizen's  garb  was  seen  to  possess 
one  of  the  animals,  and  upon  it  being  recovered  from  him  by  Mr.  Ellis, 
he  reported  to  certain  soldiers  at  Syracuse,  and  a  squad  made  their  appear- 
ance and  committed  some  depredations  in  the  neighborhood.     The  family 


of  Mr.  Ellis  were  not  at  home,  but  Mr.  Ellis,  deeming  it  unsafe  to  be 
around,  started  to  Lexington,  and  placed  himself  under  the  protection  of 
General  Price's  army  at  that  place.  His  deepest  sympathies  were  with 
the  south,  but  he  did  not  enter  the  army,  as  age  and  other  matters  pre- 
vented him.  He  had  a  son,  however,  who  was  in  the  Confederate  army. 
This  was  in  October,  1861.  Matters  assuming  a  more  peaceful  stage, 
made  it  safe  for  him  to  return;  which  he  did  in  1862.  Upon  the  order 
calling  upon  all  citizens  to  apear  at  the  various  military  headquarters  to 
enroll,  he  went  with  his  neighbors  to  the  Lamine  bridge  to  obey.  Having 
enrolled,  he  was  returning  with  his  nephew,  Mr.  Graves,  his  son,  and  a 
Mr.  Veulesman,  when  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  bridge,  they 
were  met  by  a  squad  of  soldiers  who  ordered  them  into  the  woods  ahead 
of  them.  They  did  not  like  either  the  appearance  or  the  manner  of  these 
men,  and  feeling  well  satisfied  that  it  was  their  intention  to  shoot  them, 
Mr.  Ellis  objected.  When,  after  some  parley,  the  squad  fired  into  them, 
killing  instantly  Mr.  Ellis  and  Mr.  Graves,  and  severely  wounding  Mr. 
Ellis'  son.  Mr.  Veulesman  escaped  unhurt.  Thus  died  Richard  P.  Ellis, 
shot  down  without  a  cause  and  without  a  moment's  warning.  His  untimely 
death  struck  sorrow  to  the  hearts  of  his  many  friends.  He  was  very 
popular  and  great  sympathy  was  felt  for  his  grief-stricken  family. 

Mr.  Edward  H.  Harris,  of  Pilot  Grove,  Missouri,  has  given  the  writer 
the  facts  relative  to  the  killing  of  William  Mayo.  It  will  be  seen  from  the 
account  to  follow  that  Mr.  Harris  had  a  very  good  reason  to  remember 
the  details  of  this  incident,  though  nearly  eighty-eight  years  of  age,  Mr. 
Harris'  mind  is  strong  and  active,  and  his  memory  especially  good. 

It  was  in  the  spring  of  1864.  There  was  no  town  or  village  of  Pilot 
Grove  at  that  time,  yet  the  post-office  had  been  given  the  name  Pilot 
Grove.  Samuel  Roe  served  Uncle  Sam  as  postmaster,  and  received  and 
distributed  the  mail  at  his  log  residence  on  his  farm,  in  what  is  now  Pilot 
Grove.  William  Mayo  was  a  polished  gentleman,  a  man  of  considerable 
means,  who  came  from  Kentucky,  and  located  within  a  few  miles  of  Pilot 
Grove.  On  a  beautiful  spring  morning,  he  passed  by  Mr.  Harris'  house 
about  a  mile  from  Samuel  Roe's  residence,  and  together  he  and  Mr.  Harris 
started  for  the  mail  at  Samuel  Roe's.  They  were  horseback.  Mr.  Mayo 
told  Mr.  Harris  that  a  few  days  before,  a  man  had  come  to  his  house  and 
demanded  a  horse  from  him,  which  he  refused  to  give.  Mayo  seemed 
to  think  little  of  the  incident  at  the  time.  Mr.  Hams  said  that  he  thought 
at  the  time  it  might  be  some  of  Bill  Anderson's  men,  and  that  trouble 
might   arise   therefrom.     Arriving   at   the   postoffice,    they   joined   other 


neighbors,  who  had  gathered  upon  that  bright  day  sitting  on  the  front 
porch,  awaiting  the  arrival  of  the  mail,  and  discussing  the  events  of  the 
day,  as  neighbors  then  did  when  gathered  together  on  such  occasions. 

Presently  some  one  called  attention  to  about  twenty  men  on  horse- 
back, beyond  where  the  M.  K.  &  T.  depot  is  now  located.  At  this  time 
where  the  depot  is  now  located  was  but  a  pond,  or  small  lake.  Mr.  Harris 
remarked  that  they  did  not  appear  to  be  Union  soldiers.  Union  soldiers, 
however,  were  not  far  from  the  neighborhood. 

Presently  the  horsemen  rode  up,  and  then  it  was  discovered  that 
they  were  Bill  Anderson  and  his  men.  Those  sitting  upon  the  porch 
were  ordered  out  and  lined  up.  Anderson  then  called  upon  them  for 
their  valuables.  Mr.  Harris  says  that  he  remembers  distinctly  that  a 
boy  about  fifteen  or  sixteen  years  of  age  passed  down  the  line  to  relieve 
them  of  their  possessions.  When  he  came  to  him,  Mr.  Harris  said  to 
him,  "Son,  don't  take  that  money,  I  had  to  work  for  it."  The  boy  imme- 
diately responded,  taking  his  pocket-book,  "Well,  you  can  work  and  get 
some  more."  Mr.  Harris  said  then,  "Do  not  take  my  papers."  The  boy 
then  returned  the  papers,  and  at  the  same  time  handed  him  a  dollar, 
saying,  "This  will  give  you  a  start."  William  Mayo  wore  at  that  time 
upon  his  person,  a  gold  watch  and  chain.  This  he  objected  to  giving  up, 
when  Bill  Anderson  fired  at  him  with  his  pistol,  or  rather  fired  at  his 
feet,  evidently  not  intending  to  hit  him.  At  this,  Mayo  turned,  and  im- 
mediately fled,  running  behind  Roe's  house,  where  he  was  joined  by 
Thomas  Brownfield,  who  had  been  hiding,  and  had  not  lined  up  with 
the  others. 

Bill   Anderson   and   another  man   on   horseback   pursued   them,   and 
when   Anderson  got  to  the   rear  of  the  house,   he   asked   an   old   nei 
woman  which  direction  they  went,  and  she,  waving  her  hand,  said,  "T 
way."     Anderson,   then  on  horseback,  started   in  pursuit   of  Mayo,   who 
was  going  in  the  direction  of  what  is  now  known  as  Robert  Ma 
farm,  evidently  attempting  ot  reach  a  thicket  of  plum  tret-s.     Brownfield, 
however,  veered  off  to  the  right,  and  went  towards  Mr.  Hai  i  ;• '  farm,  seek- 
ing some  brush,  and  low  shrubbery  to  hide  in. 

When  Mayo  had  reached  the  point  about  where,  or  a  little  beyond 
Otto  Kistenmacher's  present  residence,  he  turned  his  head,  at  which 
time  Anderson,  in  close  proximity  fired  at  him,  and  shot  him  in  the 
middle  of  the  forehead,  killing  him  instantly.  The  other  man  in  pursuit 
of  Brownfield  was  not  so  successful.  After  having  emptied  his  revolver 
at  Brownfield's  fleeing  figure,  Brownfield  immediately  turned,  and  with 


cool  courage,  pointed  his  pistol  at  the  trooper,  which  caused  him  to  nalt. 
Brownfield  did  not  shoot,  knowing  full  well  that  the  other  men  would 
search  the  country,  and  wreak  their  vengeance  upon  him.  Instead,  he 
fled  for  his  life,  and  in  the  meantime,  the  man  who  was  pursuing  him, 
reloaded  his  revolver,  and  started  in  pursuit.  When  Brownfield  was 
climbing  over  a  fence  into  Mr.  Harris's  farm,  the  pursuing  horseman 
shot  at  him  several  times,  and  finally  wounded  him  in  the  hand.  Brown- 
field, however,  succeeded  in  reaching  the  brush,  and  in  its  friendly  shel- 
ter, concealed  himself. 

Anderson,  in  the  meantime,  joined  the  other  man,  and  together  they 
sought  to  find  Brownfield,  but  Anderson,  being  apprised  by  his  compan- 
ion that  Brownfield  was  nervy,  and  was  well-armed,  they  desisted  from 
further  search,  and  returned  to  their  men. 

This  band  had  evidently  been  operating  in  the  county  several  days, 
despite  the  presence  of  militia  or  Union  soldiers.  A  day  or  so  before 
the  killing  of  Mayo,  this  same  band  appeared  at  Nathaniel  Leonard's,  the 
father  of  the  late  Capt.  Charles  E.  Leonard,  near  Bell  Air,  and  had  it  not 
been,  for  the  timely  intercession  of  Miss  Minnie  Corum,  who  was  known 
to  be  of  southern  sympathies,  would  have  doubtless  have  done  much 
wanton  damage,  if  not  committed  worse  crimes.  Capt.  C.  E.  Leonard 
belonged  to  the  State  militia.  Mr.  Harris  thinks  that  this  band  came 
direct  from  Leonard's  to  Pilot  Grove  with  purposes  of  robbing  those 
whom  they  knew  were  accustomed  to  gather  at  the  postiffice  at  Samuel 

The  facts  of  the  following  incident  were  given  by  Dave  Brownfield, 
the  nephew  of  Thomas  Brownfield.  This  is  the  same  Thomas  Brownfield 
that  escaped  Bill  Anderson's  ire,  on  the  occasion  .iust  above  related. 

At  the  close  of  the  war,  Thomas  Brownfield  was  living  where  one 
of  the  Wittmans  now  lives,  in  a  three  room  log  cabin  with  a  loft.  His 
half-brother,  Abraham  Brownfield,  was  with  him  on  this  occasion,  and 
was  sleeping  in  the  front  room,  whereas  the  family  was  sleeping  in  the 
room  to  the  rear. 

It  was  in  the  winter  time,  and  after  all  had  retired,  Thomas  Brown- 
field thought  he  heard  some  men  in  front  of  his  cabin.  After  listening 
a  while,  he  concluded  that  they  were  there  for  no  good,  and  he  judged 
that  they  were  marauders  bent  on  mischief.  Stepping  into  the  front 
room,  he  climbed  a  ladder  into  the  loft,  and  -with  his  gun,  from  the  open- 
ing of  the  loft,  commanded  the  door  leading  into  the  room  from  the  outside. 

Presently  admission   was   demanded,   bill    no   one   answered.     Then 


the  door  was  forced,  and  as  a  man  entered,  who  proved  afterwards  to  be  a 
Mr.  Brownlee,  Mr.  Brownfield  from  the  opening  of  the  loft,  shot  him, 
and  he  fell  to  the  floor.  He  struggled  to  get  out  of  the  door,  but  Abraham 
Brownfield  seized  him,  and  pulled  him  back,  and  slammed  the  door. 

Thinking  their  leader  was  dead,  the  others  upon  the  outside  set  fire 
to  the  house.  Brownlee,  however,  was  not  dead.  Realizing  his  condition, 
and  that  he  would  be  burned,  rather  than  to  save  the  house  and  lives  of 
others,  he  shouted  to  his  men  to  put  out  the  fire — not  to  burn  him  up. 
This  they  did  after  some  difficulty. 

Then  Thomas  Brownfield  entered  into  a  parley  with  the  men  upon 
the  outside,  and  promised  them  if  they  would  leave,  that  he  would  send 
for  a  doctor,  and  have  Brownlee  properly  attended  to,  would  not  turn 
him  over  to  the  authorities,  and  when  he  had  recovered  would  release 
him.  This  agreement  was  entered  into.  Brownfield  was  not  only  cool 
and  courageous,  and  a  man  of  great  discretion,  but  of  rectitude  as  well. 

As  soon  as  possible,  he  sent  for  Doctor  Pendleton,  who  came  and 
dressed  the  wounds  of  Brownlee,  and  in  every  respect,  Thomas  Brownfield 
faithfully  carried  out  his  agreement. 

A  few  days  after  the  tragic  event  of  the  death  of  Peter  Mitzel  and 
Otho  Zellar  at  the  hands  of  rebel  bushwhackers,  who  took  them  from  the 
old  Pilot  Grove  Methodist  Church  during  a  "protracted"  revival  meeting 
in  the  summer  of  1864,  and  killed  them  at  camp  near  Old  Palestine  the 
same  night,  Thomas  Cooper  and  Robert  Magruder,  citizens  of  Pilto  Grove 
neighborhood,  were  in  Boonville  together.  Cooper  and  Magruder  were  at 
the  church  the  day  Mitzel  and  Zellar  were  taken  from  the  congregation, 
but  it  happened  that  they  were  not  in  the  house  but  were  lying  together 
under  the  shade  of  a  tree  in  sight  of  the  open  windows,  when  the  squad 
of  bushwhackers  rode  up.  They  were  surrounded  by  the  squad,  who 
engaged  them  in  conversation,  which  fact  was  observed  by  some  persons 
in  the  congregation. 

It  seems  that  this  incident  led  to  a  report  which  had  come  to  the 
ears  of  the  Home  Guard  militia  of  Boonville,  that  Cooper  and  Magruder 
informed  the  bushwhackers  that  Mitzel  and  Zellar  were  in  the  church, 
thereby  implicating  them  in  the  apprehension  and  killing  of  the  latter. 

Cooper  was  shot  and  killed  in  a  drug  store  on  Main  street  in  Boon- 
ville by  members  of  the  Home  Guard,  and  diligent  search  was  made  for 
Magruder,  who  would  have  met  the  same  fate,  if  they  had  found  him. 
Magruder's  life  was  saved  by  the  effort  and  presence  of  mind  of  Colonel 






Pierce,  who  kept  the  Pierce  Hotel  (now  Powell's  Rooming  House),  on 
High  street. 

Magruder  was  lying  on  a  lounge  in  the  office  of  the  hotel  when  sev- 
eral militiamen  entered  and  inquired  of  Pierce  whether  a  man  named 
Magruder  had  been  there.  Having  heard  of  the  shooting  of  Cooper  a 
little  while  before,  Pierce,  with  rare  presence  of  mind,  assured  the  soldiers 
that  Magruder  had  been  there,  but  had  gone  away.  Not  knowing  Ma- 
gruder personally,  the  soldiers  were  deceived,  and  left  to  continue  their 
search.  After  they  were  gone,  Pierce  searched  Magruder  and  later  smug- 
gled him  on  board  of  a  river  steamboat  bound  down  the  Missouri  River, 
and  he  left  Cooper  County  to  return  only  after  the  end  of  the  war. 

Our  fellow  county  man,  Walter  Barron,  gives  us  the  following  inci- 
dent in  the  killing  of  a  soldier  whose  name  he  does  not  now  recall,  and 
Frank  McDearman:  In  the  winter  of  1861,  the  37th  Illinois  Infantry 
was  then  stationed  near  Boonville.  The  regiment  to  which  the  infantry 
belonged,  and  to  which  our  friend,  Mr.  Barron,  was  a  member,  was 
located  on  the  Lamine  River  near  Otterville,  during  the  winter  of  1861. 

Mr.  Barron  knew  the  soldier  well,  although  at  this  time  he  does  not 
recall  his  name.  He  was  reputed  to  be  reckless,  and  of  a  desperate  char- 
acter. He  was  also  well  acquainted  with  and  was  a  friend  of  Frank 
McDearmon,  who  then  lived  in  Boonville. 

In  the  winter  of  1861,  a  dance  was  given,  in  a  two  story  frame  build- 
ing, in  east  Boonville,  known  as  the  Ainsle  house,  although  Ainsle  was 
not  occupying  the  house  at  the  time,  he  having  been  drowned  in  the 
Missouri  River  many  years  before. 

The  elite  of  the  city  and  surrounding  country  were  not  invited  nor 
expected  to  attend  this  dance.  The  attendance  was  rather  made  up  of 
those  who  desired  a  jolly,  reckless  and  rip-roaring  time,  rather  than  the 
refinement  of  a  gathering  of  the  best  society.  The  character  of  those 
who  attended  was  not  closely  scrutinized.  There  were  whisky  and  liquor 
in  profusion,  and  many  participated  in  the  flowing  bowl  until  they  be- 
came not  only  loquacious,  but  argumentative,  jealous  and  pugnacious. 

Frank  McDearmon  and  the  soldier  had  some  controversy,  and  heated 
argument.  After  the  same,  when  Frank  McDearmon  entered  the  room 
where  the  dance  was  being  conducted,  he  met  the  soldier,  and  at  once 
with  a  pistol,  shot  him,  inflicting  a  wound  that  proved  fatal.  However, 
before  expiring,  the  soldier,  with  a  knife,  cut  McDearmon  nine  times, 


from  which  wounds  McDearmon  also  expired.  Both  parties  died  on  the 
scene  of  action. 

In  the  fall  of  1864,  numerous  small  bodies  of  men,  supposed  to  be 
guerillas  from  the  north  side  of  the  river,  made  incursions  into  Cooper 
County,  committing  many  depredations,  and  in  some  cases,  murdei-s. 
During  this  year  a  small  body  of  men  attempted  to  capture  Tom  Mercer, 
and  followed  him  to  the  Widow  Careys'  home.  Mercer  and  some  five 
or  six  men  were  in  the  house  at  the  time,  and  seeing  the  approach  of 
these  marauders,  Mercer  called  upon  the  men  to  defend  the  house.  They 
were  well  armed.  As  the  marauders  approached  the  house,  Mercer  picked 
out  one,  and  told  one  of  the  other  men  to  pick  out  another.  Aiming  their 
guns  they  fired.  Mercer  succeeded  in  killing  his  man,  but  the  other,  so 
far  as  known,  was  not  as  successful.  Mercer  and  the  men  in  the  house 
then  made  their  escape  through  a  cornfield. 

On  Aug.  31,  1864,  a  tragedy  occurred  seven  or  eight  miles  south  of 
Boonville  on  the  farm  known  as  the  Major  Moore  place,  in  which  then 
lived  Christian  Krohn.  Krohn  was  assisting  his  wife  and  little  ten  months 
old  son  to  dismount  from  a  horse  when  a  party  of  horsemen,  supposed  to 
be  guerillas,  rode  up.  Mr.  Krohn  was  commanded  to  go  into  the  house. 
He  turned  the  child  over  to  its  mother  and  started  to  do  as  he  was  bid 
when  a  volley  was  fired  into  him  and  he  fell  dead  at  his  own  threshold. 
In  innate  brutality  the  men  proceeded  to  set  fire  to  the  house  and  the 
widow  was  commanded  to  get  what  articles  she  wanted  to  save.  Tom 
with  grief  and  desperate,  she  replied,  "You  have  killed  my  husband  so 
you  might  as  well  burn  my  house  too."  At  this  some  pity  must  have 
touched  the  heart  of  one  of  the  men  for  he  returned  to  the  house  and 
extinguished  the  fire,  whereupon  they  rode  away.  The  ten  months  old 
infant  mentioned  in  this  incident  has  grown  to  manhood  and  is  now  our 
popular  county  man,  John  F.  Krohn. 

Radford  Bass,  a  Southern  sympathizer,  was  killed  in  the  fall  of 
1864,  near  the  Lutheran  Church,  two  and  one-half  miles  southeast  of 
Gooch  Mill.  He  was  captured  by  a  band  of  men  and  held  in  captivity  a 
short  time  according  to  one  version,  and  was  turned  loose.  After  he  had 
left  and  traveled  but  a  short  distance  he  was  followed  by  a  boy,  who 
belonged  to  the  capturing  band,  of  about  17  years  of  age  who  came  upon 
him  and  shot  him  in  cold  blood.  Another  vei*sion  is  that  a  rope  was  put 
around  his  neck  and  he  was  dragged  by  a  man  on  horseback  until  he  was 
exhausted  and  was  practically  choked  to  death  and  shot. 

Another  man  by  the  name  of  Hill  was  killed  in  the  fall  of  1864,  on 
the  day  of  Bass's  murder,  northeast  of  Prairie  Home.    He  was  captured 


by  a  squad  of  men  who  left  him  in  charge  of  one  of  their  number.  A 
short  time  afterwards  this  man  joined  the  squad  and  upon  being  asked 
what  had  become  of  his  prisoner,  said  that  he  objected  to  being  held  in 
captivity  and  that  he  had  disposed  of  him.  Different  versions  have  been 
given  of  this  affair,  one  is  that  the  man  who  had  charge  of  this  prisoner, 
desiring  to  join  the  squad,  had  killed  the  prisoner,  as  the  easiest  method 
of  ridding  himself  of  an  unwelcome  charge. 

On  the  same  day  that  Radford  Bass  was  murdered  the  same  squad, 
consisting  of  nine  men,  killed  Squire  Handshaw.  Squire  Handshaw  was 
a  man  of  about  80  years  of  age.  This  gang  of  men  went  to  his  home 
about  two  and  one-half  miles  southeast  of  Gooch  Mill  and  called  him  out 
of  his  house,  made  him  get  upon  a  fence  and  then  shot  him.  He  imme- 
diately expired. 

It  will  be  noted  that  most  of  these  crimes  and  depredations  were 
committed  during  the  end  of  the  Civil  War  and  the  excuse  as  given  in 
many  instances  was  that  of  reprisal.  On  the  north .  side  of  the  river 
were  Anderson's  men  under  various  captains.  In  the  earlv  fall  of  1864 
it  was  reported,  whether  true  or  not,  that  numerous  crimes  had  been  com- 
mitted by  the  Home  Guards  upon  Southern  sympathizers  in  Saline  town- 
ship. At  this  time  the  sentiment  of  the  people  on  both  sides  of  this  cause 
were  as  seething  cauldrons  and  men  seemed  to  have  lost  their  reason. 
Rumors  were  not  thoroughly  investigated  and  irresponsible  talk  was  plen- 
tiful. In  any  event,  Captain  Todd,  with  a  squad  of  Bill  Anderson's  men 
swam  the  Missouri  River  on  horse-back  and  entered  Cooper  County  in 
Saline  township  in  quest  of  the  Home  Guards.  About  noon  on  Oct.  7, 
1864,  they  saw  coming  up  the  hill  by  Granville  Smiths,  about  one  and 
one-quarter  miles  south  of  Gooch  Mill,  a  squad  of  men  of  the  militia 
under  command  of  Capt.  Bernhardt  Deidrich,  consisting  of  the  following: 
Frank  Hafferburg,  Henry  Weaver,  Erhardt  Blank,  John  Blank,  Jacob 
Blank,  Mr.  Deil  (grandfather  of  Theodore  Deil,  of  Wooldridge),  Mr. 
Hute  (grandfather  of  Peter  Hute  of  Prairie  Home),  Mr.  Ader,  Ernest 
Speiler  and  Otto  Speiler.  Todd's  men  were  upon  the  brow  of  the  hill  and 
as  these  men  approached  coming  up  the  hill  got  in  close  proximity,  they 
at  once  attacked  them  and  succeeded  in  killing  Capt.  Bernhardt  Deid- 
rich, Frank  Hafferburg,  Henry  Weaver,  who  was  said  to  have  been  scalped 
and  brained.  He  was  an  old  man.  Erhardt  Blank,  Deil,  Hute,  Ader,  were 
also  killed.  Ernest  Speiler,  who  was  shot  through  the  arm.  Otto  Speiler, 
John  Blank  and  Jacob  Blank  escaped. 

John  Henry  Boiler,  the  father  of  our  fellow  townsman,  Fred  J.  Boiler, 
was  murdered  on  June  15,  1864,  near  Boonville.     We  get  the  details  of 


this  incident  from  Mr.  Fred  J.  Boiler.  On  the  day  above  mentioned,  John 
Henry  Boiler  was  coming  to  Boonville,  on  the  public  road  riding  in  a 
buggy  when  he  passed  what  was  then  known  as  the  Miller  place.  Three 
men,  to-wit:  Bill  Stewart,  Carter  and  Sloan,  were  resting  under  the  shade 
of  a  tree.  When  Mr.  Boiler  had  passed,  one  of  the  men  asked  Sloan  who 
he  was.  Sloan  told  him.  The  three  men  then  followed  Boiler  to  near 
what  was  known  as  the  Ripley  place,  and  stopped  him  and  demanded 
his  money.  Mr.  Boiler  complied  with  their  demand  by  showing  them  his 
watch,  but  evidently  not  anticipating  trouble,  drove  on.  When  he  did 
so,  they  immediately  began  to  fire  upon  him,  shooting  him  four  or  five 
times.  After  they  had  robbed  him,  old  man  Kiele  came  along  and  they 
robbed  him. 

Mr.  Boiler  came  to  Boonville  and  as  he  neared  the  Missouri  Pacific 
station,  Mr.  Back,  noticing  his  bloody  and  weakened  condition,  took  him 
into  his  house  to  administer  to  him.     Mr.  Boiler  died  immediately. 

The  militia  was  then  stationed  at  Boonville.  It  was  notified  of  the 
killing  of  Boiler,  and  started  at  once  in  pursuit  of  the  murderers.  In 
the  Labbo  neighborhood,  they  came  upon  Sloan,  whom  one  of  the  militia 
succeeded  in  shooting  in  the  side  of  the  head.  Although  Sloan  recovered 
from  this  wound  thereafter  he  was  blind.  Carter  and  Stewart  were  not 
found  at  the  time,  and  it  is  not  known  what  became  of  Carter.  Bill 
Stewart,  however,  was  killed  in  1865  at  Franklin,  north  of  the  river.  A 
cattleman  had  stopped  at  a  hotel  at  Franklin  and  the  landlady  in  charge 
of  the  same,  seeing  Bill  Stewart  approaching,  told  the  cattleman  that  the 
notorious  desperado,  Bill  Stewart,  was  coming  to  the  hotel,  and  for  him 
to  be  on  his  guard.  The  cattleman  closed  the  door,  Stewart  came  and 
being  unable  to  open  the  door,  demanded  admittance.  Not  receiving  the 
same,  he  broke  open  the  door,  and  as  he  entered,  the  cattleman,  who  was; 
armed  with  a  revolver,  shot  him  dead  in  his  tracks. 

As  illustrative  of  the  conditions  that  existed  in  the  county  during 
and  at  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  the  following  incident  is  given:  Ross 
Montgomery,  a  bad  negro  lived  in  Saline  township  during  the  war.  and 
was  formerly  a  slave  belonging  to  the  late  H.  B.  Hopkins.  He  was  right- 
fully accused  of  burning  several  barns  and  residences  of  Southern  sym- 
pathizers and  threatening  the  lives  of  several  prominent  Southern  men. 

At  the  close  of  the  war,  the  boys  returned  home.  This  negro  was 
engaged  in  cutting  cordwood  near  Overton  on  a  certain  day.  When  quit- 
ting work  on  the  evening  of  that  day,  he  started  home  by  way  of  an  aban- 
doned well  in  the  woods.     He  disappeared,  no  one  knew  where.     Several 


years  afterwards,  John  Wainwright,  having  built  a  cabin  in  the  woods, 
went  to  this  well  to  clean  it  out  to  supply  water  for  his  family,  and  after 
getting  a  lot  of  stumps  out  of  the  well,  he  found  the  skeleton  of  a  man, 
and  by  the  shoes  and  clothing,  which  were  identified  by  Ross'  wife  as 
belonging  to  the  negro,  they  solved  the  mystery  of  his  disappearance. 

In  Clarks  Fork  township  on  the  farm  where  Henry  Schubert  now 
lives,  in  the  fall  of  1864,  Chris  Fricke,  uncle  of  Henry  F.  Fricke  and  Henry 
Schultz  were  killed  by  a  small  band  of  four  or  five  men  supposed  to  be 

In  the  winter  of  1861  and  1862,  two  members  of  the  Home  Guards, 
seeking  to  impress  wagons  to  haul  soldiers  to  Tipton,  rode  up  to  William 
George's  house  in  Clarks  Fork  township  on  their  mission.  Mr.  George 
was  not  at  home  at  the  time.  John  Oakman,  however,  was  there,  and 
doubtless  mistaking  their  purpose,  shot  and  killed  one  of  the  Home 
Guards.    The  other,  the  late  Albert  Muntzel,  was  not  injured. 

A  man  by  the  name  of  Charles  Wagner  was  killed  near  Pisgah  in 
the  early  part  of  the  war.  We  are  unable  to  give  any  further  details  of 
this  incident. 

At  the  time  of  Price's  raid,  Captain  Shoemaker  was  the  head  of  a 
Provisional  Militia  company.  When  Price's- army  left  Boonville  and  vi- 
cinity, Shoemaker  could  not  be  found  and  was  never  heard  of  again.  His 
disappearance  has  never  been  accounted  for.  The  supposition,  however, 
is  that  he  was  killed,  although  the  body  was  never  found. 

Jeremiah  Good  and  father  were  killed  between  Big  Lick  and  Prairie 
Home  shortly  after  the  Civil  War.  A  small  party  of  four  or  five  men 
were  approaching  the  house.  When  the  Goods  started  from  the  barn  to 
the  house  they  were  immediately  shot  down.  It  is  stated  that  a  small  boy 
of  about  fifteen,  a  Good,  was  in  the  house  at  the  time,  and  shot  one  of 
the  men.  It  seems  that  John  Good,  a  brother  of  Jeremiah  Good,  during 
the  war  had  shot  a  man  at  a  blacksmith's  shop  at  Big  Lick  and  it  was 
supposed  that  these  men  were  seeking  John  Good  when  they  approached 
the  Good  house.  John  Good,  however,  was  not  here  at  the  time  when 
his  father  and  brother  were  killed. 




The  time  intervening  between  the  close  of  the  Civil  War  in  1865  and 
the  early  seventies,  was  properly  called  in  the  South  the  "period  of  recon- 
struction," but  in  Missouri,  the  "period  of  readjustment."  Prejudice  was 
inflamed  to  a  high  pitch,  and  in  Cooper,  the  inevitable  result  of  the  many 
oturages  committed  during  the  war  was  calculated  to  leave  scars  on  the 
very  souls  of  many  that  the  soothing  unction  of  time  alone  could  eradicate. 

In  times  of  intense  excitement,  when  passions  are  aroused,  whether 
in  state  or  more  local  matters,  the  reason  seems  dethroned,  and  the  evil 
in  man  comes  uppermost.  At  such  times,  those  of  light  mentality,  who 
"tear  the  tatters"  most,  and  feed  with  vehemence  upon  passions,  preju- 
dice and  malice,  too  often  rise  to  prominence  for  a  brief  time,  yet  long 
enough  to  stab  and  wound. 

Robespierr  was  such  a  one,  who  wept  at  the  death  of  a  pet  bird,  yet 
with  his  guillotin  drenched  the  streets  of  Paris  with  blood.  When  a 
stagnant  pool  is  stirred,  and  its  waters  violently  agitated,  the  sediment 
rises  to  the  top,  only  to  sink  again  to  its  proper  place  at  the  bottom  when 
the  calm  succeeds  the  agitation. 

A  Constitutional  Convention  assembled  in  St.  Louis  on  Jan.  6,  1865, 
and  continued  in  session  until  April  10th  of  that  year.  The  Radicals  of 
the  state  were  in  the  saddle,  and  like  a  beggar  astride,  rode  violently. 
This  convention  was  composed  of  66  members,  three-fourths  of  whom 
were  of  the  radical  element.    These  men  were  known  but  little  throughout 


the  State,  and  at  the  close  of  the  convention,  when  their  work  had  been 
completed,  most  of  them  went  back  into  immediate  obscurity,  and  were 
heard  of  no  more. 

The  great  dominating  figure  of  this  convention  was  Charles  Drake. 
He  was  the  radical  of  radicals.  His  career  had  been  kaleidoscopic,  and  in 
politics,  he  was  a  regular  turncoat.  He  was  first  a  Whig,  a  Know  Nothing, 
a  Democrat,  and  then  the  radical  of  radicals.  At  this  time,  he  became 
easily  the  leader  of  the  extremists.  The  constitution  adopted  became 
known  as  the  Drake  constitution,  and  because  of  Drake's  leading  part  in 
framing  this  constitution,  and  because  of  the  severities  of  many  of  its 
sections,  it  called  to  the  minds  of  many  people,  the  laws  of  Draco  of 
ancient  Greece,  which  were  noted  for  the  heavy  penalties  that  were  levied 
for  their  violation.  For  these  reasons  the  constitution  of  1865,  was  fre- 
quently called  the  "Draconian  Code." 

The  test  oath  provided  by  this  constitution  disfranchised  at  least  one- 
third  of  the  electors  of  the  State.  It  soon  became  intensely  unpopular, 
even  with  members  of  the  Radical  party.  Not  only  were  elaborate  disquali- 
fications for  voting  provided,  but  in  another  section,  the  religious,  chari- 
table, social  and  business  relations  were  invaded,  and  a  provision  was  made 
for  an  "expergatorial"  oath,  for  ministers  of  the  Gospel,  attorneys,  and 
teachers.  Under  that  section,  no  person  was  permitted  to  practice  law, 
or  be  competent  as  a  preacher,  priest,  minister,  deacon  or  clergyman,  of 
any  religious  persuasion,  sect  or  denomination  to  teach,  or  preach,  or 
solemnize  marriages,  unless  such  persons  should  first  take,  and  subscribe, 
and  file  the  prescribed  oath  of  loyalty. 

So  comprehensive  in  details  was  the  test  oath  that  was  required  to 
be  taken  by  those  who  sought  to  vote,  or  practice  any  of  the  above  pro- 
fessions, that  it  was  known  as  the  "Iron-Clad  Oath."  This  constitution 
was  submitted  to  the  people  for  their  adoption  or  rejection  June  6,  1865, 
but  only  those  who  could  take  the  oath  of  loyalty  prescribed,  by  the  con- 
stitution itself,  were  allowed  to  vote  upon  its  adoption. 

The  fight  was  bitter  from  beginning  to  end,  especially  in  the  Missouri 
River  counties,  including  Cooper,  of  course.  The  constitution  was  adopted 
by  a  majority  of  less  than  two  thousand.  The  votes  stood  43,670  for,  and 
41,808  against.  The  advice  of  loyal  Union  men,  such  as  Hamilton  R.  Gam- 
bel,  Frank  P.  Blair,  B.  Gratz  Brown,  and  a  short  time  afterwards  Carl 
Schurtz,  prominent  and  leaders  in  the  cause  of  the  Union,  true  men  and 
patriots,  went  unheeded. 

The  election  of  1868  marked  the  high  tide  of  Radical  success.    Under 


the  leadership  of  such  men  as  Blair,  and  others,  many  patriotic  Union  men 
throughout  the  State,  were  arrayed  in  violent  opposition,  and  protested 
against  the  indignities  of  the  test-oath. 

Under  the  leadership  of  Carl  Schurtz,  a  Liberal  Republican  ticket  was 
nominated  with  B.  Gratz  Brown,  as  candidate  for  Governor.  The  Radicals 
renominated  McClurg.    Brown  was  elected  by  a  majority  of  nearly  42,000. 

But  more  significant  and  important  than  the  political  success  of  the 
Liberal  Republican  ticket,  was  the  adoption  of  the  several  constitutional 
amendments,  the  one  abolishing  the  test-oath,  being  carried  by  a  vote  of 
137,000  to  16,000. 

With  the  election  of  the  Liberal  Republican  ticket  in  1870,  or  rather 
the  defeat  of  the  radicals,  their  most  prominent  leader,  Drake,  passed  from 
the  stage  as  an  actor  in  the  public  affairs  of  the  State.  In  all  probability 
no  other  political  leader  ever  left  Missouri  politics  with  greater  unpopu- 
larity than  Drake. 

While  this  chapter  may  in  a  measure  be  discoursive,  it  shall  bear  the 
merit  of  being  brief.  Its  purpose  has  been  simply  to  state  a  general  con- 
dition without  making  specific  and  local  applications.  We  have  mentioned 
no  local  incidents  of  this  period,  for  fear  that  in  doing  so,  or  mentioning 
names,  we  might  open  some  sores  of  which  the  editor  himself  is  not  in- 
formed. Those  strenuous  times  are  passed,  passion  and  prejudice  have 
vanished,  and  amity  and  friendship  now  prevail.  No  good  could  be  accom- 
plished by  going  into  specific  incidents  that  might  have  a  tendency  to 
arouse  in  part  a  bitterness  that  has  long  disappeared. 

The  Presbyterian  Church  During  and  After  the  Civil  War. — These 
matters,  of  difficult  adjustment  and  mutual  agreement,  grew  out  of  cer- 
tain declarations  •  made  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church  in  the  United  States  of  America,  during  the  war  period,  and  bear- 
ing upon  the  questions  which  vitally  concerned  the  people  of  both  the 
North  and  South.  They  were  deliverances  of  the  General  Assembly,  made 
when  intense  feeling  ran  high,  and  brotherly  love  was  at  low  ebb.  The 
Presbyterians,  living  south  of  the  Mason  and  Dixon  line,  promptly  re- 
sented these  deliverances  of  the  General  Assembly.  Later  on  they  with- 
drew and  established  what  is  now  known  as  the  Presbyterian  Church  of 
the  United  States. 

During  this  volcanic  eruption  in  the  church,  the  Presbyterians  of  Mis- 
souri stood  neutral.  Harmony  and  usefulness  of  the  church  was  the  para- 
mount question.  The  Synod  of  Missouri  met  in  the  Boonville  Presbyterian 
Church  in  the  autumn  of  1866.     The  all  engrossing  subject  of  the  ecclesi- 


astic  union  was  there  ably  and  vigorously  debated.  Rev.  Dr.  Nicolls  and 
Rev.  Dr.  James  H.  Brooks,  both  of  St.  Louis,  led  the  party  standing  for 
union  with  the  northern  branch  of  the  church.  As  no  agreement  could  be 
reached  by  this  Synod  as  then  organized,  Doctor  Nicolls  and  his  adherents 
withdrew  from  the  church  building,  and  held  their  meeting  of  Synod  in  the 
parlor  of  the  Home  of  Mrs.  Pauline  E.  Rush  on  Main  street,  and  carried 
the  churches  they  represented  into  the  northern  branch  of  the  church. 

The  remaining  members  of  the  Synod  of  Missouri  in  the  church  build- 
ing concluded  their  meeting  by  adopting  what  was  known  and  termed  a 
"declaration  and  testimony"  deliverance.  This  action,  on  the  part  of  the 
declaration  and  testimony  party  held  the  Presbyterian  Churches  in  Mis- 
souri of  southern  trend,  neutral  for  several  years,  when  they  formed  a 
union  with  the  southern  branch,  known  as  the  Presbyterian  Church  of 
the  United  States. 

Those  were  trying  days  to  church  people.  The  drastic  deliverance 
of  the  General  Assembly  were  gradually  modified  or  withdrawn.  Now  the 
question  of  organic  union  of  these  two  great  branches  of  one  great  church, 
is  being  urgently  advocated  and  growing  in  favor,  both  in  the  North  and 
South.  It  is  most  unfortunate  that  political  differences  should  ever  enter 
into  any  church  discussion  or  action.  The  Boonville  Presbyterian  Church 
has  been  free  from  this  error.  Christian  fellowship  and  co-operation 
should  ever  be  the  ruling  spirit. 




Boonville  Township  evidently  took  its  name  from  Boonville,  and  Boon- 
ville  was  thus  named  in  honor  of  the  great  hunter,  pioneer  and  Indian- 
fighter,  Daniel  Boone.  When  it  acquired  this  name  is  not  known,  but  it 
has  been  so-called  from  "time  whereof  the  memory  of  man  runneth  not 
to  the  contrary."  Boone  was  intimate  with  the  Coles,  and  visited  at  Ste- 
phen Cole's  Fort  and  at  Hannah  Cole's  Fort,  and  being  a  man  of  much 
repute  and  fame  among  the  early  settlers  they  honored  him  by  calling 
this  settlement  Boonville. 

The  history  of  Boonville  and  Boonville  township  is  the  earliest  history 
of  Cooper  County,  much  of  which  has  heretofore  been  given  in  this  volume. 
Hannah  Cole,  who  was  mentioned  in  the  preceding  chapter,  located  and 
took  a  preemption  claim  in  1810,  which  included  what  is  now  Boonville 
and  afterward  sold  the  same  Jan.  25,  1819,  for  a  mere  trifle  to  Bird  Lock- 
hart  and  Henry  Carroll. 

Aside  from  the  Coles,  if  indeed  they  were  located  in  the  limits  of  old 
Boonville,  was  Gilliard  Rupe,  who  built  his  cabin  near  the  corner  of  Spring 
and  Third  streets,  and  on  the  south  side  of  Spring  street  near  where  was 
located  the  old  cement  factory.  Rupe  next  erected  a  building  as  a  ferry 
house  at  the  mouth  of  the  branch  which  today  bears  his  name.  Mrs. 
Hannah  Cole  operated  the  first  ferry.  Soon  thereafter  several  log  cabins 
were  built  on  the  bottom  land  below  this  branch,  extending  south  as  far 


as  the  cornel*  of  Morgan  and  Second  streets  before  the  <  town  was  laid  off. 

The  pioneer  business  house  was  kept  by  a  Frenchman  by  the  name  of 
A.  Robideux.  This  was  located  in  the  flat  of  the  Rupe  branch.  RobideUx 
came  from  St.  Louis,  and  was  doubtless  an  Indian  trader  before  settling 
in  Boonville.  Soon  after  Rodideux  commenced  business,  a  man  named  Nolin 
opened  a  grocery  near  the  mouth  of  Rupe  branch.  It  is  said  his  store  in 
trade  consisted  mostly  of  whisky  and  tobacco.  Their  houses  were  log  and 
pole  cabins  and  were  erected  along  about  1816  and  1817.  During  the  same 
period,  Mrs.  Reavis  and  William  Bartlett  kept  boarding  houses  in  the  same 
locality  and  Thomas  Rogers  built  a  cabin  at  the  corner  of  High  and  Second 
streets,  and  used  it  as  a  residence,  hotel  and  store. 

Mrs.  Margaret  Stephens,  who  was  the  wife  of  Judge  Lawrence  Ste- 
phens, and  the  daughter  of  William  Moore,  was  one  of  the  early  pioneers 
of  Cooper  County.  In  the  fall  of  1816,  after  her  father  had  settled  in  this 
county  she  went  to  Boonville  with  her  uncle,  Mr.  McFarland,  and  after 
looking  around  she  asked  where  Boonville  was.  She  thought  she  was  com- 
ing to  something  of  a  town.  Her  uncle  pointed  to  Robideux's  store,  a  round 
log  cabin  with  bark  on  the  logs,  and  said,  "there  is  Boonville."  They  then 
dismouunted,  and  after  making  some  purchases,  returned  home. 

Boonville  was  laid  out  by  Asa  Morgan  and  Charles  Lucas,  and  plat 
filed  on  Aug.  1,  1817.  It  was  surveyed  by  William  Ross.  The  first  lot  sold 
was  before  the  filing  of  this  plat.  The  deed  was  made  on  the  16th  clay  of 
July,  1817,  by  Asa  Morgan  of  the  county  of  Howard  and  Charles  Lucas  of 
the  town  of  St.  Louis,  both  in  the  territory  of  Missouri,  conveying  to  Rob- 
ert Austin  of  the  county  of  Howard  in  said  territory  for  and  in  considera- 
t;on  of  $75,  one  lot  or  parcel  of  ground  in  the  town  of  Boonville,  containing 
90  feet  front  on  Water  street  and  150  feet  more  or  less  in  depth,  being  lot 
number  43,  on  the  plat  of  said  town  of  Boonville. 

The  first  lot  sales  were  held  in  1819.  A  donation  of  50  acres  was 
made  by  Morgan  and  Lucas  to  Cooper  County  for  a  permanent  county  seat. 
The  first  donation  lots  were  sold  in  1821. 

The  first  houses  built  after  the  town  was  laid  off  were  two  brick 
structures  on  Morgan  street,  one  east  of  the  jail  and  the  other  east  of  and 
near  the  Central  National  Bank,  both  built  by  Asa  Morgan,  after  whom 
Morgan  street  was  named. 

From  the  history  of  Howard  and  Cooper  Counties,  written  in  1883, 
we  take  the  folloiwng: 

"Some  old  houses  now  standing  are  Doctor  Trigg's  on  Morgan  street 
and  a  log  house  on  the  north  side  of  High  street  on  the  comer  of  Seventh, 


now  occupied  by  a  colored  woman  by  the  name  of  Carter.  Also  a  brick 
house  on  High  street  northeast  of  the  court  house  built  by  TIon.  R.  P. 
Clark,  and  owned  by  Joseph  and  William  Williams." 

The  next  merchants  after  Robideux  and  Nolin  were  Jocab  and  Wyan 
and  Archie  Kavanaugh.  Their  store  and  residence  was  located  north  of 
the  court  house  square.  Other  early  merchants  were  McKenzie,  Bousfield, 
Colonel  Thornton,  Mrs.  Dobbins,  Thomas  M.  Campbell  and  Judge  C.  H. 

Justinian  Williams  built  the  next  hotel,  and  afterward  sold  it  to  John 
Dade,  a  part  of  which  is  still  standing  and  is  used  as  a  hotel  known  as  the 
Santa  Fe  Inn.  This  building  of  course  has  been  added  to,  and  greatly  modi- 
ged.  There  was  also  a  hotel  on  the  lot  north  of  the  jail,  once  occupied  as 
the  residence  of  Judge  C.  W.  Sombart,  and  is  now  a  portion  of  the  yard 
of  the  present  residence  of  C.  A.  Sombart,  son  of  the  judge. 

Boonville  up  to  1826  was  but  a  hamlet  of  straggling  log  cabins  and 
its  growth  had  been  slow.  However,  in  the  summer  and  fall  of  IS26  it 
entered  an  era  of  prosperity  never  known  before  in  its  brief  history.  This 
was  the  year  in  which  the  angry  waters  of  the  Missouri  sapped  the  foun- 
dations and  forever  put  an  end  to  the  future  prosperity  of  the  thriving 
town  of  Franklin  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  reference  to  which  has 
heretofore  been  made.  From  this  time  Boonville  began  to  assume  import- 
ance and  in  a  few  years  the  wholesale  and  supply  center  for  the  great 
southwest  territory.  Many  merchants  from  Franklin  moved  to  Boonville 
as  also  did  business  men  from  other  sections  of  the  country. 

The  first  macadamized  street  was  Main  street,  laid  in  1840.  During 
the  year  1843,  Moseley  and  Stanley  operated  a  brewery.  Between  the 
years  1840-1850  real  estate  in  Boonville  commanded  a  better  price  than 
it  ever  had  before  or  has  since,  except  within  the  last  few  years. 

Luke  Williams  is  celebrated  as  being  the  first  preached  in  Cooper 
County,  having  located  in  Boonville  several  years  before  the  county  was 
organized.    He  was  a  farmer  and  a  Baptist. 

Justinian  Williams  deserves  special  mention  in  the  history  of  Cooper 
County.  He  was  born  in  Virginia,  and  while  young,  emigrated  to  Ken- 
tucky, and  there  married.  He  then  moved  to  Howard  County,  Mo.,  and 
from  there  to  Cooper  County,  and  settled  in  Boonville  in  1818.  In  this 
year  he  located  the  first  Methodist  Church  in  Cooper  County.  He  was 
a  cabinet  maker  by  trade,  and  followed  that  business  for  several  years 
and  organizing  churches  at  intervals.    He  was  also  the  local  preacher  at 


Boonville  for  several  years.  In  1834,  he  built  a  steamboat  called  "The  Far 
West,"  about  two  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Bonne  Femme  Creek  in  How- 
ard County,  and  was  the  commander  of  the  same  for  some  time.  During 
that  year  he  emigrated  to  Tennessee,  where  he  died.  He  was  a  unique  and 
forceful  character  in  the  time  in  which  he  lived. 

We  have  been  unable  to  trace  the  local  records  of  Boonville  further 
back  than  Feb.  3,  1836.  On  that  day  there  was  an  organization  of  the 
trustees  of  the  town  of  Boonville,  of  which  body,  C.  P.  Powell  was  chair- 
man, and  Charles  G.  Lewis,  Alexander  Hanna,  David  Andrews,  and  John 
Rea,  were  trustees.  Washington  Adams,  who  afterwards  became  one  of 
the  prominent  lawyers  of  the  State,  was  secretary. 

At  the  succeeding  town  election,  Edward  Lawton  was  elected  chair- 
man, and  Richard  B.  Holeman,  secretary. 

The  city  was  incorporated  by  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly  approved 
Feb.  8,  1839,  and  the  first  organization  thereunder  was  affected  May  3, 
1839.  The  following  officers  were  elected  by  the  people,  under  the  charter, 
to-wit:  Marcus  Williams,  Jr.,  mayor;  J.  Rice,  president  of  the  board;  Wil- 
liam Shields,  J.  L.  Collins,  Jacob  Wyan,  David  Andrews,  Charles  Smith, 
J.  S.  McFarland,  and  J.  H.  Malone,  councilmen. 

Marcus  Williams,  the  first  mayor  of  Boonville,  was  a  brother  of  Jus- 
tinian Williams,  both  of  whom  were  uncles  of  the  late  lamented  Judge 
William  M.  Williams.  Marcus  Williams  was  a  brick  mason,  and  manu- 
factured the  first  bricks  ever  made  in  Cooper  County.  He  opened  a  lime 
kiln  in  the  western  part  of  Boonville.  At  the  Vollrath  place,  in  1840,  he 
made  the  first  stoneware  ever  manufactured  in  western  Missouri.  He  emi- 
grated to  California  at  the  time  of  the  gold  excitement  in  1849,  and  settled 
in  San  Jose,  and  died  about  the  year  1860.  It  is  related  that  just  before 
he  left  Boonville,  he  had  an  altercation  with  one  of  the  prominent  citizens 
of  Boonville.  This  altercation  resulted  in  an  assault  upon  his  part.  lie 
was  arrested,  and  a  small  fine  placed  upon  him.  It  seems  that  he  had 
had  some  trouble  about  a  mortgage  this  citizen  held  upon  some  of  his 
property.  He  felt  that  he  had  been  badly  treated,  and  determined  to  shake 
the  dust  from  his  feet,  and  leave  the  town.  Having  loaded  all  his  remain- 
ing possessions  in  a  wagon,  with  his  team  he  drove  down  Main  street,  and 
stopped.  Then  called  together  a  crowd  of  citizens  and  from  his  wagon, 
made  them  a  speech,  in  which  he  told  them  that  he  had  cast  his  lot  among 
them,  endeavoring  to  build  up  their  town  and  country,  but  that  he  had 
not  been  appreciated,  but  instead  had  been  mistreated.     He  told  the  as- 


sembled  crowd  that  he  proposed  to  shake  the  dust  from  his  feet,  and  raising 
one  foot,  he  literally  shook  the  dust  from  it,  then  lashed  his  horses  with 
his  reins,  and  started  on  his  trip  to  California. 

The  year  1840  was  distinguished  as  being  the  time  when  the  first 
steamboat  built  and  successfully  launched  at  Boonville.  It  was  constructed 
under  the  superintendence  of  Captain  McCourtney,  and  was  intended  for 
the  Osage.    It  was  called  the  "Warsaw." 

As  a  port  of  entry  at  this  time,  Boonville  excelled  any  other  town  on 
the  river  except  St.  Louis.  As  many  as  five  or  six  steamboats  would  often 
land  during  the  day  and  night,  for  the  purpose  of  taking  on  and  discharg- 
ing freight. 

During  the  year  1850,  the  whole  number  of  deaths  that  had  occurred 
in  Boonville  was  45,  as  shown  by  the  sextons  report.  Thirty-eight  of  these 
were  white  persons,  and  seven  were  negroes.  Eleven  of  these  were  strang- 
ers who  had  just  arrived  in  the  city,  or  who  were  passing  through.  The 
population  of  the  city  at  that  time  was  estimated  at  about  2,800. 

During  the  decade  between  1850  and  1860,  several  newspapers  were 
established  and  discontinued.  Notably  among  these  were  the  "Central  Mis- 
sourian,"  and  the  "Boonville  Missourian." 

The  Missouri  State  Agricultural  Society  held  the  first  fairs  at  the 
Fair  Grounds  near  Boonville  in  1853  and  1854.  In  1855  the  foundations 
were  laid  for  Thespian  Hall,  which  was  begun  during  that  year.  At  the 
time  of  its  construction,  it  was  considered  one  of  the  largest  and  most 
magnificent  buildings  to  be  found  west  of  St.  Louis.  It  was  erected  by  a 
number  of  stockholders  and  occupies  the  northeast  corner  of  Fifth  and 
Church  street,  now  called  Vine  street.  The  building  is  constructed  of 
brick,  50x100  feet,  with  10  feet  open  space  in  front,  supported  by  four 
brick  colums,  4x4  feet  square.  The  Thespian  Hall  is  four  feet  above  the 
ground,  and  20  feet  high  in  the  clear.  The  second  story  was  divided  into 
three  apartments,  two  halls  originally  for  use  of  Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  s' 
Associations,  fronting  on  Fifth  street,  23i/2x43  feet,  a  town  hall  fronting 
Vine  street,  35x47  feet.  The  basement  story  was  designed  for  reading 
rooms.  This  building  has  since  been  remodeled,  the  basement  room  and 
first  story  being  converted  into  an  opera  house.  The  second  story  is  used 
entirely  by  the  Masonic  Fraternity. 

The  first  bank  established  in  Boonville  was  the  William  H.  Trigg,  in 
1847,  particular  reference  to  which  will  be  found  in  the  chapter  on  banking. 

In  May,  1883,  the  Boonville  Water  Company  was  organized  with  the 
following  stockholders :    John  Elliott,  John  Cosgroye,  Speed  Stephens,  Lon 


Stephens,  Henry  McCourtney,  W.  Whitlow,  T.  B.  Perkins,  W.  C.  Culwey- 
house  and  J.  H.  Johnson.  Perkins  was  the  promoter,  and  took  the  contract 
for  building  the  system.  The  plan  pursued  in  the  construction  of  this  im- 
portant enterprise  was  known  as  the  Perkins  system. 

July  1,  1905,  the  city  of  Boonville,  after  negotiations  covering  a  period 
of  two  years,  acquired  all  the  property,  rights  and  franchises  of  the  Boon- 
ville Water  Company.  The  price  paid  for  the  property  totaled  $52,500,  and 
was  based  upon  a  valuation  made  by  engineers  employed  by  the  city  in 
1903,  to  which  was  added  the  investment  by  the  company  up  to  the  time 
the  purchase  was  consummated. 

The  property  consisted  of  some  31,000  feet  of  distribution  mains,  about 
20  acres  of  land,  and  some  buildings  and  reservoirs,  pumping  station  and 
equipment,  and  a  brick  tower  with  wooden  tanks.  Of  the  original  prop- 
erty, only  the  distribution  system  and  land  are  still  in  service.  All  build- 
ings have  been  added  to  and  improved  since  the  purchase.  This  applies 
similarly  to  reservoirs  which  have  been  enlarged.  The  purchase  was  made 
possible  by  the  authorization  and  issue  of  a  bonded  debt  of  $75,000  bearing 
interest  at  the  rate  of  four  per  cent  per  annum. 

By  Dec.  31,  1918,  all  the  $4,000  of  this  issue  had  been  returned.  The 
city  has  acquired  and  operated  a  property  which  represents  a  gross  invest- 
ment of  $121,000  in  14  years,  and  paid  therefor  with  a  net  tax  assessment 
of  about  17  cents  per  $1,000  valuation  in  excess  of  that,  which  would  have 
been  necessary  to  pay  for  fire  hydrant  service  under  private  ownership. 

The  first  board  of  public  works  which  had  charge  of  this  system  were 
appointed  in  March,  19 — ,  as  follows:  W.  F.  Johnson,  president;  M.  E. 
Schmidt,  secretary ;  S.  H.  Stephens  and  W.  A.  Sombart.  The  present  board 
is  Jeff  L.  Davis,  president;  Fred  Dauwalter,  secretary;  George  A.  Weyland, 
Clarence  Shears. 

At  our  request,  Mayor  C.  W.  Journey  has  prepared  a  short  article  on 
Boonville  as  it  is  today,  which  we  herewith  give : 

Boonville  as  It  is  Today. — The  present  population  of  the  city  of  Boon- 
ville is  about  6,000 ;  the  assessed  valuation  of  property  in  the  city  for  the 
year  1918  was  $2,300,000.  The  city  revenue  for  the  same  year  from  all 
sources  was  about  $26,500 ;'  and  the  city  indebtedness  is  only  $29,000. 

The  tax  rate  for  1918  was  $1.10.  The  rate  for  this  year  of  1919  will 
be  reduced  from  that  of  1918. 

The  city  has,  since  1905,  in  fourteen  years,  purchased  and  paid  for 
the  water  works  plant,  together  with  27.82  acres  of  land  acquired,  by  the 
original  purchase,  all  representing  a  gross  investment  of  $121,000  (this 


does  not  include  advanced  value  of  real  estate) ;  has  set  aside  $33,000  for 
depreciation,  has  accumulated  $6,000  surplus,  made  all  necessary  additions 
and  betterments,  and  today,  the  plant  is  in  first  class  working  order,  giving 
us  as  good  and  pure  water  as  is  to  be  found  anywhere.  Of  the  $75,000 
bonded  indebtedness  14  years  ago  in  the  matter  of  the  purchase  of  ths 
water  plant,  on  July  1,  1919,  only  $3,000  of  the  same  will  remain  unpaid. 

Boonville  now  has  three  banks,  and  another  practically  organized  and 
ready  for  business.    Boonville  now  has,  among  other  things,  the  following : 

A  large  public  school  building,  the  high  school  building  (a  magnificent 
and  beautiful  structure),  Kemper  Military  School,  a  large  and  splendid  in- 
stitution, and  with  a  larger  attendance  this  year  than  ever  before  in  its 
history,  the  new  Sumner  school  for  colored  people,  the  Missouri  Reforma- 
tory, and  Dunkle's  Business  School,  nine  churches,  one  large  flouring  mill, 
a  beautiful  new  court  house,  a  pipe  factory  employing  150  or  more  people, 
a  large  shoe  factory  now  in  course  of  construction,  its  estimated  cost  when 
completed  is  $110,000,  and  will  employ  300  workers,  a  large  ice  plant  and 
laundry  employing  30  persons  the  year  round,  the  Armour  packing  plant, 
employing  30  to  40  persons,  a  large  brick  plant,  sand-works  and  a  lime  kiln. 

There  are  now  fifteen  grocery  stores ;  three  large  and  up-to-date  cloth- 
ing stores ;  four  dry  goods  stores,  not  counting  combination  dry  goods  and 
grocery  stores ;  four  millinery  and  three  drug  stores ;  one  large  tin,  glass- 
ware and  notion  store ;  one  dealer  in  books ;  one  fruit  store,  and  two  com- 
bination fruit  and  stationery  stores;  two  furniture  stores;  two  hardware 
stores ;  two  exclusive  boot  and  shoe  stores ;  one  second  hand  store ;  two 
restaurants,  and  numerous  eating  booths;  three  ice  cream  parlors,  and 
numerous  tailor,  blacksmith  and  tin  shops ;  two  large  wholesale  houses, 
both  under  the  same  management.    Boonville  also  has  eight  garages. 

The  paved  streets  in  the  city  are  as  follows:  Main  (or  Fifth)  street, 
from  High  to  the  top  of  Trigg  Hill  in  the  southern  limits  of  the  city ;  High, 
from  Second  to  Eighth  streets ;  Morgan,  from  First  to  Tenth ;  Spring,  from 
Main  to  Tenth,  and  from  First  to  the  Boonville  and  Sedalia  road;  Sixth, 
from  Locust  to  the  Boonville  and  Jefferson  City  road ;  Chestnut,  from  Sixth 
to  Third ;  Third,  from  High  to  Pine  street ;  Court,  from  Fifth  to  Sixth ; 
Locust,  from  Main  East  to  the  Catholic  Cemetery,  thence  south  to  the 
southeast  corner  of  the  Cooper  County  Infirmary  Farm,  being  practically 
to  the  city  limits;  Shamrock  Heights,  from  the  north  part  of  Shamrock 
Heights  to  what  is  known  as  the  "New-Cut  Road" ;  Eighth,  from  High  to 
Morgan;  Second  street,  from  Spring  to  Water  street,  and  there  is  now 




under  construction  the  paving  of  Walnut  street  from  Sixth  street,  west- 
wardly  to  Shamrock  Heights. 

At  this  writing,  the  city  council  has  made  arrangements  to  call  a  spe- 
cial election  to  decide  on  the  proposition  of  issuing  bonds  for  $35,000  for 
the  purpose  of  laying  a  new  water  main  from  the  water  works  to  the  city. 
This  is  not  only  to  guard  against  serious  damage  by  fire  and  great  public 
inconvenience  in  case  the  single  line  now  existing  should  break,  but  to  give 
water  service  to  new  territory,  and  improve  and  extend  the  water  service 
gnerally  ;  and  to  issue  bonds  in  the  sum  of  $12,000  for  constructing  an  addi- 
tional sewer  main,  and  serve  the  new  addition  in  the  western  part  of  the 
city,  now  an  assured  fact;  and  to  issue  bonds  for  $10,000  for  the  purpose 
of  improving  the  City  Park. 

Walnut  Grove  Cemetery,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  State,  had 
its  inception  in  1852.  In  that  year  Charles  F.  Aehle,  Robert  D.  Perry,  Dr. 
A.  Keuckelhan  and  others  purchased  a  piece  of  ground  containing  two 
acres  from  William  S.  Myers  to  be  used  as  a  cemetery.  Upon  this  ground 
was  a  beautiful  grove  of  walnut  trees,  hence  the  name  Walnut  Grove 
Cemetery.  This  tract  has  been  added  to  from  time  to  time.  The  first 
body  interred  in  the  cemetery  was  that  of  Mrs.  Sarah  Ann  Quarles,  who 
died  Aug.  24,  1852.  Others  buried  about  the  same  time  were  Mrs.  H.  A. 
Massie,  James  McDearmon,  and  Ida  Aehle.  Also  the  remains  of  David 
Barton,  first  United  States  Senator  of  Missouri,  was  removed  from  the  City 
Cemetery  and  buried  here,  where  now  stands  an  appropriate  monument 
erected  by  the  State.  Up  to  1880  this  cemetery  was  under  the  care  of 
Mr.  Aehle,  in  which  year  the  cemetery  was  made  public  under  certain  rules 
and  restrictions  by  the  purchase  of  the  same  from  Mr.  Aahle  by  and 
through  a  corporation  organized  for  that  purpose.  The  charter,  however, 
was  not  issued  until  June  7,  1881. 

The  people  of  Boonville  and  Cooper  County  are  justly  proud  of  this 
beautiful  cemetery  where  rest  the  remains  of  their  loved  and  lost.  It  has 
grown  from  year  to  year  and  its  management  has  been  such  as  to  add  to  its 
beauty  with  years.  While  not  all  but  much  of  the  credit  due  to  the  superb 
management  of  this  cemetery  is  credited  to  Dr.  William  Mittlebach,  who 
for  years  has  been  superintendent  and  secretary  of  the  same.  The  present 
board  of  dirctors  are  T.  A.  Johnson,  president;  W.  W.  Trigg,  vice-presi- 
dent; R.  W.  Whitlow,  treasurer;  William  Mittlebach,  superintendent  and 
secretary;  Hilliard  Brewster,  Fred  G.  Lohse,  Starke  Koontz,  and  Charles 
Doerrie.  The  executive  committee  consists  of  William  Mittelbach,  W.  W. 


Trigg,  and  Fred  G.  Lohse.    Lawrence  Geiger,  Sr.,  is  the  present  sexton. 

Blackwater  Township. — Blackwater  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Lamine 
township ;  on  the  east  by  Pilot  Grove  and  Clear  Creek  township,  and  on  the 
west  by  Saline  and  Pettis  Counties.  It  is  practically  surrounded  by  water, 
the  Blackwater  River  on  the  north  and  the  Lamine  on  the  east  and  south. 

The  soil  is  rich  and  very  productive.  It  has  much  bottom  land  which 
is  especially  adapted  to  the  growing  of  corn,  wheat  and  alfalfa. 

Lead  and  iron  ore  are  found  in  abundance.  Springs  are  very  numer- 
ous, some  of  which  are  salt.  Salt  was  manufactured  in  this  township  as 
early  as  1808  and  from  that  time  until  1836  it  was  manufactured  pretty 
extensively  by  Heath,  Bailey,  Christie,  Allison  and  others. 

William  Christie  and  John  D.  Heath  settled  here  in  1808  temporarily. 
James  Broch  was  the  first  permanent  settler,  arriving  in  1816.  Enoch 
Hambrich  came  in  1817.  David  Shellcraw  in  1818,  George  Chapman,  the 
father  of  Mrs.  Caleb  Jones,  came  in  1818;  Nathaniel  T.  Allison  in  1831, 
Cleming  Marshall  and  Robert  Clark  in  1832,  Nathaniel  Bridgewater  in  1835. 

The  village  of  Blackwater  is  the  metropolis  of  Blackwater  township 
and  is  surrounded  by  fertile  and  enterprising  country  and  thrifty  farmers. 
The  town  has  a  population  of  about  500  and  the  mercantile  business  repre- 
sents practically  every  line  of  business  found  in  a  village  of  that  size.  It 
has  one  newspaper,  two  banks,  and  an  electric  light  plant.  The  merchants 
are  prosperous  and  enjoy  a  good  trade.  Blackwater  is  one  of  the  oldest 
trading  points  in  Cooper  County.  It  takes  its  name  from  the  stream 
Blackwater,  from  which  also  the  township  takes  its  name. 

Clear  Creek  Township. — Clear  Creek  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the 
Lamine  River;  on  the  east  by  Pilot  Grove  and  Palestine  townships;  on 
the  south  by  Lebanon  and  Otterville  townships,  and  on  the  west  by  Pettis 

Some  rough  land  is  found  in  this  township  in  the  north  and  west  part 
but  in  the  east  and  south  are  found  some  of  the  best  farms  in  Cooper 
County.  James  Taylor  and  sons,  William,  John,  and  James  were  the  first 
settlers.  They  came  from  Georgia  by  the  way  of  New  Madrid  and  settled 
here  in  1817.  The  farmed  a  large  tract  of  land  and  were  the  early  corn 
kings  of  Cooper  County. 

At  one  time  when  com  was  very  scarce  throughout  the  county,  and 
very  little  could  be  had  for  love  or  money,  two  men  came  to  Mr.  Taylor's 
house  asking  to  purchase  some  corn,  of  which  he  had  a  large  quantity,  on 
credit,  as  neither  of  them  had  any  money  with  which  to  pay.  One  was 
very  poorly  dressed,  with  his  pants  torn  off  below  his  knees,  and  what 


there  was  remaining  of  them  patched  all  over.  The  other  was  almost 
elegantly  dressed.  Mr.  Taylor  sold  the  poorly  dressed  man,  on  credit,  all 
the  corn  he  wished.  He  told  the  other  one  that  he  could  get  no  corn  there, 
unless  he  paid  the  money  for  it,  and  that  if  he  had  saved  the  money  which 
he  had  squandered  for  his  fine  clothes  he  would  have  had  sufficient  to  pay 
cash  for  the  corn. 

He  had  a  large  number  of  negroes,  and  required  them  during  the  day 
to  perform  a  great  deal  of  work.  Shovel  plows  were  mostly  used  in  his 
day,  and  the  wooden  mole  board  just  coming  into  use.  It  is  related  that 
the  shovels  of  Mr.  Taylor's  plows  had,  at  one  time,  worn  off  very  blunt, 
and  he  was  averse  to  buying  new  ones,  so  that  one  negro  man  plowed  once 
around  a  field  before  he  discovered  that  he  had  lost  the  dull  shovel  to  his 
plow,  the  plow  running  just  as  well  without  as  with  it.  He  was  a  leader  in 
the  Baptist  Church,  and  was  a  devoted  member,  a  kind  neighbor  and  a 
strictly  honest  man. 

Jordan  O'Bryan,  son-in-law  of  James  Taylor,  settled  here  in  1817.  He 
represented  the  county  in  the  State  Legislature  in  1822,  1826,  1834  and 
1840  and  in  the  State  Senate  1844  to  1848.  He  was  an  orator,  a  man  of 
great  ability  and  an  uncompromising  Whig. 

Charles  R.  Berry,  the  father  of  Finis  E.  Berry,  Isaac  Ellis  and  Hugh 
and  Alexander  Brown,  are  among  the  oldest  citizens ;  others  of  a  later  date 
were  Herman  Bailey,  William  Ellis,  Samuel  Walker,  A.  S.  Walker,  H.  R. 
Walker,  Finis  E.  Berry,  James  and  Samuel  Mahan,  the  Rubeys,  Jeremiah, 
William  G.  and  Martin  G.  Phillips,  Samuel  Forbes,  Ragan  Berry,  Hiram 
Dial,  Samuel  and  Rice  Hughes  and  Willis  Ellis. 

Pilot  Grove  Township. — Pilot  Grove  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  La- 
mine  ;  on  the  east  by  Boonville  and  Palestine ;  on  the  south  by  Clear  Creek 
and  Palestine,  and  on  the  west  by  Clear  Cleek  and  Blackwater.  It  is  a 
very  irregular  in  shape  and  offers  quite  a  variety  in  surface  features.  The 
township  derived  its  name  from  the  following  facts :  When  travelers  were 
passing  on  the  route  from  Boonville  to  Independence,  or  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  this  route,  as  it  led  through  the  township,  they  were  enabled  at 
once  to  determine  their  position  by  the  small  grove  of  trees  which  was 
plainly  visible  for  miles  around.  Very  little  of  the  present  timber  was  in 
existence  except  as  low  brush,  so  that  the  group  of  trees  standing  promi- 
nently above  all  the  rest  proved  a  pilot  to  the  traveler  in  his  journey 
across  the  then  extensive  prairie.    Hence  the  name  "Pilot  Grove." 

It  was  settled  about  1820.  Among  the  early  settlers  were  John  Mc- 
Cutchen,  John  Houx,  Jacob  Houx,  L.  A.  Summers,  James  McElroy,  Samuel 


Roe,  Sr.,  Samuel  Woolridge,  Enoch  Mass,  Absalom  Meredith,  Azariah  Bone, 
who  was  a  Methodist  minister;  John  Rice,  a  blacksmith;  a  Mr.  Magee,  after 
whom  "Magee  Grove"  was  named,  and  Samuel  Gilbert,  whose  success  in 
after  life  as  a  cancer  doctor  was  a  surprise  to  all  and  a  familiar  theme  of 
conversation  among  the  old  settlers.  There  were  also  William  and  James 
Taylor,  Jr.,  who  were  among  the  pioneers. 

This  township  was  distinguished  in  the  early  times  by  the  number  and 
variety  of  camp  meetings  which  were  held  within  its  borders.  The  Metho- 
dists and  Presbyterians  were  rivals  for  the  honor  of  conducting  the  biggest 
and  best  camp  meeting  each  year.    People  attended  from  great  distances. 

Thomas  P.  Cropper  was  the  first  noted  teacher  in  this  township.  He 
taught  in  1828  and  1829. 

The  first  mill  erected  in  this  township  was  by  a  man  named  Hughes. 
It  was  a  horse-mill  and  stood  on  one  of  the  branches  of  the  Petite  Saline. 

Pilot  Grove  is  located  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  5,  township 
47,  range  18  in  Pilot  Grove  township  and  surrounded  by  large  and  beautiful 
farming  country.  The  town  and  township  take  their  name  from  the  post- 
office  called  in  the  early  day  Pilot  Grove.  The  town  was  laid  off  in  1873 
by  Samuel  Roe  and  is  situated  on  the  Missouri,  Kansas  &  Texas  railroad 
twelve  miles  southwest  of  Boonville.  As  early  as  1836  the  Government 
located  a  postoffice  about  one  mile  from  the  present  town  site  and  called 
it  Pilot  Grove.  In  those  days  freighters  and  travelers  to  the  great  south- 
west guided  their  course  across  the  broad  prairies  by  a  beautiful  grove  of 
hickory  trees  that  stood  on  what  is  now  known  as  the  Coleman  farm  and 
within  the  present  limits  of  the  town  of  Pilot  Grove.  This  grove  of  trees 
became  known  as  the  Pilot  Grove,  hence  the  name  of  the  postoffice,  Pilot 
Grove,  which  gave  the  name  to  the  town. 

Pilot  Grove  is  a  city  of  the  fourth  class  and  has  a  population  of  be- 
tween 800  and  1,000  inhabitants.  There  is  one  newspaper,  five  churches, 
two  elevators,  two  banks,  a  good  public  school  conducted  in  a  new  and  up- 
to-date  school  building,  stores  in  which  are  found  large  stocks  of  goods 
and  representing  every  line  of  the  mercantile  business,  garages,  blacksmith 
shops,  lumber  yard,  telephone  system,  electric  light  system,  and  in  fact 
every  enterprise  usually  found  in  the  most  up-to-date  town  of  similar  size. 

Kelly  Township. — Kelly  township  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Palestine 
and  Clarks  Fork,  on  the  east  by  Moniteau,  on  the  west  by  Lebanon,  and 
on  the  south  by  Moniteau  County.  It  is  named  in  honor  of  John  Kelly,  one 
of  its  oldest  and  most  respected  citizens. 

Its  surface  is  comparatively  regular,  consisting  of  prairie  diversified 


with  timbered  portions.  It  is  thought  to  have  been  settled  first  in  1818. 
The  first  settlers  were:  John  Kelly,  William  Stephens,  James  D.  Campbell, 
James  Kelly,  William  J.  Kelly,  Caperton  Kelly,  William  Jennings,  Gen. 
Charles  Woods,  Philip  E.  Davis,  Rice  Challis,  Hugh  Morric,  Jesse  White, 
Hartley  White,  Jeptha  Billingsley,  Joshua  Dellis,  and  William  Swearingen. 

James  Kelly  was  a  Revolutionary  soldier  and  died  in  1840. 

John  Kelly,  Charles  Wood  and  James  D.  Campbell  served  as  soldiers  in 
the  War  of  1812. 

The  Kellys  came  originally  from  Tennessee  the  Campbells  from  Ken- 
tucky. William  Jennings,  the  first  preacher,  came  from  Georgia  in  1819. 
He  was  a  wealthy  slave  owner  and  was  for  many  years  pastor  of  "Old 
Nebo"  Church.  Campbell  was  for  many  years  justice  of  the  peace,  a 
prominent  politician,  and  a  noted  Democrat. 

Gen.  Charles  Woods  was  for  many  years  the  leading  Democratic 
politician  of  the  township.  He  was  a  forceful  speaker,  a  gentleman  in 
every  respect.    He  died  in  1874  at  the  age  of  78  years. 

Joseph  Reavis  with  his  sons,  Lewis,  William  T.  Jackson  and  Johnston, 
settled  in  this  township  in  1823  and  for  many  years  were  manufacturers 
of  wagons,  at  which  trade  they  attained  quite  a  good  deal  of  prominence. 

Joseph  S.  Anderson  was  probably  the  first  schoolmaster  in  this  town- 
ship. He  settled  here  in  1824.  He  taught  a  very  successful  school  for  four 
years  when  he  was  elected  sheriff  of  Cooper  County,  1828,  re-elected  in 
1830.  Previous  to  his  death  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature.  He  became 
a  large  land  owner  and  very  wealthy.  His  residence  was  on  a  hill  north  of 
Bunceton.  His  schoolhouse  was  near  the  ground  on  which  Hopewell  Church 
is  located.  William  Robertson,  a  Baptist  minister,  continued  this  school  for 
a  number  of  years. 

Robert  McCulloch  operated  the  first  mill  in  the  township.  Rice  Challis, 
a  carpenter,  was  a  prominent  Whig  and  in  respect  to  his  politics  stood  al- 
most alone  in  his  neighborhood. 

The  soil  of  Kelly  township  is  very  fertile  and  some  of  the  best  farms 
in  the  State  of  Missouri  are  to  be  found  within  its  borders. 

Bunceton  was  laid  out  in  1868  by  the  late  Harvey  Bunce,  from  whom 
it  derives  its  name.  It  lies  almost  in  the  geographical  center  of  the  county 
and  is  surrounded  by  a  great  trade  territory  of  fertile  and  highly  improved 
farms.  The  population  of  the  town  is  now  about  1,000.  Sam  T.  Smith  is 
mayor  and  the  city  council  is  composed  of  W.  E.  Harris,  Frank  Gholson, 
Joe  C.  Stephens  and  Edgar  C.  Nelson.    F.  C.  Betteridge  is  city  clerk. 

Bunceton  has  about  20  stores,  representing  all  lines  of  business.     It 


also  has  two  banks  with  resources  of  $1,000,000,  a  modem  garage,  a  tele- 
phone system,  an  up-to-date  hotel  and  a  cafe,  an  ice  plant  and  an  electric 
light  plant  furnishing  a  24-hour  service,  two  grain  elevators,  a  barber  shop, 
a  newspaper  with  the  largest  circulation  in  the  county,  a  fine  theatre,  a 
grist  mill,  a  splendid  accredited  four-year  high  school,  four  churches,  three 

The  business  section  of  the  town  is  composed  of  modern  brick  build- 
ings, while  in  the  residence  sections  are  to  be  found  many  modern  and 
attractive  homes.  Sunset  Hill,  a  new  addition  to  the  town,  promises  to 
attract  many  new  home-owners.  A  building  and  loan  association  organized 
in  1914  has  been  very  successful  in  supplying  funds  for  many  new  homes 
in  the  town.  The  streets  of  the  town  are  well  kept  and  the  town  has  many 
blocks  of  concrete  sidewalks.  Beautiful  shade  trees  and  well  kept  lawns 
are  a  feature  of  the  town. 

Two  county  farmers'  organizations,  the  Cooper  County  Farmers'  Mu- 
tual Fire  Insurance  Company  and  the  Farmers  Live  Stock  Insurance  Com- 
pany, maintain  offices  in  Bunceton.  The  Bunceton  Fair,  now  the  county 
fair,  organized  more  than  a  quarter  century  ago,  is  famous  for  its  motto, 
"For  Farmers,  not  Fakirs,"  which  it  has  lived  up  to.  The  Cooper  County 
Shorthorn  Breeders'  Association  also  has  headquarters  in  Bunceton. 

Bunceton  is  the  shipping  point  for  much  live  stock,  hundreds  of  cars 
of  cattle,  hogs,  sheep  and  mules  going  to  market  from  the  town  each  year. 
It  lies  in  the  center  of  a  great  pure-bred  stock  community  and  attracts 
many  buyers  from  a  distance. 

The  Bunceton  postoffice  serves  four  rural  mail  routes  which  cover  a 
big  territory.    Miss  Mary  Shackleford  is  postmistress. 

The  people  of  Bunceton  are  cultured.  They  seek  and  enjoy  the  better 
things  of  life.  Schools  and  churches  are  well  supported.  Its  citizenship 
is  high. 

The  present  Bunceton  Fair  had  its  inception  at  a  meeting  of  farmers 
and  stockmen  held  in  the  office  of  the  "Bunceton  Eagle"  on  March  21,  1896, 
when  plans  for  an  agricultural  fair  were  discussed.  The  actual  organiza- 
tion was  perfected  on  May  9,  1896,  when  a  board  of  13  directors  were 
elected.  They  were  E.  H.  Rodgers,  Henry  Fricke,  John  G.  Burger,  N.  A. 
Gilbreath,  A.  B.  Alexander,  A.  A.  Wallace,  T.  A.  Nelson,  E.  F.  Lovell,  J.  U. 
Starke,  J.  R.  Conway,  T.  V.  Hickox,  Theo.  Brandes  and  Dr.  P.  E.  Williams. 
E.  H.  Rodgers  was  the  first  president;  John  G.  Burger,  first  vice-president : 
Henry  Fricke,  second  vice-president;  T.  A.  Nelson,  treasurer;  W.  I,.  Nelson. 
secretary,  and  E.  F.  Lovell,  assistant  secretary. 

Thirty-seven  acres  belonging  to  W.  L.  Allison  and  lying  a  half-mile 


west  of  Bunceton,  was  selected  as  a  site  for  the  fairgrounds.  It  was  at 
first  leased  and  later  bought.  On  Wednesday,  Sept.  9,  1896,  the  gates  were 
thrown  open  to  the  first  meeting  ever  held  by  the  association. 

The  association  has  held  a  successful  meeting  every  year  since  its 
organization.  It  adopted  in  its  early  history  for  its  motto,  "For  Farmers 
and  Not  Fakers,"  and  has  consistently  lived  up  to  the  motto. 

The  present  board  of  directors  (1919)  is  composed  of  F.  C.  Betteridge, 
Ben  Harned,  S.  H.  Groves,  H.  L.  Shirley,  Joseph  Popper,  George  Morris, 
Ben  Smith,  Clyde  T.  Nelson,  and  G.  A.  Gilbert.  F.  C.  Betteridge  is  presi- 
dent and  Edgar  C.  Nelson  is  secretary  and  treasurer. 

During  its  existence  the  following  men.  have  served  the  association 
as  president:  E.  H.  Rodgers,  1896;  T.  A.  Nelson,  1897-8-9  and  1907;  J.  E. 
Burger,  1900-01 ;  Henry  Fricke,  1902-03 ;  P.  E.  Williams,  1904-05 ;  G.  W. 
Morris,  1906;  George  A.  Carpenter,  1908;  Ben  Harned,  1909-10-14;  S.  H. 
Groves,  1911-16-17-18 ;  J.  A.  Hawkins,  1912-13  ;  F.  C.  Betteridge,  1915-19. 

During  its  existence  the  fair  has  exerted  a  great  influence  on  the  agri- 
cultural and  live  stock  interests  of  the  county.  It  has  always  been  con- 
ducted on  a  high  plane  and  has  been  clean  in  every  particular.  It  has 
become  known  over  the  corn  belt  as  a  model  country  fair. 

Lamine  Township. — Lamine  township  is  located  in  the  northwest  part 
of  Cooper  County  and  is  just  across  the  river  from  Howard.  It  is  bounded 
on  the  east  by  Boonville  township,  on  the  south  by  Pilot  Grove  and  Black- 
water  and  on  the  west  by  Saline  County. 

The  surface  is  rolling  and  was  originally  covered  with  a  heavy  growth 
of  timber.  The  soil  is  rich  and  very  productive.  It  was  settled  first  in 
1812  by  David  Jones,  a  Revolutionary  soldier,  Thomas  and  James  McMahan, 
Stephen,  Samuel  and  Jesse  Turley,  Saunders  Townsend. 

Those  who  arrived  later  were  John  Cramer,  Bradford  Lawless,  John 
M.,  David  and  William  Reid,  Hezekiah  Harris,  Elijah  Taylor,  John,  Peter, 
Samuel  and  Joseph  Fisher,  William  and  Jesse  Moon,  Rudolph  Haupe, 
Isaac  Hedrick,  John  Smelser,  William  McDaniel,  Wyant  Parm,  Harmon 
Smelser,  Samuel  Larnd,  Pethnel  Foster,  Julius  Burton,  Ezekiel  Williams, 
and  some  others  at  present  unknown. 

"Fort  McMahan"  was  built  in  the  year  1812  or  1813  but  it  can  not 
be  exactly  located. 

Lead  has  been  found  in  paying  quantities  in  bygone  days  and  lumber 
and  cord-wood  were  for  many  years  shipped  extensively  from  the  town- 
ship. In  the  early  days,  fish  from  the  Blackwater  and  Lamine  Rivers 
were  sent  regularly  to  Boonville. 

Samuel  Walton  erected  a  business  house   in  the  village  of  Lamine 


in  1869.  Redd  and  Gibson  opened  a  store  in  November,  1871,  which 
was  broken  into  in  February,  1881,  the  safe  blown  and  about  $700  in 
money  taken. 

North  and  South  Moniteau  Townships. — These  two  townships,  origi- 
nally one,  are  separated  by  the  Moniteau  Creek.  They  are  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Clarks  Fork  and  Prairie  Home  townships,  on  the  east  and 
south  by  Moniteau  County  and  on  the  west  by  Kelly  township. 

The  surface  near  the  Moniteau  Creek  tends  to  be  rough,  which 
gradually  gives  way  to  prairie  both  in  the  north  and  south. 

Mr.  Shelton,  a  blacksmith,  settled  near  where  the  town  of  Pisgah 
now  stands  in  1818.  He  was.  quite  a  noted  "artificer  in  metals"  and  was 
the  only  blacksmith  in  the  county  outside  of  Boonville. 

Among  other  early  settlers  were  Thomas  B.  Smiley,  Seth  Joseph, 
Waid  and  Stephen  Howard,  William  Coal,  James  Stinson,  Hawking  Bur- 
ress,  David  Burress,  Charles  Hickox,  Samuel  McFarland,  Carroll  George, 
James  Snodgrass,  Martin  George,  Mathew  Burress,  Jesse  Martin,  Alex- 
ander Woods,  William  Landers,  Jesse  Bowles,  James  Donelson,  William 
A.  Stillson,  Samuel  Snodgrass,  James  W.  Maxey,  Job  Martin,  James 
Jones,  David  Jones,  Augustus  K.  Longan,  Patrick  Mahan,  Valentine  Mar- 
tin, John  Jones  and  John  B.  Longan. 

Thomas  B.  Smiley,  who  represented  Cooper  County  in  the  Legisla- 
ture in  1820,  was  a  man  of  considerable  information  and  a  good  historian. 
He  reared  a  large  family  of  children  and  died  in  1836. 

David  Jones  settled  at  Pisgah  prior  to  1820,  since  his  vote  was  re- 
corded in  that  year.  He,  with  Archibald  Kavanaugh,  was  elected  to  the 
State  Legislature  in  1830,  1832,  1834  and  in  1836  he  was  elected  State 
Senator,  re-elected  in  1848.     He  died  in  1859. 

Pisgah  and  Mount  Pleasant  churches  were  built  by  the  Baptists  in 
an  early  day  and  were  presided  over  by  John  B.  Longan  and  Kemp  Scott. 
The  first  school  in  this  township  was  probably  taught  by  James  Donelson. 
He  only  professed  to  teach  arithmetic  as  far  as  the  "double  rule  of  three". 

A  man  named  Howard  erected  the  first  mill  at  what  was  afterwards 
known  as  "Old  Round  Hill".  An  Englishman  by  the  name  of  Summers. 
and  Judge  C.  H.  Smith  also  kept  a  store  in  this  place. 

Patrick  Mahan  later  built  a  tread-mill  which  was  a  considerable 
improvement  over  the  old  fashioned  "horse  mill".  Richard  D.  Bonsfield 
at  a  very  early  date  erected  a  store  at  Pisgah. 

Palestine  Township. — Palestine  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Pilot 
Grove  and  Boonville  townships;  on  the  south  by  Kelly  and  Lebanon;  on 


the  west  by  Clear  Creek  and  Pilot  Grove,  and  on  the  east  by  Clarks  Fork 
township.  It  is  generally  prairie,  but  a  bit  rough  on  the  east  side  and 
the  soil  is  of  the  most  excellent  quality. 

The  first  settlers  of  this  township  were  William  Moore,  and  Joseph 
Stevens.  William  Moore  came  from  North  Carolina  with  his  family  which 
consisted  of  seven  sons  and  three  daughters.  Margaret  married  Judge 
Lawrence  C.  Stephens  in  1818 ;  Sally  married  Col.  John  G.  Hutchison  and 
Mary  married  Harvey  Bunce. 

Mrs.  Margaret  Stephens  told  of  the  first  church  she  attended  in  the 
neighborhood,  which  was  held  at  the  house  of  one  of  the  settlers.  Luke 
Williams,  the  preacher,  was  dressed  in  a  complete  suit  of  buckskin,  and  a 
great  many  of  his  audience  was  dressed  in  the  same  style.  She  was  so 
dissatisfied  with  the  appearance  of  things  in  this  county  that  she  cried 
during  the  whole  of  the  services,  but  soon  became  accustomed  to  the  new 
order  of  things,  and  was  well  contented.  At  that  meeting  grease  from 
the  bear  meat,  stored  in  the  loft  above  the  congregation,  dropped  down 
and  spoiled  her  nice  Sunday  shawl,  which  was  a  fine  one,  brought  from 
North  Carolina,  and  which  could  not  be  replaced  in  this  backwoods 

Joseph  Stephens,  Sr.,  and  family  settled  in  Palestine  in  1817,  being 
piloted  to  their  new  home  by  Maj.  Stephen  Cole.  In  1818,  Samuel  Peters 
settled  two  miles  farther  north  at  a  place  now  called  Petersburg. 

When  Samuel  Peters  raised  his  dwelling  he  invited  his  neighbors  to 
come  and  help  him,  stating  that  he  would,  on  that  occasion,  kill  a  hog  and 
have  it  for  dinner.  As  this  was  the  first  hog  ever  butchered  in  this  part 
of  the  state,  and  as  very  few  of  the  settlers  had  ever  tasted  pork,  it  was 
no  little  inducement  to  them  to  be  present  and  assist  in  disposing  of  such 
rare  and  delicious  food  for  the  settlers,  previous  to  that  time,  had  sub- 
sisted entirely  upon  wild  game.  Always,  on  such  occasion,  they  had  a 
little  "fire-water"  to  give  life  to  the  occasion. 

Colonel  Andrew  and  Judge  John  Briscoe  settled  in  the  same  township 
in  1818.  They  were  both  very  prominent  men,  and  prominent  leaders  in 
their  respective  parties,  Andrew  being  a  whig,  and  John  a  democrat. 
Some  of  the  other  early  settlers  were  Henry,  Hiram,  Heli  and  Harden 
Corum,  Mr.  Tevis,  the  father  of  Capt.  Simeon  Tevis,  Thomas  Collins,  Jacob 
Summers,  Michael,  James  and  Williamson,  John  and  Joseph  Cathey,  James, 
David  and  John  H.  Hutchison,  Nathaniel  Leonard,  John  and  Andrew  Wal- 
lace, Henry  Woolery,  Holbert  and  Samuel  Cole,  James  Bridges,  James 
Simms,  Russell  Smallwood,  Thomas  Best,  Greenberry  Allison,  William  C. 


Lowery,  Anthony  F.  Read,  and  others.  No  better  citizens  than  those 
mentioned  above  ever  settled  in  any  community. 

The  first  schools  in  Palestine  township  was  taught  by  Lawrence  C. 
Stephens,  Dr.  William  H.  Moore  and  a  young  man  from  Virginia  by  the 
same  name.  The  latter  was  considered  the  best  scholar  in  this  part  of 
the  country  in  the  early  days.  A  dancing  school  was  opened  at  the  resi- 
dence of  B.  W.  Levens  in  1832  by  a  man  named  Gibson.  He  was  the  first 
to  introduce  cotillions  in  this  part  of  the  country.  Mr.  Gibson  also  had 
schools  at  Boonville  and  Arrow  Rock,  teaching  two  days  at  each  place. 
It  is  presumed  that  he  rested  on  the  Sabbath. 

Prairie  Home  Township. — Prairie  Home  township  is  bounded  on  the 
north  by  Saline,  on  the  east  by  Moniteau  County,  and  on  the  west  by 
Clarks  Fork  township,  and  on  the  south  by  Moniteau  township.  Prairie 
Home  was  carved  from  the  territory  of  Clarks  Fork,  Saline  and  Moniteau 
townships  and  organized  in  1872. 

The  surface  is  generally  level  being  mostly  prairie.  The  soil  is  very 
fertile  and  some  very  excellent  farms  are  to  be  found  within  its  boundary. 

The  oldest  settlers,  according  to  the  best  information  that  can  be 
obtained,  were  James  McClain,  Lacy  McClanahan,  Adam  McClanahan, 
Jacob  Carpenter,  Absalom  McClanahan,  Michael  Hornbeck,  Samuel  Car- 
penter, William  N.  McClanahan,  William  G.  McClanahan,  and  Jeremiah 

The  early  history  of  this  township  cannot  be  dissociated  from  that  of 
the  parent  townships  enumerated  above. 

Prairie  Home,  one  of  the  best  inland  towns  in  this  section  of  the 
country  had  its  beginning  at  a  very  early  date  when  James  Boswell  erected 
a  store.     John  Zimmerman  established  a  business  here  in  1874. 

The  Prairie  Home  Institute  was  organized  in  1865  by  the  Rev.  A.  H. 

Prairie  Home  has  a  population  of  about  300.  It  has  one  bank  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $12,000,  two  churches,  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
South  and  the  Baptist,  a  good  school  with  three  teachers,  electric  lights, 
eight  stores,  one  hotel,  one  mill  and  one  blacksmith  shop.  The  present 
mayor  is  Dr.  R.  L.  Meredith. 

Clarks  Fork  Township. — Clarks  Fork  township  is  bounded  on  the 
north  by  Boonville  township;  on  the  east  by  Prairie  Home  and  Saline; 
on  the  south  by  Moniteau  and  Kelly,  and  on  the  west  by  Palestine.  The 
township  derives  its  name  from  Clark's  Fork  which  with  its  tributaries 
drain  it.     It  is  practically  all  prairie  land.     John  Glover  was  probably  the 


first  settler  in  this  township  locating  here  in  1813.  He  built  his  cabin 
near  where  Rankin's  Mill  now  stands.  John  C.  Rochester  settled  here 
shortly  afterwards.  He  was  a  grandson  of  the  founder  of  Rochester, 
New  York.  Having  lost  a  large  fortune,  he  sought  seclusion  by  emigrating 
to  the  frontier  country  where  people  required  nothing  save  honesty  and 
industry  to  admit  a  person  into  their  social  circles.  He  married  Miss 
Sally  Kelly,  the  daughter  of  James  Kelly,  who  was  a  honored  soldier  of 
the  Revolution. 

Some  of  the  old  citizens  of  this  township  were  Joshua  H.  Berry, 
William  Read,  William  and  Ruben  George,  Clayton  Hui't,  Samuel  Car- 
penter, Edward,  Andrew  and  Charles  Robertson,  James,  Robert  and  John 
Johnston,  Samuel,  Robert  and  William  Drinkwater,  Gabriel  Titsworth, 
William  Shipley,  Acrey  Hurt.  Peter  Carpenter,  George  Crawford,  George 
W.  Weight,  Martin  Jennings. 

George  Crawford  was  Cooper  County's  first  assessor,  afterwards  a 
member  of  the  legislature  from  the  county.  Judge  George  W.  Weight 
was  born  in  New  York,  Feb.  27,  1784.  Left  an  orphan  he  emigrated  to 
West  Virginia  and  from  thence  to  Ross  County,  Ohio,  where  he  married 
Miss  Elizabeth  Williams.  He  came  to  Howard  County,  Mo.,  with  his 
family  in  1820,  and  in  1822  he  settled  in  Clarks  Fork  township  and  lived 
there  until  his  death,  Feb.  29,  1857.  He  was  a  school  teacher,  a  good 
violinist,  and  in  his  early  day  taught  dancing  school.  He  was  county 
judge,  county  surveyor  and  later  state  representative. 

Clarks  Fork  township  is  strictly  a  farming  community.  Practically 
every  acre  of  it  is  devoted  to  the  production  of  grain  and  hay,  which  in 
turn  was  converted  into  finished  meat  producing  animals  which  find  a 
ready  market  in  St.  Louis  and  Kansas  City. 

Saline  Township. — Saline  township  lies  in  the  northeastern  part  of 
the  county.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Missouri  River;  on  the 
east  by  Moniteau  county ;  on  the  south  by  Prairie  Home  township,  and  on 
the  west  by  Clarks  Fork  and  Boonville  townships.  It  contains  quite  a 
good  deal  of  hilly  territory  and  much  bottom  land. 

Joseph  Jolly,  with  his  two  children,  John  and  William,  settled  in  this 
township  as  early  as  1812.  He  set  out  the  first  apple  orchard  and  built 
a  mill  which  would  grind  a  bushel  of  corn  an  hour.  William  Jolly  was  a 
gunsmith,  a  wheel  wright,  a  blacksmith,  a  cooper,  a  miller,  a  distiller,  a 
preacher,  a  doctor  and  a  farmer.     John  kept  a  ferry  across  the  Lamine. 

Some  of  the  other  early  settlers  were  William  Lamm,  James  and  John 
Turner,  Joseph  Pursley,  Levi  Cropper,  Henry  Levins,  B.  W.  Levins   (the 


grandfather,  and  father  of  Henry  C.  Levins  of  Boonville),  Josiah  Dickson, 
Charles  Force,  John  Farris,  Thomas  Farris,  Jesse  Wood,  David  Fine, 
Joshua  and  Lacy  McClanahan,  George  Dickson,  Frederick  and  James  F. 
Connor,  John  Calvert,  Adam  and  Absalom  McClanahan,  Elverton  Caldwell, 
Noding  Caldwell,  Joseph  Westbrook,  Alexander  Woods,  Robert  Givens, 
Leonard  Calvert.  August  McFall,  Alexander  R.  Dickson,  William  Calvert, 
Jr.,  James  Farris  and  Robert  Dickson. 

Big  Lick  church,  of  which  John  B.  Longdon  was  the  first  pastor,  was 
built  at  a  very  early  date.  John  M.  Stilman  (1820)  taught  the  first  school 
at  a  place  now  occupied  by  the  Highland  school.  A  town  by  the  name  of 
Washington  was  laid  out  by  B.  W.  Levens  near  the  Missouri  River  a'oout 
one  mile  below  Overton.  Lots  were  sold,  houses  built,  businesses  estab- 
lished and  quite  a  rosy  future  promised  but  in  time  it  disappeared  and  the 
spot  on  which  it  was  located  cannot  be  designated  by  any  living  man. 
Another  town  was  promoted  on  the  banks  of  the  Missouri  River  opposite 
Rocheport.  It  was  called  Houstonville.  It  was  laid  out  by  B.  W.  Levens 
and  John  Ward.  The  site  on  which  it  stood  now  forms  a  part  of  the  bed 
of  the  Missouri  River. 

Woolridge  was  incorporated  Feb.  5,  1904,  with  A.  F.  Nixon  as  mayor, 
who  through  the  years  has  held  and  now  holds  that  office.  The  town  has 
a  lumber  yard,  grain  elevator  and  flour  mill,  also  an  ice  plant.  It  also 
has  two  general  merchandise  stores,  two  restaurants,  one  grocery,  one 
drug  store,  one  hardware  store  and  one  furniture  store.  It  also  has  one 
harness  shop,  one  blacksmith  shop  and  one  garage. 

Lebanon  Township. — Thomas  J.  Starke,  who  has  imperishably  pre- 
served the  early  history  of  Lebanon  and  Otterville  townships,  has  joined 
"the  innumerable  caravan  that  moves  to  that  mysterious  realm  where 
each  must  take  his  chamber  in  the  silent  halls  of  death."  He  departed 
this  life  at  Otterville  on  Saturday,  June  27,  1903,  at  the  ripe  age  of  eighty 
years.  He  had  spent  almost  three  score  and  ten  years  in  Cooper  County 
where  he  grew  to  manhood,  married  and  died.  He  was  the  father  of  Mrs. 
D.  S.  Koontz  of  Boonville.  Thomas  J.  Starke  was  an  admirable  man  of 
lovable  traits  and  Cooper  County  had  no  better  citizen. 

"About  the  fall  of  1819  and  the  spring  of  1820,  the  following  named 
persons  moved  to  New  Lebanon,  and  into  that  neighborhood  embracing  a 
portion  of  the  territory  now  known  as  Lebanon  township,  in  Cooper  county. 

Rev.  Finis  Ewing,  Rev.  James  L.  Wear,  John,  James  H.  Wear,  who 
was  the  father  of  William  G.  Wear,  of  Warsaw,  and  Samuel  Wear,  now  of 
Otterville;  Alexander  Sloan,  Robert  Kirkpatrick,  Colin  C.  Stoneman,  Wil- 


Ham  Stone,  Frederick  Casteel,  Reuben  A.  Ewing,  Jas.  Berry,  Thomas 
Rubey,  Elizabeth  Steele,  sister  of  Alexander  Sloan's  wife,  a  man  named 
Smiley,  Rev.  Laird  Burns  and  his  father,  John  Burns,  John  Reed,  Silas 
Thomas,  James  Taylor,  Hugh  Wear,  who  was  a  brother  to  James  L.  and 
John  Wear,  James  McFarland  and  Rev.  William  Kavanaugh.  This  country 
then  extended  south  to  the  Osage  River. 

The  Rev.  Finis  Ewing  was  a  distinguished  minister  of  the  gospel, 
and  one  of  the  original  founders  of  the  Cumberland  Presbyterian  church. 
He  was  from  Kentucky ;  was  ordained  a  minister  in  the  year  1803,  and  in 
conjunction  with  Samuel  McAdam  and  Samuel  King,  founded  that  church 
in  1810. 

The  cause  which  gave  rise  to  the  establishment  of  the  branch  of  the 
Presbyterian  church  was,  that  the  mother  church  required  her  ministers 
to  possess  a  classical  education  before  ordination,  which  was  by  the  new 
church  not  regarded  as  absolutely  indispensable,  though  its  ministers  were 
required  to  cultivate  a  knowledge  of  the  elementary  branches  of  the  Eng- 
lish language. 

At  New  Lebanon  these  early  pioneers  pitched  their  tents,  and  soon 
began  the  erection  of  a  rude  building  as  a  sanctuary,  which,  when  com- 
pleted, they  called  New  Lebanon,  in  condistiction  to  the  house  in  which 
they  had  sung  and  worshipped  in  the  state  from  which  they  had  formerly 
emigrated.  It  was  built  of  hewed  logs,  and  the  settlers  of  this  little  colony 
united  in  the  project  of  building,  each  furnishing  his  proportionate  quota 
of  the  logs  requisite  to  complete  the  building.  These  logs  were  double ; 
that  is,  each  log  was  twenty-four  feet  in  length,  being  joined  in  the  middle 
of  the  house  by  means  of  an  upright  post,  into  which  the  ends  were 
mortised,  thus  making  the  entire  length  of  the  church  forty-eight  feet, 
by  thirty  feet  in  width.  This  building  served  as  a  place  of  worship  for 
many  years,  until  about  the  time  of  the  war,  when  the  new  and  neat  brick 
church  of  the  present  day  was  erected  on  the  site  of  the  old  one,  which 
was  torn  away. 

The  members  of  this  church  constituted  the  prevailing  religion  of 
the  neighborhood  for  many  years,  and  most  of  the  characters  portrayed 
herein  were  connected  with  this  denomination. 

The  Rev.  James  L.  Wear  was  also  for  many  years  a  Cumberland 
Presbyterian  preacher.  He  was  a  good  man,  and  lived  close  to  New 
Lebanon,  where  Frank  Asberry  now  lives.  He  died  at  the  old  mansion 
in  about  1868.  He  was  a  brother  of  John  Wear,  who  first  lived  at  New 
Lebanon  at  the  place  now  owned  by  Mr.  Majors  and  afterwards  at  Otter- 


ville  where  Mr.  Anson  Hemenway  now  lives.  The  first  school  taught  in 
Otterville,  or  in  Otterville  township,  was  taught  by  his  son,  known  by  the 
sobriquet  of  Long  'George.'  They  were  originally  from  Kentucky,  moved 
to  Howard  County  in  1817,  and  afterwards  to  New  Lebanon  at  the  date 
above  indicated. 

Samuel  Wear,  Sr.  and  James  H.  Wear  were  brothers,  and  came  from 
Tennessee,  the  latter  being  the  father  of  William  G.  and  Samuel  Wear,  Jr., 
as  before  stated,  and  lived  in  the  place  now  occupied  by  William  Walker. 
He  was  a  successful  fanner  and  died  in  good  circumstances. 

Samuel  Wear,  Sr.,  lived  where  Wesley  Cook  now  lives  and  sold  a  large 
farm  there  to  Samuel  Burk,  late  of  this  county. 

Alexander  Sloan  was  from  Kentucky  and  settled  the  place  now  owned 
by  Peter  Spillers.  He  was  the  father  of  William  Sloan,  who  died  at 
Otterville  several  years  ago,  and  also  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Sloan,  who  was 
an  eminent  minister  of  the  Cumberland  Presbyterian  church,  and  who 
married  a  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Finis  Ewing. 

Robert  Kirkpatrick  was  a  Kentuckian  and  lived  near  the  New  Leb- 
anon graveyard.  He  died  many  years  ago.  He  was  a  revolutionary 
soldier,  and  had  a  son  named  David,  who  was  an  able  minister  of  the 
Cumberland  Church.  David  met  his  death  by  accident;  he  was  thrown 
from  a  carriage,  severely  wounded  and  afterwards  died  from  the  ampu- 
tation of  his  leg. 

Colin  C.  Stoneman  was  from  Kentucky  and  lived  at  the  old  cabin  still 
to  be  seen  standing  near  Andrew  Foster's  place.  He  was  a  practitioner 
of  medicine  of  the  Thomsonian  school,  and  died  a  good  many  years  ago. 

William  Stone  was  a  Kentuckian,  a  plain  old  farmer,  and  lived  on  the 
farm  now  owned  by  the  Rev.  Minor  Neale.  He  was  a  good  man  and  died 
at  an  advanced  age. 

Rev.  Frederick  Casteel  was  a  minister  of  the  gospel  of  the  Methodist 
church  and  lived  near  the  place  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Abram  Amick. 

Reuben  A.  Ewing  and  his  brother,  Irving  Ewing,  were  Kentuckians, 
and  lived  east  of  Lebanon.  The  former  was  a  successful  farmer,  a  good 
man  and  died  at  an  advanced  age,  honored  and  respected. 

James  Berry  was  also  a  Kentuckian  and  one  of  the  oldest  settlers 
of  this  new  colony.     He  lived  where  his  son,  Finis  E.  Berry  now  lives. 

Thomas  Rubey  was  from  Kentucky  and  lived  at  Pleasant  Grove. 
Henry  Small  lived  at  the  Vincent  Walker  place. 

Mr.  Smiley  was  also  a  Kentuckian  and  settled  where  Mr.  Thomas 
Alexander  now  lives.     Rev.  Laird  Bums  was  a  Cumberland  Presbyterian 


preacher  and  lived  where  Mr.  John  P.  Downs  now  lives,  in  what  is  known 
as  the  Ellis  neighborhood. 

John  Burns  was  his  brother  and  lived  close  to  New  Lebanon.  He  was 
a  soldier  in  the  war  with  Britain,  was  present  at  the  battle  of  New  Orleans 
and  would  often  with  pride  talk  about  that  great  event,  of  the  fearful 
roaring  of  the  cannon,  of  the  sharp  whistling  of  the  bullets  and  the  thrill- 
ing echoes  of  martial  music,  which  stirred  the  hearts  of  the  soldiers  to 
deeds  of  valor,  and  enabled  the  brave  army  of  General  Jackson  to  achieve 
the  glorious  victory  which  ended  the  war  with  'Old  England'. 

Rev.  John  Reid  was  also  another  minister  of  the  Cumberland  Presby- 
terian church,  a  Kentuckian ;  he  first  lived  at  Honey  Creek  and  afterwards 
at  so  many  different  places,  that  for  want  of  space  in  this  brief  sketch 
I  dare  not  undertake  to  enumerate  them.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that  he  set- 
tled more  new  places  in  the  neighborhood  than  any  half  dozen  pioneers  of 
the  infant  colony.  He  was  a  very  eccentric  character  in  his  younger  days, 
would  fight  at  the  'drop  of  a  hat'  and  was  never  known  to  meet  his  match 
in  a  hand  to  hand  combat.  The  writer  of  this  sketch  was  intimately 
acquainted  with  him  for  many  years,  during  the  latter  period  of  his  life, 
however,  and  can  truly  say  he  never  knew  a  man  of  steadier  habits,  nor 
one  more  remarkable  for  strict  rectitude  of  conduct,  or  exemplary  piety. 

Reid  was  driving  a  team  for  some  man  who  was  moving  to  this  county 
with  Mr.  Ewing,  who  had  ear  bells  on  his  six  horse  team.  The  young  man 
liked  the  jingle  of  these  bells  so  well  that  he  begged  Mr.  Ewing  to  allow 
his  teamster  to  divide  with  him,  in  order  that  he  might  share  the  music, 
but  Mr.  Ewing  'could  not  see  it'  and  refused  to  make  the  division  as  re- 
quested. Whereupon  Reid  bought  a  number  of  cow  bells  and  hung  one 
on  each  horse  of  his  team,  which  soon  had  the  effect  of  bringing  the 
preacher  to  terms.  He  was  so  much  annoyed  with  the  discord  produced 
by  these  coarse  bells  that  he  soon  proposed  a  compromise  by  giving  Reid 
his  sleigh  bells,  provided  he  would  stop  the  cow  bell  part  of  the  concert. 

Silas  Thompson  was  another  Kentuckian  and  lived  on  Honey  creek 
near  where  Lampton's  saw  mill  stood  a  few  years  ago. 

James  Taylor,  better  known  as  'Old  Corn  Taylor',  lived  in  an  old  log 
cabin  which  may  still  be  seen  standing  a  short  distance  west  of  the 
Anthony  place.  He  was  another  remarkably  eccentric  character.  He 
had  a  host  of  mules  and  negroes;  always  rode  with  a  rope  bridle  and 
raised  more  corn  and  kept  it  longer  than  any  half  dozen  men  in  Cooper 
County.  This  he  hoarded  away  in  pens  and  cribs,  with  as  much  care  as 
if  every  ear  had  been  a  silver  dollar,  in  anticipation  of  a  famine,  which. 


for  many  years  he  had  predicted,  but  which,  happily,  never  came,  though 
the  neighborhood  was  several  times  visited  with  great  scarcity  of  that 
valuable  commodity.  Although  he  was  miserly  in  this  respect,  yet  during 
these  times  of  scarcity,  he  would  generally  unlock  his  granaries,  and  like 
Joseph  of  old,  deal  it  out  to  his  starving  brethren,  whether  they  were 
able  to  pay  for  it  or  not;  that  is,  if  he  thought  a  man  was  industrious, 
he  would  furnish  him  with  what  corn  he  considered  necessary;  but  tradi- 
tion inform  us  that  he  invariably  refused  the  required  boon  to  a  man  who 
was  found,  on  examination,  to  wear  'patched  breeches',  especially  if  the 
patch  happened  in  a  particular  locality,  which  indicated  laziness. 

Hugh  Wear  was  from  Kentucky,  and  lived  in  the  Ellis  neighborhood. 
He  was  the  father  of  the  Rev.  Wm.  Bennett  Wear,  another  Cumberland 
Presbyterian  of  considerable  distinction.  When  his  father,  who  was  a 
Revolutionary  soldier,  enlisted,  Hugh,  although  too  young  to  enter  the 
army,  was  permitted  to  accompany  his  father  and  served  during  the  war 
as  a  soldier  notwithstanding  he  was  under  the  age  prescribed  for  military 
duty.     This  was  done  to  prevent  his  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  tories. 

Rev.  Wm.  Kavanaugh  was  a  Kentuckian  and  another  Cumberland 
Presbyterian  preacher  of  considerable  note.  It  was  said  of  him,  that  he 
could  preach  louder  and  longer  than  any  of  these  old  worthies. 

William  Bryant  was  a  Kentuckian  and  was  with  General  Jackson  at 
the  battle  of  New  Orleans.  He  first  settled  at  New  Lebanon,  on  the  place 
which  he  afterwards  sold  to  Finis  Ewing;  the  old  brick  house  where  Mr. 
Kemp  now  lives.  He  then  moved  to  the  farm  now  occupied  by  William  B. 

Samuel  Miller  was  from  Kentucky  and  settled  on  the  place  now  owned 
by  Green  Walker.     He  was  a  farmer  and  afterwards  moved  to  Cold  Neck. 

There  yet  remains  but  one  other  man  to  notice  who  belonged  to  New 
Lebanon.  He  was  a  member  of  the  numerous  family  of  Smith,  whose 
Christian  name  I  cannot  now  recall.  He  settled  at  a  very  early  period  on 
what  is  known  as  Cedar  Bluff,  at  a  nice,  cool,  clear  spring,  not  far  from 
the  place  where  Mrs.  John  Wilkerson  now  lives.  Here  he  erected  what 
was  then  called  a  'band  mill',  a  species  of  old  fashioned  horse  mill,  so  com- 
mon in  those  days.  It  was  connected  with  a  small  distillery  at  which  he 
manufactured  a  kind  of  'aqua  mirabilis'  with  which  the  old  folks  in  those 
days  cheered  the  drooping  spirits  in  times  of  great  scarcity.  But  Mr. 
Smith  never  'ran  crooked.'  He  paid  no  license,  and  sold  or  gave  away  his 
delicious  beverage  without  molestation  from  revenue  agents,  iust  as  he 






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m      wm 


«|    41  ■ 


BICLL    AIR    RI'RAL    lIKill    SCHOOL 



deemed  fit  and  convenient.  Revenue  stamps  and  revnue  agents  were  un- 
known then,  and  good  whiskey  (there  was  none  bad  then)  was  not  only 
considered  harmless,  but  drinking  hot  toddies,  eggnog  and  mint  juleps 
was  regarded  as  respectable,  as  well  as  a  pleasant  and  innocent  kind  of 
amusement,  and  quite  conducive  to  good  health." 

Otterville  Township. — "I  have  thus  briefly  glanced  at  the  early  settle- 
ment in  the  vicinity  of  New  Lebanon,  and  come  now  to  treat  of  the  colony 
which  was  planted  south  and  west  of  the  Lamine  and  which  was  peopled 
at  a  subsequent  period,  known  as  the  Otterville  township,  and  which  will 
perhaps  embrace  a  portion  of  the  adjoining  territory  included  within  the 
limits  of  Morgan  and  Pettis  counties. 

Thomas  Parsons  was  born  in  the  state  of  Virginia  in  the  year  1793, 
moved  to  Franklin,  the  county  of  Simpson,  Kentucky,  about  1819,  emi- 
grated to  this  county  in  the  fall  of  1826,  and  settled  at  the  place  now 
owned  by  James  H.  Cline,  northwest  of  Otterville.  About  the  last  of 
October  of  that  year,  Parsons  sold  his  pre-emption  right  to  Absolom  Cline, 
the  father  of  James  H.  Cline.  In  1826,  the  time  Mr.  Parsons  came  into 
this  neighborhood,  there  were  only  three  families  living  west  of  the  Lamine 
in  this  vicinity.  These  were  James  G.  Wilkerson,  William  Reed  and  Wil- 
liam Sloan. 

Mr.  Parsons  established  the  first  hatter's  shop  south  of  Boonville, 
and  was  an  excellent  workman  in  that  line.  He  was  an  honest,  upright 
citizen,  lived  to  a  ripe  old  age,  and  was  gathered  to  his  fathers  honored  and 
respected  by  all  who  knew  him.  At  the  time  of  his  death,  which  occurred 
on  the  7th  day  of  Sept.,  1768,  he  was  the  oldest  Free  Mason  in  Cooper 
county,  having  belonged  to  that  institution  nearly  three  score  years. 

William  Reed,  mentioned  above,  was,  perhaps,  the  first  white  man 
who  settled  in  this  neighborhood.  He  was  a  Tennesseean,  and  lived  near 
the  old  camp  ground,  a  little  west  of  what  was  then  known  as  the  Camp 
ground  spring,  in  the  old  field  now  owned  by  George  W.  Smith,  a  short 
distance  southwest  of  the  old  graveyard.  He  was  the  grandfather  of  A. 
M.  Reed,  now  of  Otterville.  He  was  remarkable  for  his  strict  integrity 
and  exemplary  piety. 

James  G.  Wilkerson  was  from  Kentucky  and  settled  the  farm  now 

owned  by  George  W.  Smith,  one  mile  west  of  Otterville.     The  old  mansion 

stands,  although  almost  in  a  complete  state  of  dilapidation,  to  remind  the 

passer  of  the  perishable  quality  of  all  human  labor.     He  sleeps,  with  sev- 




eral  other  members  of  his  once  numerous  family,  on  a  gentle  eminence  a 
few  yards  south  of  the  decayed  and  tottering  tenement  in  which  he  spent 
many  years  of  honest  toil. 

William  Sloan,  the  son  of  Alexander  Sloan  (mentioned  in  the  notes 
pertaining  to  New  Lebanon),  was  the  last  of  the  three  mentioned  above. 
He  first  settled  the  place  where  Charles  E.  Rice  now  lives,  in  1826,  but 
afterwards  lived,  until  his  death,  at  the  place  now  owned  by  Joseph  Minter. 
He  was  always  noted  for  his  scrupulous  honor  and  piety. 

Elijah  Hook  was  from  Tennessee  and  settled  near  where  Henry 
Bender  now  lives  in  1827.  He  was  a  hunter  and  trapper  and  obtained  a 
subsistence  for  his  family  like  Nirmod,  his  ancient  predecessor,  mentioned 
in  the  Bible  as  the  'mighty  hunter.' 

James  Brown  was  a  Kentuckian,  a  farmer,  a  hard  working  man,  and 
settled  where  T.  C.  Cranmer  lives  in  1827.  He  was  also  a  'Nimrod',  and 
hunted  with  Daniel  Boone. 

James  Davis  was  a  Tennesseean  and  settled  the  place  now  known  as 
the  McCullough  farm,  in  1827.  He  was  an  industrious  farmer  and  a  great 
rail  splitter. 

James  Birney  was  a  Kentuckian  and  married  the  daughter  of  Alex- 
ander Sloan,  of  New  Lebanon.  He  was  a  farmer  and  a  man  of  some  note. 
He  settled  in  1827,  the  farm  where  John  Harlan  now  lives.  He  had  a 
grandson,  Alexander,  who  was  formerly  a  lawyer  at  Otterville. 

Frederick  Shurley,  the  mightiest  hunter  in  all  the  land  round  about 
Otterville,  in  1827,  settled  the  place  now  owned  by  his  son,  Robert  Shur- 
ley, southeast  of  Otterville.  He  was  with  General  Jackson  in  the  Creek 
War,  and  was  present  at  the  memorable  battle  of  Horse  Shoe  Bend,  where 
the  Indians,  by  the  direction  of  their  prophet,  had  made  their  last  stand. 
He  used  to  recount  with  deep  interest,  the  thrilling  incidents  connected 
with  this  muzzle  to  muzzle  contest,  in  which  over  half  a  thousand  redskins 
were  sent  by  Jackson  and  Coffee  to  their  happy  hunting  grounds. 

Nathan  Neal  was  a  Kentuckian  and  settled  the  old  place  near  Lamine, 
two  miles  north  of  Otterville,  in  1827.  He  was  an  orderly,  upright  and 
industrious  citizen. 

George  Cranmer  was  born  in  the  state  of  Delaware  in  1801,  moved  to 
near  Paris,  Kentucky,  while  young,  and  Boonville,  Missouri,  in  the  year 
1828.  He  was  a  millwright  and  a  very  ingenious  and  skilful  mechanic. 
He  settled  at  Clifton  in  about  1832,  and  shortly  afterwards  he  and  James 
H.  Glasgow,  now  living  on  the  Petite  Saline  creek,  built  what  was  then 


known  as  Cranmer's,  afterwards  Corum's  mill,  precisely  where  the  Mis- 
souri, Kansas  and  Texas  railroad  now  crosses  the  Lamine.  Cranmer 
named  the  place  Clifton.  The  principal  mechanics  who  helped  to  build 
this  mill  were  Benjamin  Gilbert,  James  Kirkpatrick,  Nathan  Garten,  son- 
in-law  of  William  Steele,  Esquire,  a  blacksmith  named  John  Toole,  Noah 
Graham,  and  the  renowned  'Bill'  Rubey,  known  to  almost  all  the  old  settlers 
south  of  the  Missouri  River.  Cranmer  lived  first  at  the  milli  and  after- 
wards at  what  was  known  as  the  John  Caton  place,  where  Thomas  C. 
Cranmer  was  born  in  1836.  The  old  log  cabin  is  still  standing,  as  one  of 
the  few  old  landmarks  yet  visible,  to  remind  us  of  the  distant  past.  Cran- 
mer died  at  Michigan  Bluffs,  California,  in  1853. 

Another  man  will  perhaps  be  remembered  by  some  of  our  old  citizens. 
He  was  crazy  and  although  harmless,  used  to  wander  about  to  the  great 
terror  of  the  children  of  those  days.     His  name  was  John  Hatwood. 

Clifton  was  once  a  place  of  remarkable  notoriety.  In  those  early 
days  it  was  not  unfrequently  called  the  'Devil's  Half  Acre.'  There  was  a 
grocery  store  kept  there,  after  the  people  began  to  manufacture  poisoned 
whiskey,  which  had  the  effect  of  often  producing  little  skirmishes  among 
those  who  congregated  there.  It  was  not  uncommon  for  those  fracases 
to  end  in  a  bloody  nose,  a  black  eye,  or  a  broken  head.  Happily,  however, 
these  broils  were  generally  confined  to  a  few  notorious  outlaws,  whom 
the  order-loving  people  would  have  rejoiced  to  know  had  met  the  fate  of 
the  cats  of  Kilkenny. 

There  are  many  amusing  incidents  connected  with  the  history  of  the 
place,  but  space  forbids  allusion  to  only  one  or  two.  A  man  by  the  name 
of  Cox,  who  was  a  celebrated  hunter  and  trapper  in  this  neighborhood, 
was  known  as  a  dealer  in  tales,  connected  with  his  avocation,  of  a  fabulous 
and  Munchausen  character.  There  is  a  very  high  bluff  just  below  the  old 
mill ;  perhaps  it  is  nearly  five  hundred  feet  high.  During  one  of  his  num- 
erous hunting  excursions,  Matthew  met  with  a  large  bear,*which,  being 
slightly  wounded,  became  terribly  enraged,  and  attacked  the  hunter  with 
his  ugly  grip  before  he  had  time  to  reload  his  rifle.  This  formidable  con- 
test between  bruin  and  Matthew  occurred  just  on  the  verge  of  the  fearful 
precipice  above  described  and  every  struggle  brought  them  nearer  and 
nearer,  until  they  both  took  the  awful  leap,  striking  and  bounding  against 
the  projecting  crags  every  few  feet,  until  they  reached  the  bottom  of  the 
terrible  abyss.  You  will  naturally  say,  'Farewell,  Matthew,'  but  strange 
to  relate,  he  escaped  with  a  few  slight  scratches.  The  bear  had,  fortun- 
ately for  Matthew,  been  on  the  under  side  every  time  they  struck,  till  they 


reached  the  bottom,  when  he  loosed  his  hold  of  the  hunter  and  closed  his 
eyes  in  death. 

Matthew  Cox's  tales  were  generally  much  like  this,  almost  always 
terminating  favorably  to  himself,  and  fatally  to  his  adversaries.  This 
anecdote  gave  rise  to  the  name  'Matthew's  Bluff,'  well  known  to  everybody 
in  this  neighborhood. 

Sometime  during  the  year  1832,  the  people  of  this  neighborhood 
became  alarmed  by  the  report  that  the  Osage  Indians  were  about  to  attack 
and  massacre  all  the  settlers  in  this  vicinity.  This  report  started  first  by 
some  means  at  old  Luke  Williams  on  Cold  Camp  creek.  The  people  became 
almost  wild  with  excitement.  They  left  their  plows  in  the  fields,  and 
fled  precipitately  in  the  direction  of  the  other  settlements  towards  Boon- 
ville.  Some  of  them  took  refuge  in  a  fort  at  Vincent  Walker's,  some  at 
Sam  Forbes',  and  others  at  Collin  Stoneman's  and  Finis  Ewing's.  Hats 
and  caps,  shoes  and  stockings,  pillows,  baskets  and  bonnets  might  have 
been  seen  along  the  old  military  road  to  Boonville,  lying  scattered  about 
in  beautiful  confusion  all  that  day  and  the  next,  until  the  excitement  had 
ceased.  Fortunately  the  scare  did  not  last  long,  as  it  was  soon  ascer- 
tained that  the  alarm  was  false,  and  that  the  Osage  Indians  had  not  only 
not  contemplated  a  raid  on  the  white  settlements,  but  that  they  had 
actually  become  frightened  themselves  and  fled  south  of  the  Osage  River. 
But  the  panic  was  complete  and  exceedingly  frightful  while  it  lasted.  A 
fellow  by  the  name  of  Mike  Chism  lived  near  the  Bidstrup  place.  Mike 
had  a  wife  and  two  children.  They  were  already  preparing  for  a  flight. 
Mike's  wife  was  on  horseback  and  had  one  child  in  her  lap  and  one  behind 
her  and  Mike  was  on  foot. 

At  this  moment,  a  horseman  came  galloping  up  in  great  trepidation, 
and  informed  the  little  family  that  the  Indians  were  coming  by  the  thou- 
sands and  that  they  were  already  on  this  side  of  Flat  creek. 

On  receiving  this  intelligence,  Mike,  in  great  terror,  said  to  his  wife, 
"My  God,  Sallie,  I  can't  wait  for  you  any  longer',  and  suiting  his  actions 
to  his  words,  took  to  his  scrapers  in  such  hot  haste  that  at  the  first  frantic 
jump  he  made,  he  fell  at  full  length,  bleeding  and  trembling  on  the  rocks. 
But  the  poor  fellow  did  not  take  time  to  rise  to  his  feet  again.  He 
scrambled  off  on  'all  fours'  into  the  brush  like  some  wild  animal,  leaving 
his  wife  and  children  to  take  care  of  themselves  as  best  they  could.  He 
evidently  acted  upon  the  principle  that  'It  is  better  to  be  a  live  coward 
than  a  dead  hero.' 

Reuben  B.  Harris  was  from  Kentucky.     He  was  a  country  lawyer, 


had  no  education,  but  was  a  man  of  good  natural  ability.  He  settled  the 
place  where  Montraville  Ross  now  lives,  on  Flat  Creek.  He  settled  here 
in  1827.     He  was  also  a  great  hunter. 

Hugh  Morrison  was  a  Kentuckian.  In  1827,  he  settled  the  place 
where  the  widow  of  Henderson  Finley  now  lives. 

John  Gabriel  was  also  from  Kentucky  and  settled  at  Richland,  at  a 
place  two  and  one-half  miles  east  of  Florence.  He  moved  there  at  a  very 
early  period,  in  1819,  or  1820.  He  had  a  distillery,  made  whiskey  and 
sold  it  to  the  Indians.  He  was  a  rough,  miserly  character,  but  honest  in 
his  dealings.  He  was  murdered  for  his  money  in  his  horse  lot,  on  his  own 
plantation.  He  was  killed  by  a  negro  man  belonging  to  Reuben  B.  Harris. 
The  negro  was  condemned  and  hung  at  Boonville.  Before  his  execution, 
this  negro  confessed  that  he  had  killed  Gabriel,  but  declared  that  he  had 
been  employed  to  commit  the  murder  by  Gabriel's  own  son-in-law,  a  man 
named  Abner  Weaver.  This  villain  escaped  punishment  for  the  reason 
that  the  negro's  testimony  was  then,  by  the  laws  of  the  United  States, 
excluded  as  inadmissible.  Justice,  however,  overtook  him  at  last.  His 
crime  did  not  stop  at  the  instigation  of  Gabriel's  murder.  He  was  after- 
ward found  in  possession  of  four  stolen  horses  somewhere  in  Texas.  In 
endeavoring  to  make  his  escape,  he  was  shot  from  one  of  these  horses,  and 
thus  ended  his  villainy. 

The  first  church  erected  in  this  neighborhood  was  built  by  the  Cum- 
berland Presbyterians.  It  was  of  logs,  and  stood  near  the  old  graveyard. 
It  was  built  about  the  year  1835.  Here,  for  many  years,  this  denom- 
ination annually  held  the  old-fashioned  camp-meetings,  at  which  large 
numbers  of  the  old  citizens  were  wont  to  congregate  and  here  many  of 
them  would  sometimes  remain  for  days,  and  even  weeks,  on  the  ground 
in  camps  and  tents,  engaged  in  earnest  devotion.  But  this  order  of  things 
and  this  manner  of  worship  have  long  since  gone  into  disuse.  Not  a 
hawk's  eye  could  discern  a  single  mourners  track,  and  every  vestige  of 
the  old  church  and  camp  have  vanished  like  the  mist  before  the  morning 
sun  and  the  primitive  religious  customs  have  been  entirely  abandoned. 

In  the  foregoing  sketches,  I  have  briefly  glanced  at  the  characters 
of  most,  in  fact,  nearly  all  of  the  older  citizens  who  figured  in  the  history 
of  New  Lebanon  settlement,  which  then  comprised  our  own  township,  and 
included  the  country  between  the  Lamine  and  Flat  Creek.  Most  of  them 
belonged  to  a  class  of  men  which  have  since  passed  away. 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  make  invidious  comparisons  between  them  and 
those  of  the  present  day.     It  is  but  justice,  however,  to  say,  that  with 


few  exceptions,  they  were  men  of  great  moral  worth,  of  true  and  tried 
patriotism  and  scrupulous  integrity." 

Otterville.— "I  come  now  to  take  a  brief  survey  of  matters  connected 
with  a  later  date.  The  town  of  Otterville  was  first  called  Elkton.  It  was 
laid  out  by  Gideon  R.  Thompson,  in  the  1837.  The  first  house  built,  stood 
where  Judge  Butler's  now  stands.  The  public  square  occupied  the  space 
ground  now  lying  between  Butler's  and  Geo.  W.  Smith's,  extending  east 
to  a  line  running  north  and  south,  near  the  place  where  Frank  Ami's 
house  formerly  stood.  William  G.  Wear  entered  the  forty  acres  on  which 
Elkton  was  built,  in  the  year  1836,  and  sold  it  to  Thompson  in  1837. 
About  that  time,  H.  Thompson  built  the  first  house  as  before  stated,  and 
he  and  George  Wear  built  a  storehouse  directly  east  of  Thompson's  dwell- 
ing, and  little  George  Wear  built  a  dwelling  house  on  the  present  site  of 
Colburn's  house.  James  Alcorn  built  on  the  north  side  of  the  square 
about  the  same  time.  'Long'  George  Wear  built  the  first  house  within 
the  present  limits  of  Otterville  proper,  where  W.  G.  Wear's  house  now 

The  town  of  Otterville  was  regularly  laid  out  by  W.  G.  Wear  in  1854, 
though  several  houses  had  been  built  previous  to  that  time  within  its 
present  limits. 

There  was  no  postoffice  at  Otterville  until  about  1848.  The  mail  for 
this  neighborhood  was  supplied  from  Arator  postoffice,  kept  by  General 
Hogan,  where  Van  Tromp  Chilton  now  lives.  W.  G.  Wear  was  the  first 
postmaster.  He  held  the  office  until  1851,  when  the  writer  of  these 
sketches  was  appointed,  who  held  office  about  ten  years.  The  mail  route 
was  a  special  one  from  Arator  and  was  carried  on  horseback.  W.  R.  But- 
ler was  the  first  contractor  and  employed  James  H.  Wear,  son  of  W.  G. 
Wear,  to  carry  the  mail  twice  a  week.  The  mail  carrier — then  a  small 
boy — now  one  of  the  leading  merchants  of  St.  Louis,  made  the  trip  twice 
a  week,  riding  a  small  grey  pony  called  'Tom',  which  had  been  bought  of 
Tom  Milham,  who  was  then  a  well  known  character  of  the  neighborhood. 
About  the  time  the  town  was  first  established,  several  houses  were  built 
on  or  near  the  public  square. 

Among  these  were  the  Masonic  hall ;  the  dwelling  house  built  by 
George  Embree,  north  of  the  hall ;  one  by  Samuel  Wear,  now  occupied  by 
John  D.  Strain ;  one  by  Harrison  Homan,  in  which  he  now  lives ;  and  about 
this  time  Robert  M.  Taylor  built  an  addition  to  the  Taylor  house.     The 


brick  store  house  known  as  the  Cannon  &  Zollinger  store  house,  was  not 
built  until  about  the  year  1856. 

The  Masonic  lodge,  called  Pleasant  Grove  Lodge  No.  142,  A.  F.  and  A. 
M.,  was  established  on  the  15th  day  of  July,  A.  D.,  1854,  A.  L.  5854.  The 
dispensation  was  granted  by  the  M.  W.  G.  M.,  of  Missouri,  L.  S.  Cornwell, 
on  the  6th  day  of  November,  1854.  This  dispensation  was  granted  to  the 
following  named  persons :  Wm.  E.  Combs,  Harrison  Homan,  S.  H.  Saund- 
ers, Wm.  Devine,  Tarleton  E.  Cox,  Strawther  O'Rourke,  Moses  B.  Small, 
Aaron  Hup,  Wm.  A.  Reed,  Wm.  R.  Butler,  Robt.  M.  Taylor,  and  George  W. 
Embree.  The  charter  was  granted  May  31,  1855,  and  signed  by  L.  S. 
Cornwell,  G.  M.,  Oscar  F.  Potter,  D.  G.  M. ;  J.  W.  Chenoweth,  D.  G.  E. ; 
Henry  Van  Odell,  J.  G.  W.  The  first  officers  were  as  follows :  S  H.  Saund- 
ers, W.  M. ;  Aaron  Hupp,  S.  W. ;  H.  Homan,  J.  W. ;  R.  M.  Taylor,  treasurer ; 
W.  R.  Butler,  secretary ;  George  W.  Embree,  S.  D. ;  Strother  O'Rourk,  J. 
W.,  and  R.  J.  Buchanan,  tyler. 

The  Odd  Fellows  lodge  was  established  in  October,  1856,  under  the 
name  of  the  Otterville  Lodge  No.  102,  I.  0.  0.  F. 

The  first  officers  were  as  follows :  W.  G.  Wear,  N.  G. ;  H.  A.  B. 
Johnston,  V.  G. ;  Samuel  M.  Homan,  secretary,  and  John  S.  Johnston, 

The  present  Cumberland  Presbyterian  church  was  built  by  Milton 
Starke,  in  the  year  1857. 

The  old  Presbyterian  church  was  built  by  John  D.  Strain,  in  1866, 
and  is  now  owned  by  the  Baptists. 

The  Mehtodists  and  Christian  churches  were  built  about  the  same 
time,  in  the  year  1872.  The  former  was  built  by  M.  C.  White,  and  the 
latter  by  T.  C.  Cranmer  and  T.  M.  Travillian.  They  are  both  neat  brick 
buildings,  and  an  ornament  to  our  village. 

The  public  school  building  was  erected  in  1869,  costing  $6,000. 

The  Pacific  railroad  was  completed  to  Otterville  from  St.  Louis  in 
1860,  and  this  place  for  a  short  time  became  the  terminus.  Whilst  the 
road  remained  here,  and  in  fact  for  a  long  time  previous,  Otterville  com- 
manded quite  a  brisk  trade,  presenting  a  very  active  and  business-like 
appearance,  and,  indeed,  for  a  time  it  flourished  like  a  "green  bay  tree." 
But  it  was  not  destined  to  enjoy  this  prosperity  long.  The  railroad  com- 
pany soon  pulled  up  its  stakes  and  transferred  its  terminus  to  the  then 
insignificant  village  of  Sedalia,  which, -at  that  time,  being  in  its  infancy, 


had  scarcely  been  christened ;  but,  though  young,  it  rose  like  magic  from 
the  bosom  of  the  beautiful  prairie,  and  in  a  few  years  Sedalia  became  the 
county  seat  of  one  of  the  richest  counties  in  the  state,  and  a  great  railroad 
centre,  while  truth  compels  me  to  say  that  Otterville  sank  back  into  its 
original  obscurity. 

The  town  of  Otterville  was  incorporated  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature 
of  Missouri,  on  the  16th  day  of  Feb.,  1857. 

About  the  year  1860,  for  a  short  period,  a  considerable  wholesale 
business  was  done  here.  Among  the  wholesale  establishments  were  the 
following:  W.  G.  Wear  and  Son;  Cloney,  Crawford  &  Co.,  from  Jefferson 
City ;  Clark  &  Reed ;  Concannon ;  The  Robert  Brothers ;  Lohman  &  Co., 
etc.,  etc. 

About  this  time  the  Mansion  house  was  built  by  a  man  named  Pork, 
the  Embree  house  by  George  Embree  and  Chris.  Harlan.  The  latter  was 
quite  a  large  hotel  near  the  depot,  and  was  afterwards  moved  to  Sedalia 
by  George  R.  Smith,  and  about  the  same  time  several  houses  were  moved 
by  different  parties  to  that  place.  There  was,  after  this  time,  a  consider- 
able business  done  in  a  retail  way  around  the  old  public  square.  Among 
the  most  prominent  merchants  here  were  W.  G.  Wear  &  Son,  and  Cannon 
&  Zollinger,  who  carried  on  a  large  and  profitable  trade  for  many  years. 

But  having  already  extended  these  notes  far  beyond  what  I  had  first 
anticipated,  I  am  admonished  to  close  them  rather  abruptly,  lest  they 
become  wearisome.  They  were  prepared  at  a  very  short  notice,  and  might 
have  been  made  more  interesting  had  sufficient  time  been  given  the  writer 
to  arrange  them  with  some  regard  to  order. 

I  hope  that  due  allowances  will  be  made  by  an  appreciative  public  for 
this  defect  in  this  hastily-written  memorandum. 

In  conclusion,  I  will  take  occasion  to  say,  that  one  hundred  years  ago, 
where  we  meet  now  to  rejoice  together  at  the  happy  coming  of  our  first 
centennial,  this  part  of  Cooper  County,  nay,  even  Cooper  County  itself, 
was  a  howling  wilderness.  The  hungry  wolf  and  bear;  the  elk  and  the 
antelope;  the  wild  deer  and  the  buffalo  roamed  about  undisturbed,  save 
by  the  feeble  arrows  of  the  red  man. 

Today,  through  the  little  village  of  Otterville,  within  a  very  few  yards 
of  this  spot,  a  double  band  of  iron,  stretching  from  the  Atlantic  to  the 
Pacific,  connects  San  Francisco  with  the  city  of  New  York.  Over  these 
lines  of  metal  rails  ponderous  trains  are  almost  continuously  passing  to 
and  fro,  freighted  with  innumerable  articles  of  the  rich  merchandise  of 


the  east ;  the  varied  productions  of  the  west ;  the  teas  and  silks  of  China ; 
the  silver  of  Arizona,  and  the  gold  of  California. 

Otterville  contains  at  this  time  about  four  hundred  population.  It 
has  three  general  stores,  one  hardware  and  grocery  store,  two  drug  stores, 
one  confectionery,  one  furniture  store,  two  blacksmith  shops,  one  saloon, 
two  hotels,  four  churches,  one  school." 

The  town  of  Otterville  at  this  time  has  a  population  of  500.  It  has 
two  banks  with  a  capital  stock  of  $30,000,  a  good  system  of  schools  with 
an  enrollment  of  160  and  eight  teachers.  It  has  five  churches,  electric 
lights  system,  twelve  stores,  one  hotel,  lumber  yard,  one  newspaper,  two 
blacksmith  shops,  and  one  elevator  company.  While  Otterville  has  not 
grown  rapidly  in  population,  it  is  and  has  been  substantial  through  the 
years  and  its  population  is  made  up  of  an  excellent  citizenship. 

The  inauguration  of  rural  delivery  has  a  tendency  to  decrease  the 
number  of  postoffices  and  there  are  not  so  many  in  Cooper  County  now  as 
there  were  several  years  ago.  The  following  are  a  list  of  the  postoffices 
as  they  exist  today:  Boonville,  Billingsville,  Blackwater,  Bunceton,  Clif- 
ton City,  Lamine,  Otterville,  Overton,  Pilot  Grove,  Pleasant  Green,  Prairie 
Home,  Speed,  Vermont,  Wooldridge. 




The  history  of  the  schools  of  Cooper  County  would  be  the  history  of 
its  people.  For  whenever  and  wherever  Americans  have  been  thrown 
together  there  has  invariably  been  a  school  established.  The  first  schools 
of  Cooper  County  were  rude,  crude  affairs,  with  dirt  floors  and  split  log 
benches.  And  the  teachers  were  picturesque  characters  who  were  pos- 
sessed with  more  cunning  than  brains,  and  preferred  this  easy  method  of 
eking  out  a  precarious  existence  to  one  of  hardship  and  toil  incident  to 
the  work  in  the  frontier  country.  The  teacher  "boarded  out"  among  the 
families  lie  served  and  received  as  wage  often  as  much  as  ten  or  fifteen 
dollars  per  month  which  was  collected  as  tuition.  All  schools  prior  to  the 
year  1839  were  strictly  private  affairs,  since  it  was  not  until  this  year 
that  any  adequate  provision  was  made  by  the  state  for  the  establishment 
of  public  schools.  At  this  time  the  common  school  fund,  the  county 
school  fund,  and  the  township  school  fund  were  constituted,  by  legislative 
enactment,  and  the  money  derived  from  the  sale  of  the  sixteenth  section 
to  be  invested  and  the  proceeds  be  used  for  the  advancement  of  the  public 
schools  of  the  state  was  again  reaffirmed. 

The  first  school  in  the  present  limits  of  Cooper  County  was  taught  by 
John  Savage  in  the  year  1813,  about  one  mile  east  of  Boonville,  on  Lilly's 
Branch.     There  were  fifteen  pupils,  as  follows:     Benjamin,  Delany  and 


William  Bolin,  Hiram  and  William  Savage,  Hess  and  William  Warden,  John 
and  William  Yarnall,  John  and  William  Jolly,  Joseph  and  William  Scott, 
John  and  William  Rup'e.  John  and  William  seem  to  have  been  choice 
names  for  boys  in  this  early  day,  and  unless  girls  were  named  John  and 
William  they  were  evidently  in  the  minority  at  this  time  or  else  their 
education  was  neglected.  The  pupils  sat  upon  one  log  in  the  open  air  and 
the  teacher  upon  another  log  facing  his  pupils.  The  tuition  was  one  dol- 
lar per  month,  payable  in  anything  the  settler  had  that  was  worth  one 
dollar.  This  school  continued  only  one  month.  Fear  of  an  attack  by  the 
Indians  who  commenced  a  series  of  depredations  about  this  time  caused 
the  settlers  to  keep  their  children  under  the  protecting  walls  of  the  fort. 
During  the  period  from  1813  to  1820  Judge  Abiel  Leonard,  William  H. 
Moore,  Dr.  Edward  Lawton  looked  after  the  education  of  the  boys  and 
girls  of  the  early  settlers  of  Boonville.  The  first  school  house  in  Boonville 
was  a  brick  building  located  near  the  residence  of  Dr.  M.  McCoy. 

In  the  early  schools  of  Cooper  County  the  subjects  taught  were  read- 
ing, writing,  arithmetic,  geography  and  English  grammar,  their  import- 
ance indicated  by  the  order  in  which  they  are  enumerated. 

As  the  population  increased  and  the  desire  for  more  and  better  facil- 
ities for  education  became  general,  the  academy  grew  up  in  answer  to 
the  demand  for  "higher  education".  The  academy  that  flourished  in  Mis- 
souri from  1820  to  1890  was  an  outgrowth  of  the  old  English  grammar 
school  that  very  early  put  in  its  appearance  in  New  England  embellished 
with  the  ideas  that  permeated  the  "Aristocratic"  private  schools  of  the 
south  prior  to  the  Civil  War,  notably  those  that  flourished  in  Virginia 
and  Kentucky. 

Among  the  early  schools  of  Cooper  County  outside  of  Boonville  was 
a  subscription  school  taught  by  Henry  Severns.  It  met  in  an  old  log 
house  which  was  located  across  the  road  from  whei-e  the  home  of  Mr.  R.  S. 
Roe,  of  the  Bell  Air  neighborhood,  is  now  located.  This  school  was  main- 
tained during  the  early  forties,  and  prospered  until  the  public  school  of 
Bell  Air  was  established.  It  is  asserted,  on  good  authority,  that  Prof. 
Severns'  salary  was  sixty-five  dollars,  but  whether  this  means  for  the 
month  or  for  the  year  I  have  found  it  impossible  to  ascertain. 

The  following  history  of  the  Davis  school  is  typical  of  many  schools 
in  Cooper  County. 

Davis  School.— By  D.  R.  Culley.— "Prior  to  the  close  of  the  Civil  War 
no  public  school  organization  existed  as  we  now  have  it  in  this  district. 

The  people  in  this   and  adjoining  territory  had   emigrated   largely 


fiom  the  states  of  Virginia,  Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  bringing  with  them 
the  educational  plans  that  prevailed  in  those  states. 

A  teacher  desiring  a  school  would  canvass  a  neighborhood  and  have 
the  parents  subscribe  so  many  pupils  for  a  specified  term  at  so  much  per 
month.  Hence,  schools  were  then  known  in  the  country  as  subscription 

About  the  year  1854  the  Baptists  erected  a  church  building  about  a 
mile  southwest  of  the  present  school  building  and  some  two  miles  east  of 
Vermont.  It  was  built  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  farm  now  owned 
and  occupied  by  W.  H.  H.  Rowles  and  family.  This  was  known  as  Hope- 
well Baptist  Church  and  was  used  for  both  church  and  school  purposes. 
It  was  a  typical  building  of  those  days.  It  was  built  of  hewed  walnut  logs 
and  was  about  twenty  feet  square;  there  was  a  small  window  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  east  wall  and  one  in  the  west  wall;  batten  doors  were  in  the 
middle  of  the  north  and  south  sides ;  a  high,  home  made  pulpit  in  the  west 
end,  and  home  made  benches  fronting  west.  It  was  here  that  the  resi- 
dents of  the  community  and  those  for  miles  around  congregated  once  a 
month,  in  large  numbers,  to  get  the  news  as  well  as  to  hear  the  preacher. 
Whole  families  were  present  and  the  good  ladies  served  dinners  that  could 
not  be  surpassed  anywhere. 

During  the  year  1859,  the  citizens  erected  a  good,  modern  building 
about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  to  the  west  and  a  mile  east  of  Vermont. 
This  was  known  as  Vermont  Academy.  D.  R.  Culley  was  employed  as 
teacher  for  a  term  of  ten  months  at  a  salary  of  $60.00  per  month. 

This  was  probably  the  first  time  a  teacher  was  employed  in  this  dis- 
trict at  a  fixed  salary.  This  school  continued  for  five  years  when  condi- 
tions growing  out  of  the  Civil  War  caused  many  families  to  move  else- 
where and  the  community  as  known  prior  to  1860  was  almost  entirely 
broken  up. 

In  the  fall  of  the  year  1858,  D.  R.  Culley  opened  a  school  in  the  church 
building  and  it  was  intended  to  serve  the  purpose  of  an  academy  as  well 
as  to  meet  the  demands  of  what  would  now  be  termed  the  graded  course 
in  our  district  schools.  The  term  continued  for  ten  months.  The  larger 
boys  attended  for  the  full  term  and  were  not  taken  out  of  school  as  now, 
to  assist  with  the  farm  work.  It  was  also  observed  that  the  pupils  were 
more  advanced  in  years  than  now.  There  were  no  grades.  If  a  pupil 
could  make  two  grades  during  the  term  well  and  good,  and  many  of  the 


pupils  did  this ;  no  pupil  was  held  back  on  account  of  the  weakness  or 
slowness  of  others. 

The  first  year  of  school  closed  with  oral  examinations  and  an  address 
by  Prof.  John  W.  Sutherland  of  Boonville. 

Pupils  from  other  counties  came  here  and  boarded  with  families  near 
by.  Young  men  walked  a  distance  of  four  or  five  miles  and  of  those  now 
living  are  our  best  and  most  prominent  citizens.  The  late  Rev.  A.  E. 
Rogers,  D.  D.,  attended  this  school  for  three  years  and  he  often  remarked, 
that  it  was  here  that  he  received  the  best  training  that  which  was  of  the 
most  worth  in  after  life. 

Rev.  Rockwell  Smith,  D.  D.,  for  many  years  a  missionary  to  Brazil, 
was  an  unusually  bright  young  man  who  began  his  literary  career  here. 
Those  who  in  after  life  became  bankers,  civil  officers,  financiers,  the  best 
of  farmers  and  the  best  and  most  useful  citizens  as  well,  received  their 
early  school  training  here. 

After  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  the  regular  organization  of  what 
is  now  termed  our  public  school  system  as  observed  in  our  district  schools, 
took  place." 

A  subscription  school  was  maintained  before  the  war,  in  the  Green- 
wood district,  in  a  small  house  erected  by  Mrs.  William  Guyer  for  a  Meth- 
odist church.  It  was  used  as  school  and  church  both  until  it  burned  sev- 
eral years  later.  Pisgah  was  formerly  a  part  of  the  Greenwood  district. 
About  1887  an  effort  was  made  to  divide  the  district.  The  Pisgah  people 
insisted  that  they  did  not  want  to  send  their  children  to  Greenwood  because 
the  children  carried  ticks,  and  the  Greenwood  vicinity  came  back  at  them 
with  the  argument  that  the  Pisgah  children  had  fleas.  The  fight  between 
the  factions  became  so  heated  that  in  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1887  the 
district  was  divided.  This  shows  the  length  to  which  neighborhood  quar- 
rels may  be  carried. 

There  were  enumerated  in  the  Cooper  County  schools  for  the  year 
ending  June  30,  1918,  4,307  white  children  and  741  colored,  a  grand  total 
of  5,048.  The  enrollment  shows  a  total  of  3,802  white  pupils  and  651 
colored.  These  pupils  attended  school  439,673  days,  and  there  was  spent 
on  them  during  the  year  $100,230,  of  which  $71,921.51  was  spent  for 
teachers'  wages,  $16,176.32  for  incidentals,  and  $12,132.17  for  building 

The  assessed  valuation  of  taxable  property  was  $11,556,679  and  the 



average  levy  for  school  purposes  was  57  cents  on  $100  valuation.  In  the 
spring  of  1918  there  were  203  pupils  finishing  the  common  school  course 
of  study,  and  there  were  all  told  throughout  the  county  141  teachers  in 
the  public  schools,  teaching  in  76  districts.  The  average  salary  of  these 
teachers  was  $67  per  month. 

Although  Missouri  ranks  thirty-second  in  the  matter  of  education 
and  although  little  progress  has  been  made  in  the  rural  schools  in  the 
state  as  a  whole,  Cooper  County,  however,  has  made  marked  progress  in 
the  building  up  of  a  system  of  up-to-date  school  with  modern  buildings 
and  competent  teachers. 

It  has  been  said  that  should  a  Rip  Van  Winkle  wake  up  in  a  modern 
barn  he  would  realize  that  he  had  slept  150  years,  but  should  his  waking 
take  place  in  the  average  Missouri  rural  school  he  would  turn  over  to 
finish  his  nap.  Be  this  as  it  may.  Cooper  County  is  fast  forging  to  the 
front  among  the  counties  of  Missouri  in  the  matter  of  efficient  rural 
schools  and  when  this  spirit  of  improvement  and  progress  permeates  the 
whole  of  its  citizenship,  Cooper  County  schools  through  the  generosity 
of  its  people  and  because  of  their  pride  in  the  boys  and  girls,  will  be  made 
the  best  possible,  and  the  rural  community  will  offer  to  its  children  the 
same  advantages  now  enjoyed  by  the  city  children. 





03      0> 


Name  of  District   <u   as 

bo  -o   . 

District  Clerk 

P.  O.  Address 


a!     c 



>     ->-> 


<     < 

Overton 15 

Woodland 32 

Bluffton 12 


Clear  Spring 

Locust  Grove_. 
Pleasant  Grove. 

8  Oakwood 



40,083  Chas.  Windsor Overton 

109,438  B.  J.  Boillott Boonville  R.  D. 

96,976  J.  B.  Hickam Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

52,589  H.  E.  Fuser Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

108,200  A.  H.  Moehle Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

125,200  J.  H.  Turley Lamine 

160,275  G.  R.  Kelly Blackwater 

91,275  E.   R.   Schuster Blackwater 



9  Oakwood  No.  2_  21  105,025 

10  Willow  Grove__  15  97,400 

11  Sappington   ___  000  8,575 

12  Cotton  Patch__  18  109,678 

13  Shackleford  ___  15  39,227 

14  Buffalo  Prairie.  16  100,875 

15  Franklin 9  48,073 

16  Peninsula 15  57,438 

17  Becker 19  44,550 

18  Chouteau 36  68,225 

19  Simmons 12  71,600 

20  Prairie  View—  22  109,875 

21  Hickory  Grove.  21  83,946 

22  Billingsville  ___  13  126,700 

23  Mt.  Sinai 7  119,810 

24  Stony  Point  ___  9  68,524 

25  Concord 18  111,450 

26  Crab  Orchard. _  19  122,006 

27  Hail  Ridge 15  88,460 

28  Pleasant  Valley  12  42,361 

29  Fair  View 17  62,287 

30  Oak  Grove 28  91,963 

31  Highland 16  105,164 

32  Lowland 13  44,683 

34  Woolridge 64  104,780 

35  Liberty 17  116,925 

42  Washington  ___  23  115,558 

44  Lone  Grove 5  183,613 

45  Lone  Elm 14  160,125 

46  Independence    .  15  60,610 

47  Palestine 43  111,318 

48  Bell  Air 32  191,575 

49  Mt.  Nebo 18  136,205 

50  Cottonwood  ___  18  53,576 

51  Oakland 13  97,225 

52  Mt.  Vernon 14  65,125 

53  Harriston 11  83,775 

54  Pleasant  Green_  33  89,500 

55  Reinhardt 15  70,750 

Jesse  Kincheloe Blackwater 

J.   Roy  Jeffress Blackwater 

Noland  Taylor Nelson 

C.   W.   Racy Nelson 

Chas.  McLaughlin Nelson 

Louis  N.  Hoff Pilot  Grove 

W.   B.   Kella Blackwater 

A.  H.  Alley Blackwater 

A.  H.  Hartman Pilot  Grove 

H.  E.  Brownfield Pilot  Grove 

A.  W.  Tally Pilot  Grove 

L.  M.  Immele Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

M.  C.  Johnmeyer_ _Boonville  R.  F.  D. 
A.  S.  Chamberlain__Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

M.  R.  Sloan Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

W.  A.  Whitehurse Speed  R.  F.  D. 

Clark  E.  Bower Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

J.  P.  Reiser Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

T.  B.  Robertson___Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

L.  M.  Swarner Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

Theo.  Lebbing Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

T.  H.  Swanstone. .Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

Clay  Groom Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

Lee  Eager Woolridge 

F.  B.   Hopkins Woolridge 

H.  H.  Warmbrodt Woolridge 

E.  L.  Shirley Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

Walter  Toellner_._Bunceton  R.  F.  D. 

F.  H.  Muntzel Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

Geo.  Chamberlin__Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

Wm.  Walje Speed 

Chas.  P.  Mitzel Bunceton 

R.  E.  Downing Pilot  Grove 

John  Dwyer Pilot  Grove 

H.  J.  Meyer Boonville  R.  F.  D. 

E.  E.  Tavenner__Pilot  Grove  R.  F.  D. 

W.  A.  Straub Pleasant  Green 

J.  S.  Parrish Pleasant  Green 

Frank  Clevorn Pleasant  Green 



56  Oakland 10  81,862 

57  Vollmer    14  93,455 

104  Lamine 36  28,650 

59  Clifton   City___     42  113,963 

62  Rockland 20  30,126 

63  Oak   Hill 22  76,408 

64  Lebanon 27  51,972 

65  Mt.  Zion 18  72,500 

66  West   Fork 7  106,375 

67  Bethlehem 20  134,941 

68  Gillroy    19  108,794 

69  Glendale 21  98,925 

70  Franklin 000  132,986 

71  Davis   15  139,850 

72  Baxter 27  73,688 

73  Dick's   Mill 28  29,313 

74  Keener 15  34,539 

78  Whitlinger 15  30,638 

79  Felder    23  46,482 

80  Martin   000  8,150 

81  Mt.  Pleasant...     15  31,677 

82  Gill 15  35,988 

83  Cross  Roads___  000  24,675 

84  Excelsior 000  24,600 

85  Lone  Elm 15  41,550 

87  Byberry 15  441,172 

(1)  Consolidated   __     98  509,387 

(2)  Consolidated   __  195  378,490 

(3)  Consolidated   __  150  459,366 

Boonville 556  2,255,613 

Bunceton   176  457,820 

Pilot  Grove 108  358,700 

Blackwater   ___   111  302,605 

P.  G.  Meisenheimer_ -Pleasant  Green 

Frank  Vollmer Pleasant  Green 

G.  H.  Bidstrup Beaman 

J.  E.  Potter,  Jr Clifton  City 

G.   W.   Tomlinson Bunceton 

S.  L.  Willis Pleasant  Green 

C.  L.   Thomas Bunceton 

A.  A.  Strickfadden_Otterville  R.  F.  D. 
J.  S.   Funkhouser Bunceton 

D.  C.  Grove Otterville 

R.  E.  Hutchison Syracuse  R.  F.  D. 

Elmer  Fry Tipton  R.  F.  D. 

F.  C.  Betteridge Bunceton 

Ben  M.  Draff  en Bunceton  R.  F.  D. 

A.  N.  Pedego Tipton  R.  F.  D. 

J.  B.  Hodges Bunceton  R.  F.  D. 

F.  D.  Williams Clarksburg 

Luther   Moore    Clarksburg 

E.  J.  Roedel Jamestown  R.  F.  D. 

A.  F.  Zey California  R.  F.  D. 

Wm.  Hess Clarksburg 

J.  A.  Birdsong Clarksburg 

L.  J.  Stephens Clarksburg 

Stephen  H.   Martin Tipton 

P.  J.  Knipp Tipton 

A.    L.    Gochenour Byberry 

T.  W.  Howard Bunceton 

J.  L.  Spillers Otterville 

Wm.  H.  Byler Prairie  Home 

Wm.  Mittlebach Boonville 

G.  H.   Meeker Bunceton 

Otto  Kistenmacher Pilot  Grove 

C.   Q.   Shouse Blackwater 

The  Public  Schools  of  Boonville.— The  Missouri  Legislature  during 
its  session  passed  March  12,  1867  an  act  authorizing  cities,  towns,  and  vil- 
lages to  organize  for  school  purposes.  On  the  29th  of  the  same  month 
the  following  notice  was  issued: 

R.   F.    W VAN'S   RESIDENT  E 



"The  undersigned  resident  free  holders  of  the  city  of  Boonville  re- 
quest an  election  of  the  qualified  voters  of  said  city  at  the  mayor's  office 
on  Tuesday,  April  9,  1867,  to  determine  whether  they  will  accept  the  pro- 
visions of  an  act  authorizing  any  city,  town  or  village  to  organize  for 
school  purposes,  with  special  privileges,  approved  March  16,  1867 ;  and 
organize  said  city  in  accordance  therewith. — C.  W.  Sombart,  H.  L.  Wallace 
John  Bernard,  Thos.  Plant,  J.  L.  Stephens,  Nicholas  Walz,  Stephen  Weber, 
J.  P.  Neef,  Jacob  Zimmer,  E.  Roeschel,  J.  F.  Gmelich,  John  Fetzer. 

The  election  was  held  April  9,  1867,  at  which  30  votes  were  cast,  29 
for  and  one  against  organization  for  school  purposes.  On  the  23d  of  the 
same  month  the  following  citizens  were  elected  to  constitute  the  Board 
of  Education:  Jos.  L.  Stephens,  Jos.  A.  Eppstein,  C.  W.  Sonbart,  John 
Bernard,  H.  A.  Hutchison,  Franklin  Swap. 

The  schools  were  opened  Sep.  23,  1867,  with  Joseph  C.  Mason,  prin- 
cipal, and  Mrs.  Clara  Atkinson,  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Schaefer,  and  Miss  M.  E. 
McKee,  assistants  in  the  school  for  white  children,  and  S.  G.  Bundy  and 
wife  teachers  in  that  for  colored  pupils. 

A  building  22x60  feet  and  located  on  Sixth  street  was  purchased  of  C. 
H.  Allison  for  $5,250,  and  used  as  a  school  for  white  children. 

The  enrollment  during  the  first  year  was  as  follows:  White  chil- 
dren, 377 ;  colored,  199 ;  a  total  of  576.  But  the  average  attendance  of 
white  children  was  only  207,  and  of  the  colored  only  77 — making  a  total 
average  attendance  of  only  284.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  enum- 
eration at  this  time  was  1,302. 

Two  wings  were  added  to  the  original  building  in  1870,  which  con- 
stitute the  north  and  south  wings  of  the  building  at  the  present  time. 
In  1896  the  original  center  of  the  building  was  torn  down  and  a  new 
center  erected. 

The  high  school  from  this  time  on  developed  rapidly  and  soon  out- 
grew the  cramped  quarters  afforded  at  the  Central  school.  So  a  special 
election  was  held  March  2,  1914  and  $65,000  voted  for  the  erection  of  a 
modern  high  school  building,  587  votes  being  cast  for  and  219  against  the 
bond  issues.  The  new  building  was  completed  Sept.  1,  1915  at  a  cost 
(including  furniture  and  equipment)  of  about  $85,000  and  is  recognized  as 
one  of  the  finest  in  the  state.  The  building  was  named  "The  Laura  Speed 
Elliott  High  School"  in  honor  of  and  as  a  memorial  to  the  deceased  wife 
of  Col.  Jno.  S.  Elliott  who  presented  to  the  Board  of  Education  and  through 
them  to  the  citizens  of  Boonville  the  site  on  which  the  building  stands. 


The  lot  was  valued  at  $10,000  and  is  an  ideal  location  for  such  a  building. 

The  Laura  Speed  Elliott  High  School  building  consists  of  25  rooms 
including  auditorium,  gymnasium,  library,  cooking  room,  sewing  room, 
commercial  department,  laboratories,  class  rooms  and  offices.  It  has 
modern  heating,  ventilating  and  lighting  systems,  and  is  used  by  various 
organizations  as  a  community  center. 

Following  the  modern  trend  in  education,  Boonville  is  adapting  the 
curriculum  of  her  schools  to  meet  the  twentieth  century  demands.  Courses 
that  have  been  added  in  recent  years  are  agriculture,  bookkeeping,  type- 
writing, stenography,  cooking,  sewing,  general  science,  teacher-training, 
Spanish,  French  and  vocational  home  economics. 

The  trend  in  education  is  away  from  the  strictly  classical  course  to 
the  more  practical,  but  none  the  less  cultural,  semi-vocational  course, 
which  has  for  its  aim  the  making  of  better  citizens,  better  able  to  take 
their  place  in  the  complex  modern  society  and  earn  an  honest  living.  If 
the  school  does  not  develop  better  men  and  women,  a  higher  type  of 
citizen,  out  of  the  material  it  takes  in,  then  it  is  a  failure. 

Modern  education  looks  to  the  development  of  a  healthy  body  along 
with  a  trained  mind.  Too  often  in  the  past  we  have  ignored  the  health 
of  the  child  in  our  endeavor  to  educate  him,  as  a  result  the  present  genera- 
tion is  only  about  sixty  per  cent,  efficient  physically.  A  large  share  of 
the  blame  for  this  condition  must  be  assumed  by  the  schools. 

Statistics  obtained  by  the  army  in  the  recent  draft  show  that  prac- 
tically one-third  of  the  young  men  were  physically  inferior  and  that 
seventy-five  per  cent,  of  this  inferiority  could  have  been  overcome  had 
the  right  training  been  administered  at  the  proper  time.  The  schools, 
therefore,  must  wake  up  to  the  necessity  for  adequate  physical  training, 
which  is  of  even  more  importance  than  mental  training.  Because  the  first 
requisite  for  a  sound  mind  is  a  sound  body.  Mental  development  at  the 
expense  of  physical  well-being  is  not  only  undesirable  but  nonsensical. 
Physical  training  in  the  school  need  not  interfere  with  mental  training 
but  should  rather  supplement  it.  The  universal  criticism  of  athletics  in 
the  past  has  been  that  it  is  administered  to  the  five  per  cent,  rather  than 
the  hundred  per  cent.  In  the  modern  school  the  health  of  the  pupil  is  of 
first  considei-ation  and  each  is  given  the  training  best  calculated  to  fit 
him  for  a  vigorous,  healthy,  successful  life. 

Thus  have  the  Boonville  schools  developed  through  the  years,  until 
today  we  have  a  system  that  ranks  among  the  best  in  the  state,  and  of 


which  we  are  justly  proud.  It  may  be  of  interest  to  review  the  list  of 
citizens  who  have  served  on  the  Board  of  Education,  and  the  superin- 
tendents who  have  come  and  gone. 

School  Directors  from  1867-1919.— Jos.  L.  Stephens,  1867-1881 ;  Jos. 
A.  Eppstein,  1867-1870;  C.  W.  Sombart,  1867-1895;  John  Bernard,  1867- 
1882;  H.  A.  Hutchison,  1867-1870;  Franklin  Swap,  1867-1881;  John  Fet- 
zer,  1870-1873 ;  John  O'Brien,  1870-1873 ;  John  B.  Holman,  1871-1881 ;  J. 
F.  Gmelich,  1873-1876;  George  Sahm,  1876-1879;  E.  Roeschal,  1877-1895; 
D.  D.  Miles,  1880-1884;  C.  H.  Brewster,  1881-1882;  John  N.  Gott,  1881- 
1882 ;  Sam  Acton,  1882-1885 ;  W.  W.  Taliaferro,  1882-1894 ;  John  Cosgrove, 
1882-1884;  W.  Speed  Stephens,  1884-1917;  Chas.  J.  Burger,  1884-1887; 
S.  H.  Stephens,  1885-1894 ;  *R.  W.  Whitlow,  1887-1919 ;  *Wm.  Mittlebach, 
1894-1919  ;  W.  A.  Smiley,  1894-1897;  J.  T.  McClanahan,  1895-1898  ;  Richard 
Hadelich,  1895-1898 ;  C.  P.  Gott,  1897-1903 ;  R.  L.  Moore,  1898-1904 ;  Win. 
Gibbons,  1898-1901;  C.  C.  Bell,  1901-1904;  *Wm.  F.  Johnson,  1903-1919;  F. 
R.  Smiley,  1904-1913;  John  C.  Pigott,  1904-1913;  *M.  E.  Schmidt,  1913- 
1919;  T.  F.  Waltz,  1913-1916;  John  Cosgrove,  1916-1919;  A.  C.  Jacobs, 
1917-1918;  *Wm.  B.  Talbott,  1918-1919. 

*Still  members  of  the  board. 

Superintendents,  Boonville  Public  Schools  From  1867-1919.— J.  C. 
Mason,  1867,  1868,  1870;  E.  A.  Angell,  1869;  R.  P.  Rider,  1871,  1872;  Wm. 
A.  Smiley,  1873;  S.  H.  Blewett,  1874-1875;  R.  R.  Rogers,  1876;  D.  A. 
McMillan,  1877-1883 ;  H.  T.  Norton,  1883 ;  G.  W.  Smith,  1884-1889 ;  F.  W. 
Ploger,  1889-1895 ;  D.  T.  Gentry,  1895-1899 ;  W.  A.  Annin,  1899-1903 ;  M. 
A.  O'Rear,  1903-1913;  C.  E.  Chrane,  1913-1919. 

The  high  school  enrollment  during  the  past  year  was  204.  This  is 
a  15  per  cent,  increase  over  the  year  previous.  Sixty-four  of  these  pupils 
were  from  the  rural  districts. 

There  were  enumerated  in  the  Boonville  school  district  May  1,  1919, 
795  white  children  and  194  colored— a  total  of  989,  and  the  total  enroll- 
ment during  the  school  year  was  728. 

The  Boonville  Board  of  Education  employs  23  teachers  to  run  its 
schools.     The  faculty  for  the  coming  year  1919-20  is  as  follows : 

High  School  Faculty.— C.  E.  Chrane,  superintendent;  E.  H.  Johnson, 
Principal  High  School,  Science;  Edna  Ginn,  History;  Alberta  Cowden. 
Home  Economics;  Helen  Dauwalter,  Latin,  Mathematics;  Grace  Graves, 
teacher-training;  Pauline  Holloway,  English;  Leota  Moser,  French,  Music; 
Mildred  Amick,  Commercial. 


Grade  School  Faculty. — Emma  Stegner,  principal,  7,  8  grades,  Vergna 
Hopkins,  Gladys  Brown,  Lilia  Dritt,  Emmorie  Holtman,  Hazel  Moore, 
Helen  Gantner,  Elizabeth  Hayden,  Dora  Hennicke,  Elizabeth  Varnum. 

Sumner  School,  Boonville. — The  Sumner  school  for  colored  children 
was  established  in  1868  and  has  been  open  continuously  since  that  time  at 
the  corner  of  Fourth  and  Spruce  streets. 

The  following  statistics  that  are  taken  from  the  1910  census  of  the 
United  States  will  give  some  idea  of  the  effectiveness  of  the  work  of  this 

The  census  of  1910  gives  the  colored  population  of  Boonville,  910. 
The  number  of  illiterate  is  given  as  124,  which  shows  that  illiteracy  among 
the  colored  people  in  our  city  has  been  reduced  from  100  per  cent,  in  1869 
to  less  than  12  per  cent  in  1910. 

Following  the  same  line  of  investigation,  the  Boonville  colored  people 
compare  favorably  with  those  of  the  other  cities  and  towns  of  the  state. 

The  motto  of  the  school  is  "Grow  or  Go,"  and  every  one  is  so  busy 
that  the  loafer  or  laggard  so  inbibes  the  spirit  of  work  from  the  atmos- 
phere surrounding  him,  that  sooner  or  later  he  takes  up  the  work  with  a 
hearty  good  will. 

All  children  old  enough  to  help  the  family  and  themselves  are  encour- 
aged to  work  outside  of  school  hours,  because  it  is  found  that  the  child 
who  is  kept  busy  makes  a  better  scholar  than  the  loafer  or  idler.  In 
other  words,  it  is  more  of  a  help  than  a  handicap  to  be  forced  to  work. 

The  Sumner  High  School  was  established  in  1884.  The  first  pupil 
graduated  in  1886.  This  pupil  afterwards  attended  Oberlin  College  and  is 
now  one  of  the  prominent  teachers  in  the  state.  Since  this  time  some 
thirty-eight  classes  have  finished  the  two-year  high  school  course. 

More  than  50  per  cent,  have  gone  to  the  higher  institutions  of  learn- 
ing, where  they  finished  courses  in  medicine,  law,  pharmacy,  nurse-train- 
ing, teaching,  theology,  engineering,  commercial  business  course,  etc.  But 
one  of  the  greatest  benefits  has  been  received  by  the  rank  and  file  of  the 
race,  as  shown  by  the  improved  conditions  of  the  colored  people  of  our 

The  number  of  taxpayers  has  increased  from  none  in  1869  to  161  at 
present;  besides,  the  colored  people  own  two  good  churches,  two  parson- 
ages and  one  lodge  hall  valued  at  $5,000. 

A  new  six-room  building,  modern  in  every  respect,  was  completed  in 
1916.  Courses  in  cooking,  sewing  and  manual  training  have  been  added 
to  the  curriculum. 


Faculty  of  School. — C.  G.  Williams,  principal ;  Ida  Hill,  Millie  Proctor, 
Josie  E.  Williams. 

Catholic  Parochial  School,  Boonville,  1848. — The  Catholic  church  was 
built  in  Boonville  in  the  year  1848,  and  the  school  was  started  soon  there- 
after. It  is  an  elementary  school  teaching  only  the  first  eight  grades  of 
school  work.  Examinations  are  given  twice  each  year  by  the  priest. 
There  are  at  the  present  time  two  teachers  and  one  housekeeper  in  charge 
of  the  school,  and  they  have  sixty-seven  pupils  enrolled. 

Cooper  County  Institute,  1863. — The  Cooper  County  Institute  was 
established  at  Boonville  in  1863,  by  the  Reverend  X.  X.  Buckner,  a  Baptist 
minister.  It  was  sold  in  1865  to  Q.  W.  Marston  who  had  charge  of  it  until 
the  year  1868.  It  was  discontinued  from  1868  to  1870  at  which  time 
Professor  Anthony  Haynes  took  charge  and.  moved  it  to  a  suite  of  rooms 
over  the  Stephen's  Opera  House.  Later  it  was  moved  to  the  building  now 
known  as  the  Quinly  apartments.  In  addition  to  the  conducting  of  a  suc- 
cessful day  school  Professor  Haynes  had  a  boarding  department  which 
proved  very  popular  to  the  people  of  Cooper  County  who  were  at  a  distance 
from  Boonville  and  out  of  touch  with  educational  advantages.  The  school 
was  maintained  until  the  year  1877  when  Professor  Haynes  was  forced 
to  give  up  his  chosen  work  on  account  of  ill  health. 

Prairie  Home  Institute  was  founded  at  Prairie  Home  in  1865  by  Rev. 
A.  H.  Misseline.  In  the  fall  of  1869  it  was  sold  to  the  public  school  dis- 
trict by  Washington  A.  Johnston.  In  May,  1871,  it  was  converted  into  a 
co-educational  boarding  school.  The  building  with  its  contents  was 
destroyed  by  fire  in  1874.  A  new  building  was  substituted  for  the  old  and 
school  reopened  April,  1875,  and  continued  until  1880.  After  1880  the 
school  had  a  precarious  existence,  being  alternately  opened  and  closed, 
and  was  finally  forced  to  close  altogether  a  few  years  later. 

The  Otterville  Academy  was  organized  in  the  year  1891.  Prof.  Wm. 
Curlin  was  employed  as  the  first  principal.  He  stayed  with  the  school 
two  years.     The  school  closed  in  1907. 

McGuire  Seminary  was  established  in  Boonville,  Mo.,  in  1892, 
by  Mrs.  Julia  McGuire.  This  was  a  very  select  school  for  young  ladies 
and  offered  an  exceedingly  fine  course  in  music.  Mrs.  McGuire  died  in 
1902.  Mrs.  Roller  took  charge  of  the  school  and  attempted  to  keep  it  up 
to  its  former  high  standard  of  excellence  and  enrollment,  and  she  suc- 
ceeded until  1905,  when  discouraged  because  of  the  lack  of  interest  that 
was  manifest  in  private  schools  and  academies,  generally,  at  this  time, 
it  was  closed. 


Kemper  Military  Schools. — This  large  enterprise  and  distinguished 
school,  like  all  other  affairs  worthy  of  growth  and  development,  had  a 
small  and  humble  beginning.  In  1844,  Professor  F.  T.  Kemper  located 
in  Boonville  and  started  a  private  school  which  in  the  course  of  years 
became  known  as  the  Kemper  Family  School.  This  school  opened  with 
but  five  students,  only  one  of  whom,  D.  C.  Mack,  was  a  Boonville  boy. 
The  school  was  conducted  in  a  humble  frame  building  that  stood  on  the 
corner  of  Morgan  and  Spring  streets,  on  the  present  site  of  the  Citizen's 
Trust  Company  building.  A  little  frame  house  situated  a  little  farther 
west  was  the  residence  of  the  school  family  and  another  small  house 
served  as  an  office  to  piece  out  the  scanty  accommodations. 

Mr.  Kemper  did  all  the  instructing  himself  and  by  the  end  of  the  year 
the  enrollment  of  students  had  increased  to  35  and  a  portion  of  the  second 
story  of  the  building  now  known  as  the  Green  Hotel  was  secured  for  the 
school.  The  next  year  a  location  for  a  permanent  home  for  the  school  was 
secured  where  it  and  its  famed  successor,  the  Kemper  Military  School,  has 
ever  since  remained.  Professor  Kemper  was  a  ripe  scholai%  an  elegant 
gentleman,  and  possessed  of  a  strong  personality  which  he  impressed  upon 
his  pupils.  During  the  years  the  Kemper  Family  School  became  noted 
for  its  discipline  and  thoroughness.  Soon  after  founding  the  school, 
Kemper  associated  with  himself  the  brothers  Tyre  C.  and  James  B.  Harris. 
This  association,  however,  continued  but  a  short  time.  In  the  early  his- 
tory of  the  school  there  were  also  associated  with  Kemper,  James  and 
John  Chandler,  William  and  Roberdeau  Allison  and  J.  A.  Quarrels;  and 
again  during  the  Civil  War  the  school  was  under  the  joint  management 
of  Mr.  Kemper  and  Edwin  Taylor,  brother  of  Mrs.  Kemper.  During  the 
years  from  1867  to  1868,  Mr.  R.  Allison  was  associated  in  the  manage- 
ment. It  was  in  the  year  1867  that  T.  A.  Johnston,  now  the  superintendent 
of  the  Kemper  Military  School,  entered  this  family  school  as  a  student  and 
continued  thus  until  1871  when  he  entered  the  State  University  of  Mis- 
souri where  in  1872  he  received  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts,  later 
receiving  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts,  and  at  once  returned  to  Boonville 
and  became  associate  principal  of  the  Kemper  Family  School.  The  man- 
agement of  the  school  was  thus  continued  until  the  death  of  Professor 
Kemper  in  1881.  The  school  then  passed  to  the  management  and  control 
of  T.  A.  Johnston  and  continued  under  this  management  to  prosper  with 
an  ever  widening  patronage.     Yet  its  growth  was  not  phenomenal  as  has 


been  that  of  the  Kemper  Military  School.  From  1865  until  1890,  50  was 
the  average  enrollment.  Col.  T.  A.  Johnston  with  a  far  sighted  vision 
realized  the  changing  conditions,  and  gradually  converted  the  institution 
into  what  now  is  known  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land 
as  the  "Kemper  Military  School."  It  was  not  until  1904  that  the  enroll- 
ment of  100  was  reached,  and  in  1909,  150  students  appeared  at  Kemper 
while  in  1916  saw  an  enrollment  of  217 ;  and  this  year,  1919,  a  total  enroll- 
ment of  527.  The  Kemper  Military  School  represents  an  investment  of 
half  a  million  dollars.  It  occupies  30  acres  of  ground  and  has  five  modern 
barracks,  two  study  halls,  an  auditorium  that  will  seat  500,  a  gymnasium, 
library,  manuel  training  and  machine  shops  and  employs  29  teachers  and 
officers.  For  the  last  five  years  it  has  been  among  the  10  Honor  Military 
Schools  of  the  United  States  and  this  year  ranks  second  among  the  10, 
and  is  the  first  in  rank  of  the  military  schools  west  of  the  Mississippi 

The  Pilot  Grove  Collegiate  Institute  is  but  a  memory,  dear  to  the 
students  and  instructors  who  once  occupied  and  spent  pleasant  and  in- 
structive days  within  its  walls.  This  institution  had  its  beginning  in  the 
establishment  of  a  private  school  by  the  Rev.  Geo.  Eichelberger,  in  1878 
in  a  two  story  frame  building  located  where  are  now  the  residences  of 
J.  A.  Thompson  and  R.  A.  Harriman,  in  the  city  of  Pilot  Grove,  Missouri. 
In  1879,  Prof.  Charles  Newton  Johnson  organized  a  company  and  pur- 
chased this  building  from  Mr.  Eichelberger.  He  had  associated  with  him 
his  mother,  Mrs.  C.  B.  Johnson,  and  the  school  flourished  from  the  begin- 
ning. It  was  chartered  in  1881  as  the  Pilot  Grove  Collegiate  Institute 
and  during  this  year  he  had  also  associated  with  him  W.  F.  Johnson,  the 
author  of  this  volume.  Prof.  Chas.  N.  Johnson  died  in  the  summer  of 
1882.  The  management  of  the  school  then  fell  into  the  hands  of  Prof. 
Chas.  B.  Johnson  (the  father  of  C.  N.  and  W.  F.  Johnson)  and  W.  F.  John- 
son and  under  this  management  it  was  continued  until  1887,  or  1888  in- 
creasing in  enrollment  year  by  year. 

At  this  time  Prof.  Chas.  Foster  and  D.  L.  Roe  purchased  and  became 
the  proprietors  of  the  school  and  conducted  the  same  for  several  years 
when  Prof.  Foster  retired  and  Prof.  Roe  continued  the  management. 
Prof.  Roe  was  eventually  succeeded  by  Prof.  Taylor  and  he  in  turn  by 
Prof.  Buckmeister  who  conducted  a  private  school  in  the  college  building 
for  two  or  three  years  when  he  gave  up  teaching.    The  property  has  been 


recently  wrecked  and  two  residences  built  upon  the  site  of  the  old  institu- 

This  school  drew  its  patronage  not  only  from  many  counties  in  the 
state  but  from  other  states  especially  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  and  had 
pupils  from  a  distance  varying1  from  sixty-five  to  eighty  and  an  enroll- 
ment in  all  averaging  from  150  to  175  pupils. 




Churches  have  ever  been  established  coincident  with  settlement,  and 
the  pioneer  considered  his  church  of  primary  importance.  In  that  early 

"A  church  in  every  grove  that  spread 
A  living  roof  above  their  heads," 
formed  their  only  place  of  worship  and  to  them, 

"No  temple  built  with  hands  could  vie 
In  glory  with  its  majesty."  Thus  in  nature's  magnificent 
cathedrals,  and  with  hearts  in  tune  with  the  simplicity  of  the  Gospel,  the 
early  settlers  worshipped  their  Creator,  and  felt  the  quickening  power 
of  duty  done.  They  lived  humble  and  devout  lives  and  consistently  prac- 
ticed the  precepts,  and  tenets  of  their  faith. 
It  was  Alexander  Pope  who  said, 

"Honor  and  shame  from  no  condition  rise, 
Act  well  your  part,  there  all  the  honor  lies."  And  it  was 
the  pioneer  who,  above  all  else,  exemplified  this  truth.  In  rude  cabins 
and  huts  the  early  preachers  proclaimed  the  same  gospel  that  is  preached 
today  in  the  magnificent  palaces,  that,  under  the  name  of  church,  decorate 
the  cities  of  our  fair  land. 

Since  it  was  impossible  to  obtain  information  regarding  each  indi- 
vidual church  in  the  county  we  thought  it  best  to  confine  our  discussion 
of  churches  to  those  of  the  early  day.  Not  that  a  discussion  of  the  more 
recent  churches  would  not  be  profitable  and  interesting  to  a  majority  of 


our  readers,  but  because  it  is  almost  an  impossibility  to  get  accurate 
information  on  such  a  subject. 

The  number  of  churches  in  Cooper  County  has  increased  with  amazing 
rapidity  during  the  past  few  years,  until  today  there  is  probably  not  a 
community  in  the  county  that  is  not  served  by  one  or  more  church  houses, 
and  there  is  not  a  family  in  Cooper  County  who  cannot,  if  they  so  desire, 
worship  in  the  church  of  their  choice  any  Sunday,  with  but  little  effort. 


The  Baptists  were  probably  the  first  to  become  active  in  Cooper 

Concord  Church  was  organized  May  10,  1817  by  Elders  Edward  Tur- 
ner, William  Thorp,  and  David  McLain.  The  following  were  the  first 
fourteen  members :  Luke  Williams,  Polly  Williams,  William  Savage,  Mary 
Savage,  Delaney  Bolen,  Judith  Williams,  Absalom  Huff,  Susanna  Savage, 
Joseph  Baze,  Lydia  Turner,  Charles  Williams,  Patsey  Bolen,  Sally  Baze 
and  Elizabeth  Williams. 

Concord  Church  was  located  in  the  settlement  south  of  Boonville  and 
was  called  Concord  Association  in  1823.  Elder  Luke  Williams  was  pastor 
for  six  years,  beginning  in  June,  1817.  After  his  death  which  occurred 
at  the  end  of  his  pastorate,  Elder  Kemp  Scott  was  chosen  pastor.  The 
church  had  a  membership  of  about  45.  Dec.  26,  1846,  Concord  church 
united  with  a  neighboring  church  known  as  "The  Vine"  which  strength- 
ened materially  the  old  church.  The  charter  members  of  this  church  were 
Luke  Williams,  Polly  Williams,  William  Savage,  Mary  Savage,  Delaney 
Bolen,  Judith  Williams,  Absalom  Huff,  Susanna  Savage,  Joseph  Baze, 
Lydia  Turner,  Charles  Williams,  Patsey  Bolen,  Sally  Baze  and  Elizabeth 

Mount  Nebo  Church  is  located  about  one  mile  north  of  the  present 
site  of  Bunceton  and  it  was  organized  in  1820.  An  early  list  of  members 
contains  63.  names.  Rev.  A.  P.  Williams  was  the  first  pastor.  The  first 
church  building  was  erected  in  1838.  The  present  building  was  erected 
in  1856.  Earliest  members  were,  Lydia  Corum,  Jordan  O'Bryan,  Abra- 
ham and  Nancy  Woolery. 

Big  Lick  Church  was  a  constituent  of  the  Concord  Association  and 
was  organized  Aug.  24,  1822,  under  an  arbor,  one  mile  north  of  where 
the  present  church  now  stands.  John  B.  Longan  and  Jacob  Chism  com- 
posed the  council.     There  were  sixteen  in  the  original  membership.     John 


B.  Longan  (822-845),  Tyre  C.  Harris  (1845-1851)  were  followed  as  pastors 
by  Robert  H.  Harris,  D.  G.  Tutt,  J.'  B.  Box,  J.  D.  Murphy  and  J.  S.  Palmer. 
In  1847,  the  membership  was  350. 

Pisgah  Baptist  Church  was  organized  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  resi- 
dence of  Lewis  Shelton  on  June  19,  1819,  with  the  following  charter  mem- 
bers: The  Rev.  William  Jennings,  Rev.  Jacob  Chism,  Priseilla  Chism, 
David  Jones,  Tabitha  Jones,  James  Maxey,  William  Howard,  Leven  Savage, 
Pollie  Savage,  Joseph  McClure,  Elizabeth  McClure,  John  Bivian,  Mary 
Bivian,  Rhoda  Stephens,  Isabella  Pontan,  Sarah  Woods,  the  Rev.  John  B. 
Longan,  John  Apperson,  Sela  Apperson,  Jesse  Martin,  Mary  Martin  and 
Pollie  Longan.  The  first  meeting  house  was  erected  not  long  after  the 
congregation  had  effected  an  organization  and  was  situated  at  a  point  a 
half  mile  east  of  the  present  edifice.  This  somewhat  primitive  church 
building  was  in  time  supplanted  by  a  brick  building,  which  in  1871  gave 
way  to  the  much  larger  frame  building  which  has  since  then  supplied  the 
needs  of  the  congregation.  Mrs.  Jane  York,  who  died  on  March  15,  1919, 
joined  this  church  in  1849  and  at  the  time  of  her  death  was  the  oldest 
continuous  member  of  the  church,  her  connection  with  the  same  having 
covered  the  long  span  of  70  years. 

Providence  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in  Nov.,  1879,  at  Prairie 
Home  by  Rev.  B.  T.  Taylor.  The  church  building  was  erected  in  1881  at 
a  cost  of  $1,000  by  Rev.  J.  B.  Box,  the  first  pastor.  Charter  members 
were  Miss  E.,  Miss  R.  and  Miss  J.  McLane,  A.  Slaughter,  Mrs.  L.  W. 
Slaughter,  Mrs.  M.  Simmons,  W.  E.  Watt,  Mrs.  L.  F.  Watt,  William  Sim- 
mons, Mrs.  Lizzie  Simmons,  Mrs.  Saline  Smith,  A.  J.  Hornbeck,  Jeremiah 
Hornbeck,  Mrs.  E.  Hornbeck,  Mrs.  Josie,  Miss  Sallie,  Miss  Nevada,  Miss 
Fannie,  Miss  Minerva,  Miss  Nannie,  Miss  Henrietta  and  C.  C.  Don  Carlos, 
Miss  M.  J.  and  Mrs.  Mary  Adair,  Mrs.  Mary,  Miss  Laura,  Miss  Lillie  and 
Miss  Mattie  Taylor,  Thomas  F.  and  Mrs.  Sallie  B.  Hall,  Gabriel,  Miss  Sarah 
Stemmons,  Miss  Sudie  and  Miss  Nannie  Stemmons,  George  W.,  Mrs.  Mary 
and  Clara  Carey,  Mrs.  Melinda  Dungan,  Miss  Jennie  and  Amanda  Max- 
well and  Bettie  Hudson. 

First  Baptist  Church,  Boonville,  was  organized  Dec.  30,  1843,  by  Rev. 
A.  M.  Lewis  and  A.  B.  Hardy.  A  brick  building  was  erected  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1847.  Some  of  the  early  pastors  were  Tyra  C.  Harris,  Robert 
Harris,  John  W.  Mitchell,  Spencer  H.  Olmstead,  X.  X.  Buckner,  M.  M. 
Paderford,  Charles  Whitting,  J.  L.  Blitch.  Original  members  were, 
Reuben  E.  McDaniel,  Alfred  Simmons,  David  Lilly,  Lawrence  B.  Lewis, 
Jordan  O'Bryan,  Elizabeth  Dow,  Sarah  Gates,  Maria  Elliott,  Eliza  Ann 


Hickman,  Susan  D.  Conner,  Delia  McDaniel,  Elizabeth  N.  Richardson, 
Jane  E.  Richardson  and  Francis  B.  Major.  The  present  pastor  is  C.  Rus- 
sell Sorrell. 

First  Baptist  Church,  Otterville,  was  organized  in  1866,  by  J.  W. 
Williams  and  Brother  Parish.  The  church  building  was  bought  in  1874 
from  the  Cumberland  Presbyterians  for  $360.  Some  of  the  early  pastors 
of  this  church  were  William  Pastors,  John  K.  Godby,  T.  V.  Greer,  W.  N. 
Phillips,  E.  F.  Shelton.  Original  members  were  George  I.  Key,  James 
Shackelford,  Samuel  Swearingen,  William  H.  Bowdin,  Martha  L.  Key, 
Sarah  Willard,  Catherine  L.  Key,  Angeline  Cook,  Mary  C.  Golladay, 
Josephine  Butler,  Mahala  Price,  Jane  Trimble,  Margaret  A.  Shackelford, 
Temperance  E.  Swearingen,  Mary  A.  Bowdin,  Sophia  Cook  and  Sarah 

Mt.  Herman  Church  is  located  in  Clark's  Fork  township.  It  was  or- 
ganized Jan.  3,  1868,  by  Jehe  Robinson  who  was  its  first  pastor.  The 
church  building  was  erected  in  1879  at  a  cost  of  $1,800.  Charter  mem- 
bers were  Mrs.  Margaret  Reid,  Sarah  Cartner,  Lucy  Brown,  Margaret 

Pilot  Grove  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in  1876  by  Rev.  N.  T.  Alli- 
son. A  frame  church  building  costing  $1,000  was  built  in  the  same  year. 
Original  members,  Rev.  N.  T.-  Allison  and  wife,  J.  R.  Jeffress,  A.  N.  Spencer, 
J.  Tomlinson,  B.  F.  Chamberlain  and  wife,  L.  L.  Chamberlain  and  wife, 
Miss  Rebecca  Massie,  Miss  Millie  White  and  Mrs.  Sarah  Kaley. 

Second  Baptist  Church,  Colored,  is  located  on  Morgan  Street,  Boon- 
ville.  It  was  organized  in  1865  by  Rev.  W.  P.  Brooks.  A  building  was 
erected  in  1870  at  a  cost  of  $1,600.  There  were  216  members  in  1883. 
Original  members  were:  Richard  Taylor  and  wife,  William  Jackson  and 
wife,  Dilcey  Thomas,  Rebecca  Sharp,  Hannah  Alexander,  Washington 
Whittleton,  Minerva  Smith,  Jane  Smith,  Duke  Diggs  and  wife,  G.  Fowler 
and  wife,  Jane  Douglass,  Ellen  Woods,  Abbey  Smith,  Green  Smith,  Cvnthia 
Nelson,  P.  Watkins,  P.  Wilson. 

Sixth  Baptist  Church,  Colored,  is  located  in  Boonville  and  was  organ- 
ized in  1874  by  Rev.  S.  Bryan.  A  building  was  erected  in  1876  at  a  cost 
of  $1,000.  This  church  had  a  membership  of  one  hundred  in  1883.  Orig- 
inal members  were:  Green  Wilson,  William  Jackson,  David  Watson,  Paul 
Donaldson,  Smith  Barnes,  Rebecca  Sharp,  Martha  Tibbs,  Clacy  Waller, 
Esther  Rollins,  Clara  Johnson,  Dilcey  Thomas,  Sarah  Jackson,  Arrena 



The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. — The  first  religious  service 
ever  held  in  Boonville  of  which  we  have  any  record  was  held  in  a  private 
house  by  Reb.  John  Scripps,  a  pioneer  preacher  in  1817.  A  church  was 
organized  by  Rev.  Justinian  Williams  who  was  a  brother  of  Marcus  Wil- 
liams, the  first  mayor  of  Boonville  and  who  was  a  great  uncle  of  the  late 
Judge  W.  M.  Williams.  The  charter  members  were  Justinian  Williams 
and  wife,  Frederick  Houx  and  wife,  and  Allen  and  Louisa  Porter.  From 
1818  to  1834  the  church  was  a  part  of  the  Lamine  circuit,  but  in  1844,  it 
was  called  the  Boonville  circuit.  In  1840  it  was  made  a  station  and  was 
the  first  station  outside  of  St.  Louis  made  in  the  state.  The  first  church 
building  was  begun  in  1832,  and  dedicated  by  Bishop  Soul  in  1838.  The 
second  building  was  erected  in  1880  during  the  last  year  of  the  four  years 
pastorate  of  C.  H.  Briggs,  and  was  dedicated  by  C.  C.  Wood.  A  modern 
church  edifice  was  erected  in  1917,  at  a  cost  of  $40,000,  and  is  known  as 
the  Nelson  Memorial  Church.     Rev.  O.  E.  Vivian  is  the  present  pastor. 

The  Bell  Air  Methodist  Church,  South,  was  organized  in  1850.  James 
Bell  and  wife,  Thornton  Bell  and  wife,  and  Jacob  G.  Shutler  and  wife,  were 
among  the  oldest  members.  The  building  was  erected  in  1870,  and  was 
dedicated  by  D.  K.  McAnally. 

Prairie  Home  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was  organized  in  1881, 
by  Rev.  Vandiver.  The  church  building  was  dedicated  and  organized  in 
1881  by  Rev.  Phillip.  The  original  members  were  Sarah  Tompkins  and 
Eleanor  Huff. 

Pilot  Grove  M.  E.  Church,  South,  was  organized  in  1826.  Samuel 
Roe  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  this  church.  A  building  was 
erected  in  1850  and  rebuilt  in  1879. 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  Bunceton,  was  organized  in  April, 
1879.  by  Rev.  C.  H.  Briggs,  who  was  then  stationed  at  Boonville.  A  church 
building  was  erected  in  1880  on  a  plot  of  ground  contributed  by  Dr.  H.  C. 
Gibson,  of  Boonville.  The  original  members  were:  Mrs.  Marie  Stephens, 
Capt.  S.  P.  Tevis,  George  Dorsey,  James  Moon,  Mrs.  Jane  Moon,  George 
Dameron,  Mrs.  Lucy  Dameron,  O.  F.  Arnold  and  Mrs.  M.  E.  Arnold. 

The  German  Methodist  Church,  Boonville,  was  organized  in  1850.  A 
brick  church  building  was  erected  in  1852  at  a  cost  of  $1,200.  Some  of 
the  early  pastors  were  A.  Klippel,  Jacob  Feisel,  John  Hausn,  H.  Lahrman, 
William   Schreck.     The   original   members   were   as    follows:     H.    Gaus, 


Helena  Gaus,  J.  H.  Reckmeyer,  Emilie  Reckmeyer,  Peter  Birkenbeil,  Eva 
M.  Birkenbeil,  Henry  Muhlenbruck,  Mina  Muhlenbruck,  John  Otten, 
Johanna  Otten,  H.  Blum,  Theresa  Blum,  Carl  Vollmer,  Henriette  Kuhl, 
Maria  Hausman. 


Boonville  Presbyterian  Church  was  organized  April  28,  1821,  by  Rev. 
Edward  Hollister  with  23  members.  The  church  was  in  the  beginning 
known  as  the  Franklin  Church  due  to  the  fact  that  the  parent  church  was 
located  in  Franklin  prior  to  its  being  washed  away.  It  continued  to  be 
called  "Franklin"  until  1830.  Some  of  the  early  ministers  of  this  church 
were  Rev.  Pomeroy,  W.  P.  Cochran,  Hiram  Chamberlain.  A  building  was 
erected  in  1841  at  a  cost  of  $4,500  on  the  site  of  the  present  building.  A 
second  building  was  erected  in  1871-72  at  a  cost  of  $12,618.65.  A  third 
building  was  erected  in  1904  at  a  cost  of  $40,000.  The  present  pastor  is 
Rev.  J.  E.  Green. 

New  Lebanon  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church,  possibly  the  oldest 
Cumberland  church  in  Cooper  County  was  organized  in  1820  by  Rev.  Finis 
Ewing.  It  got  its  name  from  the  fact  that  a  majority  of  its  members 
came  from  Lebanon  Church,  in  Logan  County,  Kentucky.  Robert  Kirk- 
patrick,  Alexander  Sloan,  John  Miller,  Thomas  Ruby  were  the  first  elders 
of  the  church.  A  log  church  was  built  in  1821.  A  brick  house  was  put 
up  in  1860.  Rev.  R.  D.  Morrow,  in  1824,  organized  a  school  in  this  neigh- 
borhood for  young  preachers  which  was  largely  attended.  The  names  of 
the  constituent  members  were  Robert  Kiikpatrick  and  wife,  Thomas  Ruby 
and  wife,  Alexander  Sloan  and  wife,  John  Wear  and  wife,  James  Wear  and 
wife,  Robert  Allison  and  wife,  John  Miller  and  wife,  and  Mr.  Stone  an  .1 

Mount  Vernon  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church  is  lo>  tout  one 

mile  southwest  of  Pilot  Grove,  and  was  organized  in  April,  1833.  Some 
of  the  early  preachers  were  Samuel  C.  Davidson.  Archibald  McCorl 
William  Kavanaugh  and  Finis  Ewing.  Original  members  were  William 
Houx,  John  Miller,  James  Deckard.  John  Houx,  Sr.,  Frederick  Houx, 
Gideon  B.  Miller,  Benjamin  Weedin,  Daniel  Weedin,  Jacob  Houx,  William 
Miller,  Charlotte  Houx,  Anne  McCutcheon,  Harriet  L.  McCutcheon,  Chris- 
tina Deckard,  Ellen  B.  Crawford,  Regina  Houx,  Mary  Miller,  Sr.,  Mary 
Miller,  Jr.,  Catherine  Weedin,  Mary  Weedin,  Elizabeth  and  Rachel  Weedin, 
Ann  Rennison,  Elizabeth  H.  C.  Berry,  Margaret  Houx. 

Highland  Cumberland  and  Presbyterian  Church  was  organized  Feb. 


20,  1867,  by  Rev.  A.  W.  Thompson.  A  building  was  erected  in  1870  at  a 
cost  of  $1,600.  The  original  members  were  John  Fluke,  John  Knikshire, 
Nancy  R.  Durnil,  Louisa  Fluke,  Wm.  E.  Clayton,  Andrew  J.  Roberson, 
Margaret  Knikshire,  Elizabeth  Edwards,  Mary  L.  Duncan,  Isaac  Henry, 
Frederick  Fluke,  James  D.  McFall,  James  Bankston,  Jane  Tucker,  George 
Fluke,  Frank  Guthrie,  Dow  Vaughan,  Sallie  Messicks,  Julia  Fluke,  Lavina 
Clayton,  Wm.  E.  Clayton,  Jr.,  Elizabeth  Duncan,  Patsey  Henry. 

New  Salem  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church  is  located  in  Prairie 
Home  township  and  was  organized  in  1821  by  Rev.  Robert  Morrow  at  the 
residence  of  Alexander  Johnston.  A  log  house  was  erected  in  1828  which 
was  replaced  by  a  brick  building  in  1853,  which  was  again  replaced  by  a 
more  commodious  building  in  1877.  Early  preachers  were  Rev.  Finis 
Ewing,  and  Robert  W.  Morrow,  Daniel  Weedin,  Samuel  Kind,  Thomas  Ish, 
and  John  E.  Norris.  The  original  members  were  Alexander  Johnston, 
Joshua  Lewis,  Mrs.  Mary  (wife  of  Alex.  Johnston),  Mrs.  Mary  (wife  of 
James  Johnston) ,  Robert  Johnson  and  Margaret  Johnson  (mother  of  Alex- 
ander and  Robert  Johnston.) 

Presbyterian  Church  (Union)  Bunceton,  was  organized  1860  by  Rev. 
W.  G.  Bell,  of  Boonville.  The  constituent  members  were  Mrs.  Mary 
Phillips,  Dr.  E.  Chilton  and  wife,  John  J.  Hoge  and  wife,  Isaac  Hewitt  and 
wife,  Miss  M.  Hewitt,  James  Hewitt  and  Mrs.  E.  Russell. 

New  Zion.  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church,  is  located  in  Moniteau 
township  and  was  organized  in  1871  by  W.  W.  Branin,  its  first  pastor. 
In  1883  it  had  a  membership  of  100.  The  names  of  the  original  members 
were:  Martha  J.  Miller,  Catherine  Lawson,  Nancy  Holloway,  Harriett 
J.  Hollaway,  Joseph  Pierce,  Margaret  A.  Thompson,  L.  C.  McDaniel,  Henry 
Bowers,  P.  P.  Lawson,  Caroline  R.  Bowers,  Thomas  L.  Pierce,  Susan  J. 


Lone  Elm  Churcn,  was  organized  in  1842.  It  was  the  first  Christian 
Church  organized  soutn  of  the  Missouri  River.  The  first  ministers  of  this 
congregation  were  Nelson  Davis  and  Allen  Wright,  and  the  original  mem- 
bers were  George  W.  Baker  and  wife,  Peter  and  Elizabeth  Poindexter, 
Rice  and  Elizabeth  Daniel,  B.  R.  and  Lucy  Waller  and  Mary  A.  Poindexter. 

Lamine  Church,  was  organized  in  1843  but  was  discontinued  after  a 
few  years.  It  was  recognized  in  1865  by  Elder  P.  Donan.  with  the  follow- 
ing white  membership:  Samuel  R.  Collins,  Sarah  L.  Collins,  Wm.  B.  Col- 
lins, J.  P.  Collins,  Marietta  M.  Collins,  Drusilla  E.  Thomas,  Susan  Biddie,. 


Melinda  E.  Kincaid,  Mary  F.  Tyler,  Catherine  Wing,  Freeman  Wing,  Julia 
A.  Turley,  Ellen  Pope,  Josephine  Wall,  J.  P.  Wall,  Moses  Napier,  Mary  J. 
Mello,  Nancy  Reed,  Elizabeth  Courtney,  George  W.  Kincaid,  Francis  M. 
Kincaid,  A.  L.  Kincaid,  J.  B.  Baker,  Martha  J.  Baker,  Theo.  Turley,  Jas. 
O'Howell,  Thos.  Mello,  Thos.  Staples,  C.  F.  Younger,  F.  Harris,  Lucy  C. 
Hieucleher,  Pamelia  Williams.  Eighteen  colored  person  were  included  in 
the  membership  of  this  church  in  the  beginning,  but  soon  after  organ- 
izing, they  withdrew  and  built  a  church  of  their  own. 

Walnut  Grove,  was  organized  by  Elder  O.  P.  Davis,  on  the  first  Sun- 
day in  Dec,  1862.  The  following  were  the  charter  members  of  the 
church:  Lewis  D.  Reavis,  Henry  York,  Eli  P.  Adams,  Sarah  J.  Adams, 
Matilda  Cary,  Samuel  R.  Davis,  0.  P.  Davis,  Eliza  J.  Hawkins,  Martha  A. 
Davis,  Mary  F.  Logan,  Margaret  A.  Davis,  Mary  York,  Caroline  York, 
Isabelle  Clawson,  Sarah  Parmer  and  James  Eldredge.  Early  in  its  history 
the  church  numbered  over  150  members.  The  original  church  building 
was  replaced  by  a  commodious,  modern  church  building  in  1914.  This 
building  was  completely  destroyed  by  a  cyclone  in  the  summer  of  1917. 
Immediately  thereafter  the  congregation  met  and  determined  to  replace 
the  building  that  had  been  destroyed  by  an  even  better  edifice,  which  was 
accordingly  done. 

Boonville  Christian  Church,  was  organized  by  C.  Shouse,  Dec.  25, 
1887,  with  about  20  charter  members,  six  of  whom  are  still  living,  viz., 
Mrs.  Frank  Swap,  Boonville,  Mo. ;  Mrs.  W.  R.  Baker,  Montana ;  Mrs.  Albert 
Elliott,  Chillicothe,  Mo. ;  Miss  Lizzie  Bacon,  Kansas  City,  Mo. ;  Mrs.  P.  L. 
Starke,  St.  Louis,  Mo.;  Miss  Lottye  Crews,  Boonville,  Mo. 

The  money  for  the  erection  of  the  church  building  was  raised  by  the 
faithful  and  persistent  efforts  of  J.  I.  Quigley.  It  was  dedicated  by  J.  H. 
Garrison,  of  St.  Louis,  in  1889.  The  Rev.  W.  W.  Gibbony  is  the  present 


Boonville  Evangelical  Church,  was  organized  in  1853.  Rev.  John 
Wettle  was  the  first  pastor.  The  first  building  was  erected  in  1854  due 
mainly  to  the  energy  and  labor  of  George  Vollrath,  one  of  the  early  mem- 
bers. A  school  building  was  erected  in  1857  and  a  parsonage  in  1879. 
The  school  was  discontinued  in  later  years.  The  present  building  was 
erected  in  1887  and  dedicated  by  Rev.  C.  A.  Richter,  of  Jefferson  City, 
Missouri.  Rev.  R.  M.  Hinze  served  as  pastor  of  this  church  from  1907- 
1917.  During  his  pastorate  the  church  was  refurnished  and  redecorated 
in  1908.     In  1915  the  church  was  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  several 




Sunday  school  rooms.  A  pipe  organ  was  presented  by  Mrs.  Doris  Gmelich, 
which  was  installed  at  the  time  of  the  addition.  Early  pastors  were  C. 
L.  Greimer,  J.  Lange,  E.  Schneider  and  L.  Kohlman.  Original  members 
were  George  Volbrath,  J.  H.  Boiler,  William  Haas,  St.  Weber,  Paul  Steg- 
ner,  Philip  Back,  William  Gemmer,  Peter  Back,  Jacob  Thauer,  J.  E.  Hof- 
lander,  David  Rau,  Sophia  Hain,  Frederica  Reinhart,  Erk.  Hirlinger,  Jacob 
Neef,  George  Goller,  L.  Holzmueller,  Adam  Sandrock,  Fred.  Metz,  J.  Mitta- 
meyer,  Philip  Stahl,  J.  F.  Fickel,  J.  Lotz. 

St.  Peter's  Evangelical  Church  at  Pleasant  Grove  was  the  first  church 
organized  by  the  German  speaking  people  of  Cooper  County  and  was 
organized  in  1849  under  the  ministry  of  the  Reverend  Kewing,  who  for 
some  time  remained  as  pastor,  being  succeeded  in  turn  by  the  following 
pastors:  The  Reverends  Rauchenbush,  Hoffmeister,  Lange,  Streit,  Von 
Teobel,  Dellwo,  Kraft,  Woelfle,  Mohr,  Leutwein,  Klingeberger,  Alber, 
Egger,  Rasche,  Jennrich,  Lehmann,  Bredehoeft,  Leibner  and  Beissenherz, 
the  latter  of  whom  was  installed  as  pastor  in  the  fall  of  1917  and  is  now 
serving  the  congregation. 

The  first  meeting  house  erected  by  the  congregation  of  St.  Peter's 
was  a  little  log  church  building,  which  served  the  needs  of  the  pioneer 
congregation  until  a  more  commodious  edifice  could  be  built.  The  pres- 
ent building  was  erected  in  1877.  The  charter  member  of  St.  Peter's 
^Evangelical  church  were  the  following:  Adam  and  Jacob  Schilb,  Nich- 
olas Blank,  George  Knorp,  Fred  Stock,  J.  A.  Spieler,  J.  G.  Spieler,  William 
Baker,  F.  Schenck,  T.  Miller,  E.  Kirschman,  Jacob  Schilb,  Jr.,  Henry  Meyer, 
H.  J.  Meyer,  A.  Kaempfer  and  William  Hobrecht,  with  their  respective 

May  20,  1918,  the  congregation  at  its  semi-annual  business  meeting 
voted  to  discontinue  the  use  of  the  German  language  entirely.  So  time 
brings  its  changes,  always  to  remind  us  that  nothing  is  permanent. 

Pleasant  Grove  church  also  believes  in  its  Sunday  School  and  for 
many  years  has  taught  the  Bible  to  both  old  and  young.  The  following 
have  been  superintendents  in  their  time:  David  Schilb,  J.  E.  Derendinger, 
K.  M.  Seifert,  John  J.  Blank,  F.  N.  Blank,  and  H.  Spieler,  the  present 

St.  Peters  Church  has  lately  been  re-roofed,  repainted,  and  a  few 

years  ago  a  first  class  piano  was  bought  and  in  the  spring  of  1919  the 

church  was  re-decorated  on  the  inside.     Several  new  members  joined 

again  recently,  all  of  which  goes  to  prove  that  the  St.  Peters  congregation 



is  still  a  very  live  one. 

Billingsville  Evangelical  Church.  The  first  meeting  of  the  originators 
of  this  church  was  held  in  1855  at  the  home  of  J.  E.  Hoflander.  Those 
taking  part  were  as  follows :  John  E.  Hoflander  and  wife,  two  sons,  Joseph 
and  Paul  and  two  daughters,  Mary  and  Barbara ;  John  Peter  Stegner  and 
wife,  one  son,  August,  and  two  daughters,  Mary  and  Christina ;  and  John 
Paul  Stegner  and  wife.  Mrs.  Hoflander  led  in  prayer  and  read  the  scrip- 
tures at  this  service  while  John  Peter  Stegner  led  the  singing. 

These  meetings  were  held  regularly  on  each  Sunday  until  the  Civil 
War.  Sunday  services  were  resumed  in  1866  and  were  held  in  the  Oak 
Grov  School  building  and  were  led  twice  a  month  by  Father  Greiner,  who 
was  at  that  time  pastor  of  the  Evangelical  congregation  of  Boonville. 

Frederick  T.  Kemper,  founder  of  Kemper  Military  Academy  con- 
ducted each  Sunday,  Sunday  School  services  in  which  all  the  young  people 
of  the  community  took  part.  A  building  was  erected  at  Billingsville  in 
1879  at  a  cost  of  $1,100.  A  parsonage  building  was  built  in  1895  and 
W.  F.  Herman  was  installed  as  the  first  legal  pastor  in  1896.  The  present 
beautiful  building  was  erected  in  1916  at  a  cost  of  over  $7,000  under  the 
leadership  of  E.  W.  Berlekamp. 


Lutheran  Emanuel  Church,  is  located  in  Prairie  Home  township.  It 
was  organized  in  1855  by  Rev.  August  Lange.  The  church  building  was 
erected  the  same  year.  Original  membership,  Rev.  August  Lange,  Henry 
Meyer,  Frederick  Stock,  Jacob  Edes,  G.  Knorp,  Henry  Meyer,  John  Kemp- 
fer,  Dietrich  Molan,  John  Snauch,  Christine  Hecherman  and  Ludwig 

The  German  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  located  in  Clarks  Fork 
was  erected  in  1860.  Its  first  pastor  was  Rev.  Henry  Jorngel.  A  building 
was  erected  in  1867  at  a  cost  of  $2,500,  on  a  three  acre  plot  of  ground,  by 
Fred  Frieke.  Original  members,  Peter  Muntzel,  Albert  Muntzel,  Daniel 
Muntzel,  John  King,  Fred  Frieke,  John  A.  Schmidt,  Nicholas  Schmidt, 
Leonard  Schmidt,  David  Rauh,  William  Kahle,  Henry  Lankop,  Ferdinand 
Lankop,  William  Lankop,  Christian  Brandis,  Sr.,  Lewis  Lebbing,  Marimus 
Longers,  Henry  Kaune,  Sophia  Fredmeyer,  Christian  Fredmeyer,  Henry 
Fredmeyer,  Ferdinand  Ohlendorf,  Peter  Norenberg.  James  Martinson, 
Jacob  King,  Otto  Smolfield,  Berhard  Vieth,  Charles  Brandis,  Peter  Weh- 



Christ's  Episcopal  Church,  was  probably  organized  in  1835  and  a  first 
church  building  was  erected  in  1844  under  the  leadership  of  Rev.  Almond 
David  Corbyn,  rector.  It  is  thought  that  the  Rev.  F.  F.  Peak  preceded 
him  and  was  probably  the  first  Episcopal  pioneer  preacher  in  Boonville. 
Among  the  early  members  were  Dr.  E.  E.  Buckner  and  wife,  Richard 
Thompson  and  wife,  Mrs.  Tompkins  and  C.  B.  Powell  and  wife. 


St.  Peter's  and  Paul's  Parish,  Boonville. — Before  1850  Boonville  was 
visited  by  Fr.  Helias  S.  J.  of  Taos,  and  from  Jefferson  City.  Rev.  George 
Tuerk's  name  appears  on  the  baptismal  register  from  Nov.  1,  1850  to  Oct. 
11,  1851.  Rev.  U.  Joseph  Meister  attended  Boonville  from  Oct.  27,  1857 
to  July  3,  1856.  He  attended  quite  a  number  of  places:  Pilot  Grove, 
Moniteau  (Cedron)  Brunswick,  St.  Andrews  (Tinton),  Glasgow,  Fayette, 
Franklin,  Round-Hill,  Saline  County,  Chariton  County,  Pisgah,  Boons- 
borough.  Father  Meister  purchased  the  present  church  site  July  22,  1856. 
Rev.  B.  Hillner  took  charge  and  may  be  considered  the  first  priest  perma- 
nently located  at  Boonville.  He  remained  until  April  18,  1869.  He  built 
a  brick  church  and  erected  a  small  school  building.  He  also  visited  Cedron, 
Glasgow,  Cambridge  and  Brunswick. 

Rev.  Henry  Meurs  was  in  charge  from  May  16,  1869  to  April  24,  1875. 
He  built  a  two  story  rectory. 

Rev.  John  A.  Hoffman  was  in  charge  from  May  15,  1875  to  January 
7,  1885.  He  built  a  transent,  sanctuary  and  sacristies  as  an  addition  to 
the  church  at  an  expense  of  $5,000.  He  took  a  great  interest  in  the 
Catholic  school  and  made  the  one  story  building  of  Fr.  Hillner  two  stories, 
the  upper  story  containing  the  living  rooms  of  the  sisters,  and  the  first 
story  having  two  school  rooms.  Rev.  L.  M.  Porta  had  charge  from  Jan., 
1885.  to  Aug.  17,  1895. 

Rev.  Theodore  Kussman  took  charge  Aug.  17,  1885,  and  still  remains 
(1917).  He  was  born  in  Germany,  Jan.  19,  1843.  and  came  with  his  par- 
ents to  St.  Louis  in  the  fall  of  1847.  There  he  attended  the  Holy  Trinity 
parochial  school.  He  attended  the  Christian  Brothers  School  7th  and 
Cherry  and  St.  Francis  Seminary  near  Milwaukee.  After  studying  phil- 
osophy and  theology  at  Cape  Girardeau,  he  was  ordained  there  by  Arch- 
bishop Kenrick,  May  27,  1866.     Two  years  after  his  appointment  to  Boon- 


ville,  he  was  made  irremovable  rector  and  has  been  in  charge  now  over 
thirty-one  years.  Various  improvements  were  made  during  his  stay,  the 
most  important  being  the  building  of  the  new  church,  and  putting  an  addi- 
tion to  the  rectory,  making  it  double  the  previous  size.  March  2,  1890,  the 
old  church  caught  fire  and  was  damaged  $2,125.  The  old  church  was 
torn  down.  A  new  part  with  tower  and  side  turrets,  was  erected  and  con- 
nected with  Fr.  Hoffmans  transent,  sanctuary  and  sacristies,  at  the  ex- 
pense of  $11,200. 

May  27,  1916,  Rev.  Theodore  Kussman  celebrated  his  golden  jubilee 
in  the  presence  of  a  large  gathering.  Rt.  Rev.  Thomas  F.  Lillis  and  thirty 
priests  honored  the  occasion  with  their  presence.  For  the  last  seven 
years  the  parish  school  has  been  free.  Since  Sept.  1,  1913,  Boonville  has 
had  as  assistant  priests  Revs.  P.  J.  Downey,  F.  S.  MacCardle,  F.  J.  Dono- 
van, and  P.  J.  Kennedy. 

The  societies  are  B.  V.  M.  Sodality,  St.  Anne's  Society,  St.  V.  St. 
Paul's  Society,  Extension  Society,  Propagation  of  the  Faith,  and  Knights 
of  Columbus,  with  a  membership  of  91. 

The  Benedictine  Sisters  have  been  here  eleven  years,  conducting  a 
private  hospital  for  Dr.  C.  H.  Van  Ravensway. 

The  parish  numbers  about  500  souls,  and  has  65  pupils  in  the  Paro- 
chial school. 

St.  Joseph  Church  at  Pilot  Grove,  was  established  by  Rev.  Father 
Pius  Conrad,  O.  S.  B.,  Jan.  1,  1895.  In  1893  the  cornerstone  of  St.  Joseph 
Church  was  laid  and  Sept.  16,  1894,  the  church  was  dedicated  by  Rt.  Rev. 
Abbot  Frowin  Conrad,  O.  S.  B.  of  Conception  Abbey,  Mo.,  Rev.  Father 
John  Conrad,  O.  S.  B.  Pastor  of  Clear  Ci-eek  built  St.  Joseph  Church  and 
held  service  in  it  until  Rev.  Fr.  Pius  came.  From  Jan.  1,  1895.  Pilot  Grove 
had  regular  services  every  Sunday  and  Holy  day.  When  the  parish  was 
organized,  35  families  belonged  to  it,  the  present  number  of  families  is  90. 
In  1898,  the  priest  house,  costing  $2,500,  was  built.  As  soon  as  Clear 
Creek  had  a  resident  priest,  Rev.  Fr.  Pius  held  service  every  Sunday  in 
Pilot  Grove  and  Martinsville.  He  worked  hard  for  God's  honor.  In  1907 
the  church  was  enlarged  by  adding  to  the  old  church  a  new  sanctuary,  rais- 
ing the  ceiling  about  six  feet  and  erecting  new  altars  at  the  cost  of 
$5,650.00.  Jan.  1,  1909,  Rev.  Fr.  Pius  took  charge  of  Martinsville  but 
lived  at  Pilot  Grove  until  Sept.,  1911,  when  he  moved  into  the  new  resi- 
dence at  Martinsville.  St.  Joseph  cemetery  consists  of  two  acres  and  is 
situated  one  mile  south  of  the  church. 


Jan.  1,  1909,  Rev.  Father  Philip  Ruggle,  0.  S.  B.  took  charge  of  St. 
Joseph  Parish  and  stayed  here  until  Sept.  1,  1915.  From  Sept.  1,  1915, 
to  Dec.  4,  Rev.  Father  Berthold  Jaggle  0.  S.  B.  was  the  parrish  priest. 
December  4,  1915,  Rev.  Father  Hildebrand  Roesler,  0.  S.  B.  took  charge. 
In  1900  the  convent  and  school  was  built  at  the  cost  of  $4,000.00.  The 
parochial  school  started  in  1902  with  50  children.  Benedictine  Sisters 
were  the  teachers.  In  1917  a  new  school  building  was  erected  at  a  cost 
of  $14,000.  The  attendance  is  90-100.  Benedictine  Sisters  from  Shool 
Creek,  Ark.,  are  the  teachers. 

St.  Martin's  Church.— On  May  16,  1870,  a  little  log  structure,  18x24 
feet,  called  St.  Martin  Chapel  was  erected  and  a  cemetery  laid  out  on  one 
and  one-half  acres  of  land  donated  by  Daniel  Martin.  This  location  was 
afterwards  known  as  Martinsville.  ■ 

The  original  families  of  St.  Martin  Church  were  the  following,  viz, 
Daniel  Martin,  John  Martin,  Leonard  Martin,  John  Martin,  Jr.,  Jacob 
Gross,  Nic.  Schank,  Anton  Wiemholt,  Philip  Wiedel,  Mr.  Bonan,  George 
Bergerhaus,  J.  Carvel. 

Martinsville  was  a  mission  of  Boonville,  from  1870-1877.  It  was  in 
charge  of  Reverend  Murus,  1870-1874;  Reverend  Hoffman,  1874-1877. 
Martinsville  was  a  mission  of  Clear  Creek,  1877-1897.  It  was  the  charge 
of  Rev.  W.  F.  Boden,  1877-1880.  Under  the  direction  of  Father  Boden 
the  second  St.  Martin's  Church,  a  frame  structure,  was  built.  In  1880 
this  mission  was  taken  care  of  by  Rev.  N.  Reding;  in  1881  by  Reverend 
Conrad,  O.  S.  B.  of  Conception  Abbey ;  in  1895  by  Rev.  Pius  Conrad  of 
Conception  Abbey.  Martinsville  was  a  mission  of  Pilot  Grove,  1897-1908, 
under  the  charge  of  Rev.  Pius  Conrad  O.  S.  B. 

The  present  and  third  St.  Martin's  Church  is  a  solid  brick  structure, 
erected  on  2.24  acres  of  land  on  the  Boonville  and  Sedalia  public  road, 
about  one-fourth  mile  north  of  the  M.  K.  T.  railroad  station  known  as 
Chouteau  Springs.  The  corner  stone  was  laid  in  1908  by  Rev.  Leo,  O.  S. 
B.  It  was  dedicated  by  Rt.  Reverend  Ignatius  of  Subiaco,  Ark.  January 
1,  1909.  Reverend  Pius  O.  S.  B.  became  pastor  of  St.  Martin's  Parish.  On 
Aug.  31,  1911,  Father  Pius  moved  to  St.  Martin's  Rectory.  On  Jan.  13, 
1915,  Father  Pius  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  J.  A.  Koehler  of  the  Kansas  City, 
Mo.,  Diocese. 

The  St.  Martin  Parish  at  present  consists  of  fortv  progressive  an  I 
prosperous  Catholic  families  and   is  in  a  flourishing  condition. 




The  Garden  of  Eden  might  have  been  located  in  Cooper  County. 
There  is  nothing  that  will  not  grow  within  its  bounds  and  its  fertile  soil, 
equable  climate,  and  beautiful  natural  scenery  make  it  one  of  the  most 
desirable  portions  of  the  globe.  In  location  it  is  fortunate.  It  is  south 
to  the  "Yankee" ;  north  to  the  "southerner" ;  west  to  the  "easterner" ; 
and  east  to  the  "westerner." 

It  furnishes  a  variety  of  seasons  unequalled  by  any  plot  of  earth  of 
similar  size.  Weather  here  gives  expression  to  a  variety  of  moods  which 
are  as  numerous  as  are  the  sand  grains  of  the  seashore.  From  the  cold 
and  snow  and  ice  of  winter  it  is  but  a  short  step  to  the  hot,  dry,  torrid 
conditions  oftimes  experienced  in  August.  Yet  these  extremes  are  rare 
indeed;  and  winter's  chilling  blast  seldom  penetrates  so  far  south,  and 
summer's'  intense  heat  is  usually  thwarted  in  its  designs  by  cooling  zeph- 
yrs. Taking  all  in  all,  the  climate  of  Cooper  County  is  ideally  adapted  to 
the  arousing  in  man  of  those  desires  for  activity  which  makes  the  tem- 
perate zone  the  place  of  civilization's  greatest  progress. 

Diversified  farming  is  practiced  extensively.  No  one  crop  is  counted 
on  in  any  season.  All  grains,  fruits,  and  vegetables,  adapted  to  temperate 
regions,  have  a  natural  habitat  here.  It  has  outdone  Kentucky  in  the 
production  of  prize  blue  grass ;  Kansas  in  the  acre  yield  of  wheat ;  Illinois 
in  the  production  of  prize  corn;  Virginia  in  the  production  of  premium 
tobacco;  Iowa  in  the  production  of  choice  hogs,  and  the  United  States  in 
the  production  of  choice  fruit. 

Resplendent  in  opportunity,  Cooper  County  has  a  veritable  store- 
house of  wealth  in  her  soil,  and  in  her  people — the  best  on  earth — you 


will  find  a  hospitality,  a  sympathy,  an  interest,  that  makes  for  a  cordial 
relationship  which  makes  life  worth  living. 

Cooper  County  is  the  home  of  many  prosperous  farmers  and  stock- 
men. The  soil,  climate,  and  topography  are  especially  adapted  to  the  pro- 
duction of  grain,  hay,  and  stock  in  abundance. 

It  is  drained  by  numerous  small  streams  which  readily  find  an  outlet 
in  the  adjoining  Missouri  River.  As  a  consequence  the  bottom  lands 
along  the  small  streams  seldom  overflow,  and  if  they  do  become  inundated 
it  is  only  for  a  short  time.  There  is  a  strip  along  the  Missouri  River 
varying  in  width  from  one  to  five  miles  known  scientifically  as  Loess  soil 
that  is  especially  adapted  to  the  production  of  fruit  of  various  kinds.  It 
is  equally  as  well  adapted  to  the  growing  of  farm  crops,  but  is  too  valuable 
as  fruit  soil  to  be  used  for  grain.  It  is  estimated  by  competent  authority 
that  nine-tenths  of  the  apples  produced  in  Missouri  are  grown  on  the  one- 
tenth  of  apple  area  found  on  the  Loess  soils.  The  time  is  coming  in  the 
not  far  distant  future,  when  every  acre  of  Loess  soil,  in  Cooper  County 
will  be  used  in  growing  fruit,  and  the  value  of  such  lands  is  destined  to 
increase  exceptionally.  Outside  of  the  Loess  soil  area  Cooper  County  soil 
is  rich  black  loam  and  for  the  growing  of  wheat,  corn,  clover,  and  alfalfa 
there  is  none  better. 

In  1918  Cooper  County  produced: 

Average  yield         Total  yield 

Average  per  acre  in  bushels 

Oats   17,320  26  bu.  450,320 

Tame   Hay   28,710  1.05  ton  30,140  tons 

Corn  71,430  17  bu.  1,214,310 

Wheat    66,000  19  bu.  1,254,000 

Wheat   (1919)    88,140 

(Note. — In  1917  Cooper  County  produced  2,756,416  bushels  of  corn.) 

Acre  Yields,   1911-1918. 

1911  1912  1913  1914  1915  1916  1917  1918 

Corn 20  42  29  24  42  30  35  17 

Oats  16  40  15  18  36  25  40  26 

Wheat   16  15  16  16  11  6  20  19 

Irish  Potatoes 16  134  23  64  78  52  68  60 

Sorghum  (Gal.) ___  __  __  __  __  __  61 

Tame   Hay    (Tons) 74  1.75  .50  .56  1.50  1.43  1.25  1.05 


Facts  Regarding  Cooper  County. — Land  and  water  area,  357,120 
acres;  land  in  farms  (1910),  340,199  acres;  improved  farm  land  (1910), 
273,505  acres;  Woodland  in  farms  (1910),  54,760  acres;  per  cent,  of  land 
area  in  farms,  95.3  per  cent,  of  improved  farm  lands,  80.4 ;  average  num- 
ber acres  per  farm  (1910),  133.6;  area  in  acres  town  land  and  block  (1917), 
3.660;  land  values  March,  1918  (improved),  $95.00  per  acre;  land  values 
March,  1918  (unimproved),  $70.00  per  acre. 

Shipments  of  Surplus  Products  from  Cooper  County  1915  (based  on 
returns  made  by  railroads  and  express  agents  (Redbook,  1917). — Cattle, 
14,109;  hogs,  69,800;  horses,  mules,  2,378;  sheep,  8,684;  goats,  165;  jack 
and  stallions,  2. 

Wheat,  530,199  bushels;  corn,  5,154  bushels;  oats,  5,656  bushels;  tim- 
othy seed,  31  bushels;  clover  seed,  198  bushels;  hay,  115  tons:  tobacco, 
14,505  pounds;  cowpeas,  2,000  bushels;  planting  and  garden  seed,  145 
bushels;  nuts,  19,381  pounds. 

Flour,  40,000  bbl.;  cornmeal,  185,500  lbs.;  bran  shipstuff,  2,880,000 
lbs.;  fee  and  chops,  250,000  lbs.;  coal,  1,050  tons;  sand,  52,000  tons;  stone, 
344  cars;  macadam,  24  cars. 

Forest  Products:  Lumber,  cars,  9;  logs,  cars,  11;  cooperage,  cars, 
1 ;  walnut  logs,  cars,  16 ;  cordwood,  cars,  21. 

Farmyard  Products:  Poultry,  live,  pounds,  1,332,145;  poultry, 
dressed,  pounds,  933,924;  eggs,  dozen,  977,730;  feathers,  pounds,  21,233. 

Stone  and  Clay  Products :     Brick,  cars,  19 ;  cement  products,  tons,  60. 

Packing  House  Products:  Hides  and  pelts,  pounds,  169,467;  dressed 
meats,  pounds,  10,540;  tallow,  pounds,  13,640;  lard,  pounds,  2,251. 

Flowers  and  Nursery  Products :  Nursery  stock,  pounds,  184,425 ;  cut 
flowers,  pounds,  1,155. 

Dairy  Products:  Butter,  pounds,  44,299;  ice  cream,  gallons,  35,232; 
milk  and  cream,  gallons,  167,480. 

Wool  and  Mohair:     Wool,  pounds,  63,948. 

Liquid  Products :  Wine,  gallons,  10  ;  vinegar,  gallons,  408  ;  cider,  gal- 
lons, 232 ;  natural  mineral  water,  gal..  38 ;  soda  water,  cases,  3,000. 

Fish  and  Game  Products:  Game,  pounds,  15,770;  fish,  pounds,  323; 
furs,  pounds,  1,048. 

Medicinal  Products:     Roots  and  herbs,  pounds,  200. 

Vegetables:  Vegetables,  pounds,  5,012;  potatoes,  bushels,  528; 
tomatoes,  bushels,  26;  onions,  bushels,  15;  canned  vegetables  and  fruits, 
pounds,  1,387. 

Fruits :     Miscellaneous  fresh  fruits,  lbs.,  1,000 ;  melon,  pounds,  24,000 ; 


strawberries,  pounds,  95,575;  apples,  bbls.,  9,312;  grapes,  pounds,  200; 
peaches,  lbs.,  88,245. 

Apiary  and  Cane  Products:  Honey,  pounds,  595;  sorghum  molasses, 
gal.,  259. 

Unclassified  Products: — Washing  compound,  cases,  1,306;  coke,  tons, 
40;  junk  cars,  42;  ice  ,tons,  4,100;  coal  tar,  gallons,  5,000;  pipe  stems, 
383,688;  steel  harrows,  313;  bakery  products,  pounds,  35,000;  corncobs, 
cars,  1 ;  corncob  pipes,  gross,  57,653 ;  wooden  pipes,  gross,  7,246. 

Live  Stock,  January  1,  1919. 

Average  Value 
Number        Per  Head 

Cattle 24,742 

Milch  cows $  77.00 

Under  one  year 26.00 

V2  years 60.00 

2  and  above 84.00 

Hogs    76,770  19.20 

Sheep 17,245  16.50     (ewes) 

Horses   8,797  105.00   (above) 

(two  ) 
Mules   5,997  185.00     (year) 

Cooper  is  easily  the  leading  county  in  the  state  in  breeding  high  class 
corn.  This  is  evidenced  by  the  premium  list  furnished  us  by  Professor 
Hackleman,  Secretary  Corn  Growers'  Association  of  Missouri. 

Winners  of  First  Prizes  From  Cooper  County,  Missouri  State  Corn 
Growers'  Association  From  1907  to  1919,  Inc. 

Name.  Address.  1st  prize  won  on 


R.  B.  Johnson,  Boonville,  Reid's  Yellow  Dent. 

Chris  Ohlendorf,  Boonville,  Cartner. 

Albert  Johnmeyer,  Boonville,  Boys'  contest. 


Chris  Ohlendorf,  Boonville,  Bu.  of  shelled  corn  (Cartner  Yellow). 

Wm.  Johnmeyer,  Boonville,  Boone  County  White  (bu.  shelled). 

Martin  Johnmeyer,  Boonville,  10  ears  mixed  corn  south  of  river. 




Highest  scoring  sample  (10  ears)  any  variety  exhibited  by  school 
district  in  any  county,  Sweepstakes  awarded  to  Jefferson  School  District 
near  Bunceton. 

Young  Men's  class  (yellow  corn). 

Sweepstakes  in  Young  Men's  Class. 
Chris  Ohlendorf,  Boonville,  1st  in  Variety  Class. 


Chris  Ohlendorf,  Boonville, 


Chris  Ohlendorf,  Boonville, 


Chris  Smith,  Bunceton, 


H.  G.  Windsor,  Boonville, 

Ewd.  Schwalfeldt,  Boonville, 


H.  G.  Windsor,  Boonville, 

Ben  Smith,  Bunceton, 


H.  G.  Windsor,  Boonville, 

1st  on  Yellow  Corn. 

1st  on  Yellow  Corn. 

1st  Black  Oats. 

1st  10  ears  Yellow  Corn. 
Sweepstakes  on  10  ears. 
Championship  best  10  ears  entire  show. 
Boy's  Class   (10  ears  Yellow  Corn). 

1st  10  ears  Yellow. 

Sweepstakes  (10  ears  Yellow  Corn). 

Championship    (10  ears  Yellow  Corn). 

Grand  Champion  (10  ears  Yellow  Corn). 

1st  Men's  Five  Acre  Yield. 

Sweepstakes  on  Five  Acre  Yield. 

1st  Men's  One  Acre  Yield. 

Sweepstakes  on  One  Acre  Yield. 

Grand  Champion  on  One  Acre  Yield. 

1st  Single  Ear  of  Yellow  Corn. 



Grand  Champion. 

1st  bu.  of  Yellow  Corn. 

1st  best  peck  of  Red  Clover  Seed. 

1st  bu.  Yellow  Com. 
Grand  Champion  bu. 


Orchards  and  Vineyards. — Contributed  by  C.  C.  Bell. — Cooper  County 
and  central  Missouri  was  early  recognized  by  the  pioneer  settlers  as  a 
fruit  and  grape  growing  country,  and  among  those  who  had  orchards  were 
Henry  M.  Myers,  Isaac  N.  Bernard,  Benjamin  F.  Hickox,  David  Lilly, 
Isaac  Lionberger,  Wesley  Wyan,  David  Smith,  William  Gibson,  John  G. 
Miller,  C.  H.  F.  Greenlease,  Robert  D.  Perry,  Jacob  Newman,  Jesy  G.  New- 
man, Edmund  Elliott,  William  E.  Beard,  George  and  Nicholas  Vollrath  and 
some  others.  The  apple  varieties  in  those  days  were  mostly  Jenetin,  Bell- 
flowers,  Winesap,  Limbertwig,  Russets  and  often  some  very  good  seedlings, 
mostly  brought  here  by  early  settlers  from  Virginia  and  Kentucky. 

Boonville  and  surrounding  country  became  specially  noted  as  a  grape 
growing  section  after  1848,  when  some  leading  Germans  from  the  fruit 
and  wine  growing  country  of  the  Rhine  settled  here.  Many  of  them  had 
taken  part  in  the  German  Revolution  against  monarchy,  and  had  fled  to 
America;  and  recognizing  in  the  soil  and  hills  of  the  Missouri  River  Val- 
ley soil  equal  and  superior  to  the  soils  of  the  famous  Rhine  wine  vineyards, 
located  in  Cooper  County.  I  can  well  remember  George  Husman,  in  that 
day  recognized  as  the  best  authority  on  grape  growing,  who  would  often 
visit  here  to  advise  with  those  who  had  started  vineyards ;  there  were 
many  planted  about  Boonville  which  gave  it  the  name  of  the  "Vine  Clad 

The  Boonville  Wine  Company  had  the  largest  vineyard  and  it  adjoined 
the  city  on  the  west.  It  was  organized  by  William  Haas,  Dr.  E.  Roeschel, 
M.  J.  Wertheimer,  Maj.  William  Harley,  Capt.  C.  H.  Brewster  and  Judge 
Christian  Keill.  Other  vineyards  were  planted  by  George  Vollrath, 
Ignatius  Deringer,  Rochus  Knaup,  Henry  Weiland,  George  Rippley,  Fritz 
Schacht  and  others.  Several  miles  west  were  John  Henry  Boiler,  J.  G. 
Neef,  Frederick  Demffel,  Charles  Fiedler  and  George  and  Peter  Walther. 
East  of  Boonville  in  the  Squire  Herman  Schmidt  neighborhood  were  Louis 
Gsell,  Martin  Bonward,  Jacob  Kramer,  Blasious  Eflinger,  Franz  Joseph 
Sady,  and  others. 

My  father,  John  Adam  Bell,  planted  the  first  vineyard,  peach  and 
apple  orchard  in  the  Mount  Sinai  School  neighborhood,  and  was  followed 
by  John  Wilpret  and  others.  I  can  well  remember  how  those  veterans  of 
the  1848  German  Revolution,  at  times  would  discuss  the  narrow  escapes 
some  had  coming  to  America.  They  were  all  loyal  patriots  of  this  their 
adopted  country,  true  to  the  cause  of  the  Union  and  their  sons  answered 
the  call  of  Abraham  Lincoln,  in  defense  of  our  flag,  and  many  of  their 
grand-sons  have  done  good  service  in  the  World  War,  fighting  Prussian- 


ism  and  Kaiserism,  against  which  their  grandfathers  had  fought  in  1848,. 
but  lost.  In  this  connection  we  should  remember  that  large  numbers 
(especially  southern  Germans),  are  not  and  never  have  been  in  sympathy 
with  Kaiserism,  Prussianism  and  Militarism. 

The  leading  grape  varieties  were  Isabella,  Catawba  and  Virginia  Seed- 
ling, later  on  varieties  such  as  Concord,  Delaware,  Elvire,  Goethe  and 
others  were  planted.  However,  on  account  of  California  extensive  grape 
production  and  wine  making,  and  some  other  influences  the  vineyards  of 
Cooper  County  have  disappeared,  and  the  large  rock-arched  wine  cellars 
are  all  there  is  left  of  what  once  was  a  very  promising  industry. 

I  well  recall  when  Gen.  Joseph  Shelby  made  his  raid  into  Boonville  in 
Sept.  1863,  coming  from  the  south  along  the  Bell  Air  road,  passed  father's 
vineyard,  which  was  heavy  loaded  with  ripe  grapes.  It  seemed  to  me 
that  a  large  part  of  his  men  hurriedly  stopped  off  to  get  ail  the  grapes 
they  could  handle.  Some  of  them  were  very  polite  and  expressed  their 
thanks,  while  others  offered  to  pay  in  Confederate  money;  but  most  of 
them  (in  war-time  soldier  style)  had  nothing  to  say  but  took  all  they 
wanted ;  yet  there  were  grapes  left,  as  the  crop  was  very  heavy. 

Apple  growing  has  also  diminished  on  account  of  insect  and  other 
pests  of  the  orchard.  In  my  boyhood  days,  we  knew  nothing  of  those 
orchard  enemies,  but  now  we  must  fight  them  by  spraying  with  various 
chemicals,  and  do  it  at  the  proper  time.  Thirty  to  50  years  ago  when  I 
bought  apples  in  Central  Missouri,  most  farmers  had  a  surplus  to  sell 
from  their  family  orchards;  those  orchards  however,  have  died  out,  and 
many  farmers  from  whom  I  bought  apples  years  ago,  now  come  to  my 
orchard  for  apples  for  their  home  use,  saying  that  they  can  buy  their 
apples  cheaper  than  they  can  fight  the  insects. 

While  this  is  true,  yet  when  I  think  of  the  splendid  fruit  soils  and 
ideal  locations  along  the  Missouri  River,  in  convenient  reach  of  large 
markets,  I  can  consistently  recommend  fruit-growing,  provided  it  is  done 
right,  and  in  quantity  large  enough  to  make  it  worth  while  to  equip  with 
the  best  machinery.  I  would  advise  planting  the  best  known  varieties, 
which  are  suitable  to  our  soils  and  localities  with  work  and  proper  atten- 
tion you  can  make  fruit-growing  a  great  success  in  Cooper  County,  and 
in  the  Missouri  River  valley.  Much  of  our  Missouri  soils  are  the  very 
best  in  the  world.  We  are  also  well  located  as  to  markets  with  big  de- 
mands, and  have  many  advantages  over  the  fruit-growers  of  the  far"  west 
and  other  localities.     But  it  requires  work,  economy  and  personal  prac- 


tical  application.  Avoid  Waste — "Get  Busy  and  Stay  Busy",  and  you  can 
soon  have  a  home  and  plenty  in  Cooper  County,  or  in  Missouri. 

Live  Stock. — Cooper  easily  ranks  among  the  first  live  stock  counties 
in  Missouri.  It  is  now  almost  100  years  since  the  first  hei'd  of  registered 
animals  was  established  in  the  county.  Today,  there  are  perhaps  approxi- 
mately 100  herds  of  pure  bred  live  stock  and  this  number  is  constantly 
increasing.  At  one  time  this  county  was  credited  with  having  more  reg- 
istered Shorthorns  than  any  other  county  in  the  United  States.  While 
this  is  not  true  today,  the  number  being  somewhat  less  than  at  that  time 
owing  to  the  weeding-out  and  greater  attention  to  quality,  it  is  a  fact  that 
no  county  in  the  state  excels  Cooper.  Here  have  been  owned  many  world- 
famous  animals,  and  from  this  county  has  gone  the  seed  stock  to  estab- 
lish or  replenish  herds  throughout  the  Mississippi  Valley,  the  great  West 
and  Southwest,  and  to  South  America  and  other  foreign  territories.  It 
was  on  a  Cooper  County  farm  that  young  Abbottsburn,  grand  champion 
Shorthorn  bull  of  the  Chicago  World's  Fair  (Louisiana  Purchase  Expo- 
sition), spent  his  last  days.  On  another  farm  only  a  short  distance  away 
was  Lavender  Viscount,  champion  and  grand  champion  at  leading  Amer- 
ican shows.  On  yet  another  farm  was  the  great  Goday,  famous  in  Canada 
and  America.  So  might  the  list  be  continued  at  length.  What  is  true 
of  Shorthorns  is  true  in  large  part  of  practically  all  other  kinds  of  live 

The  location  of  Cooper  County  in  the  very  center  of  the  agricultural 
universe,  the  central  county  of  a  great  central  state,  could  not  be  improved 
upon.  Here  is  the  center  of  the  bluegrass  belt ;  here,  the  aristocratic 
animals  in  the  great  herds  find  their  happy  habitat;  here,  too,  are  the 
homes  of  people  who  appreciate  and  love  good  animals.  In  these  state- 
ments we  have  the  secret  of  the  success  that  has  so  long  attended  this 
county  in  live  stock  production. 

One  hundred  years  is  a  long  span  of  time  in  the  history  of  a  west- 
ern state.  During  this  period  of  time,  the  people  of  Cooper  County  have 
not  been  swayed  by  passing  fads  or  fancies,  but  have,  with  commendable 
conservatism  and  singleness  of  purpose,  adhered  to  the  well-defined  policy 
of  maintaining  on  their  farms  none  but  good  live  stock.  As  a  result  the 
county  has  acquired  a  national  reputation,  not  only  as  a  producer  of 
choice,  pure-bred  animals  but  year  after  year  hogs  and  cattle  from  this 
county  have  topped  the  St.  Louis  and  Kansas  City  markets. 

As  a  result  of  live  stock  farming  as  it  is  here  being  carried  on,  the 
soil  of  the  county  has  been  built  up  rather  than  depleted.     The  fields 


have  retained  their  fertility,  as  will  always  be  the  case  where  the  crops 
are  marketed  "on  foot".  The  effect  of  live  stock  farming  as  here  prac- 
ticed is  reflected  in  the  large  yields  of  corn,  wheat,  oats  and  other  staple 
crops,  as  well  as  of  many  minor  crops  with  which  the  county  is  credited. 

Brief  reference  has  been  made  to  the  importance  of  the  Shorthorn 
industry  in  the  county.  Not  only  was  this  the  first  branch  of  pure-bred 
live  stock  to  be  established,  but  it  is  today  the  most  important.  Some 
of  the  herds  now  owned  in  Cooper  County  are  as  follows:  Ashwood,  C. 
P.  Tutt  &  Sons ;  Ravenswood,  now  owned  by  N.  Nelson  Leonard  but  still 
conducted  under  the  name  of  C.  E.  Leonard  &  Son  with  Ed.  Patterson  as 
manager;  Eminence,  A.  J.  and  C.  T.  Nelson;  Prairie  View  Stock  Farm, 
G.  A.  Betteridge;  Idlewild,  W.  P.  Harned;  Crestmead,  W.  A.  Betteridge; 
Mt.  Vernon  Park,  Harriman  Bros. ;  Wayside  Valley,  P.  F.  Smith ;  Walnut 
Dale  Farm,  Ben  N.  Smith ;  Buena  Vista,  Wm.  Meyer  &  Son ;  Geo.  W.  Lowe, 
Glasgow  Bros.,  and  many  others  are  also  breeding  Shorthorns  at  the  pres- 
ent time. 

Many  herds  have  from  time  to  time  because  of  the  death  or  retire- 
ment of  their  owners  or  otherwise  been  dispersed.  One  of  the  most 
famous  of  these  was  the  old  Ellerslie  herd  of  Shorthorns  established  by 
the  late  T.  J.  Wallace  and  by  him  maintained  at  a  high-water  mark  for 
a  number  of  years.  Following  the  great  show  yard  triumph  of  young 
Abbottsburn  at  Chicago,  Mr.  Wallace  purchased  this  great  roan  bull  to 
head  his  own  herd.  Here,  too,  was  owned  Alice's  Prince  and  other 
famous  animals.  For  a  number  of  years  Geo.  A.  Carpenter  maintained 
t'fe  Ideal  Herd  of  Shorthorns.  At  the  same  time  John  R.  Hepler  was 
breeding  Shorthorns  at  his  Vermont  stock  farm. 

Two  other  names  that  will  live  long  in  Cooper  County  Shorthorn 
history  are  those  of  Sam  W.  Roberts,  who  had  a  large  herd  of  Bates  cat- 
tle on  his  farm  near  Pleasant  Green,  and  F.  M.  Marshall,  who  successfully 
bred  both  Bates  and  Scotch  Shorthorns  near  Blackwater.  Both  Messrs. 
Roberts  and  Marshall  have  passed  to  the  Great  Beyond.  For  many  years 
E.  H.  Rodgers,  now  retired  and  living  in  Boonville,  was  a  successful 
breeder  of  Shorthorns  as  well  as  horses,  jacks  and  jennets,  and  other  live 
stock  on  his  Cedar  Lawn  stock  farm  near  Bunceton.  Harris  and  McMahan, 
the  latter  now  deceased,  formerly  bred  Shorthorns  at  Sunnyside  near  La 
Mine.  The  late  W.  B.  Cully,  proprietor  of  the  Sunny  brook  stock  farm, 
was  a  breeder  of  Shorthorns  as  well  as  Poland  China  hogs.  For  many 
years  W.  H.  H.  Stephens  maintained  a  good  herd  of  Shorthorns  on  his 
Clover  Leaf  Stock  Farm  near  Bunceton. 

Owing  to  the  fact  that  it  is  necessary  to  condense  this  chapter,  only 


a  very  brief  history  can  be  given  of  the  active  Shorthorn  herds  of  the 
county  at  this  time.     These  individual  references  follow: 

The  oldest  herd  of  Shorthorn  cattle  west  of  the  Mississippi  River  and 
one  of  the  oldest  in  the  entire  nation,  is  the  Ravenswood  herd.  Estab- 
lished in  1839,  when  Nathaniel  Leonard  purchased  the  white  bull,  Comet 
Star  for  $600  and  the  Red  Heifer  Queen,  for  $500,  from  George  Renick,  a 
Kentucky  breeder.  These  were  the  first  registered  Shorthorns  west  of 
the  Mississippi  River.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  Ravenswood  herd 
that  has  done  so  much  for  the  upbuilding  of  the  live  stock  industry  in 
Cooper  County  and  the  middle  west  the  herd  passing  in  time  from 
Nathaniel  Leonard  to  his  son,  C.  E.  Leonard,  and  later  to  Nelson  Leonard, 
the  present  owner. 

At  different  times  the  Leonards  have  added  some  of  the  best  speci- 
mens to  their  herd  that  money  could  buy,  but  they  have  always  been  con- 
sidered breeders  of,  instead  of  buyers  of  high  class  Shorthorn  cattle;  and 
some  of  their  stock  have  frequently  won  prizes  at  the  live  stock  shows 
over  the  country.  Lavender  Viscount  was  the  Grand  Champion  Short- 
horn bull  of  America  for  two  years. 

One  of  the  notable  sales  from  Ravenswood  was  that  of  Merry  Ravens- 
wood 3rd,  sold  to  Walter  L.  Miller,  of  Peru,  Ind.,  and  shipped  by  him  to 
South  America,  where  one  of  the  calves,  "Americus,"  at  the  conclusion  of 
a  successful  career  in  the  show  ring,- was  sold  for  the  sum  of  80,000  peos, 
or  a  little  less  than  $40,000  in  American  gold. 

The  following  are  among  the  famous  families  represented  in  the 
Ravenswood  herd:  Lavenders,  Duchess  of  Glosters,  Victorias,  Campbell 
bred  Wimples,  Violets,  Fancys,  Miss  Ramsdens,  Charming  Roses  and  Rosa- 

Some  ten  years  ago  A.  J.  and  C.  T.  Nelson — the  latter  now  located  on 
Eminence  Farm,  two  miles  east  of  Bunceton,  and  the  former  living  three 
miles  southwest  of  Bunceton — established  a  select  herd  of  Shorthorns 
which  is  now  being  maintained  under  the  name  of  the  Eminence  herd. 
From  time  to  time  new  blood  is  being  added  so  that  the  herd  is  each  year 
being  increased  in  size  and  improved  in  quality. 

Ben  N.  Smith  established  some  three  years  ago  a  small  but  select 
herd  of  Shorthorns  on  the  Walnut  Dale  Farm,  which  he  owns  east  of 
Bunceton.  This  herd  is  being  well  managed  and  bids  fair  to  become  one 
of  the  good  herds  of  the  county. 

Walter  N.  Harness  has  recently  established  a  small  but  good  herd 
of  Shorthorns  on  his  farm  northeast  of  Bunceton. 

"Ellerslie"  is  a  name  that  stands  out  prominently  in  the  live  stock 


history  of  Cooper  County.  Several  years  ago  this  farm  was  owned  by 
T.  J.  Wallace  and  later  became  the  property  of  W.  B.  Wallace,  who  two 
years  ago  sold  it  to  W.  L.  Clay,  the  present  owner.  This  farm  has  always 
been  known  as  the  home  of  good  live  stock,  specializing  on  Shorthorn 
cattle  and  high  class  saddle  horses.  Here  for  a  time  was  the  home  of 
Young  Abbotsburn,  Grand  Champion  of  the  Chicago  World's  Fair. 

This  review  would  not  be  complete  without  a  reference  to  the  beauti- 
ful old  stock  farm,  Clover  Leaf,  where  a  number  of  years  ago  W.  H.  H. 
Stephens  founded  one  of  the  well  known  Shorthorn  herds.  This  farm  was 
in  the  Stephens  family  for  almost  a  100  years,  having  only  recently  been 
disposed  of  to  George  Burger  of  Moniteau  County. 

A  pretty  200  acre  farm,  lying  just  within  the  edge  of  Bunceton,  is 
the  Ashwood  farm,  owned  by  C.  P.  Tutt.  Here  will  be  found  a  fine  herd 
of  Shorthorns  and  Berkshires.  Mr.  Tutt  is  one  of  the  well  informed  men 
on  Shorthorn  cattle. 

In  the  Mt.  Vernon  Park  Herd  of  Shorthorns  are  many  choice  Scotch 
and  Scotch  topped  cattle,  the  property  of  Col.  R.  L.  and  Bert  Harriman. 
Several  years  ago  the  Messrs.  Harriman  began  the  assemblying  of  a  great 
lot  of  cattle.  They  bought  freely  and  bred  as  well  as  they  had  bought. 
It  is  the  proud  boast  of  the  owners  of  this  herd  that  every  cow  has  paid 
for  herself  twice  over. 

The  old  idea  was  that  the  breeding  of  Shorthorns  was  a  rich  man's 
game,  but  it  remained  for  G.  A.  Betteridge,  of  the  Prairie  View  Herd  to 
prove  that  it  was  a  good  game  for  a  poor  man  to  play  provided  he  wanted 
to  get  on  his  feet.  In  the  past  thirty  years  Mr.  Betteridge  has  acquired 
a  200  acre  farm  and  has  as  fine  abunch  of  Shorthorns  as  one  would  care 
to  see. 

The  Crestmead  Herd  of  Scotch  Shorthorns,  owned  by  W.  A.  Bet- 
teridge, eight  miles  west  of  Bunceton,  consists  of  over  a  hundred  head  of 
some  of  the  very  best  breeds.  Many  of  these  cattle  are  Cruickshank 
Orange  Blossoms  and  the  remainder  are  of  other  leading  Scotch  families. 
Incidentally  it  may  be  said  that  Mr.  Betteridge  is  one  of  the  best  posted 
men  on  Shorthorn  pedigrees  in  the  entire  country. 

The  history  of  the  Idlewild  Shorthorn  herd  dates  back  to  the  year 
1865,  when  the  late  George  Harned,  father  of  the  present  owner,  W.  P. 
Hamed,  began  its  establishment.  This  herd  has  a  strain  of  blood  from 
one  of  the  original  members  of  the  herd,  "Sally  Washington",  purchased 
in  Kentucky  just  after  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  and  the  farm  boasts 
of  this  strain  which  is  more  than  half  a  century  old.     Mr.  Harned  is 











^^1     .~^a 

1             E 


i         i—. 


especially  proud  of  his  "Double  Marys",  long  in  the  herd.  Bates,  Booth 
and  Cruickshank  blood  have  been  represented  and  much  attention  is  paid 
to  the  development  of  milking  Shorthorns. 

While  Shorthorns,  early  known  to  many  of  the  pioneer  people  as  Dur- 
hams,  were  the  first  registered  cattle  to  be  brought  to  Cooper  County, 
other  breeds  notably  the  Herefords,  are  now  represented  by  some  well 
established  herds  of  high  quality.  Blank  &  Spieler,  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  county  are  extensive  and  progressive  breeders.  D.  E.  McArthur, 
of  near  Billingsville,  has  also  for  many  years  maintained  a  good  herd  of 
Herefords.     Other  beef  breeds  are  also  represented,  but  the  number  of 

registered  animals  are  limited.     Wear,  of  Prairie  Home,  and 

Chris  Rasmus  who  owns  a  fine  farm  on  the  Boonville  and  Lone  Elm  road, 
are  breeding  Angus  cattle.     Both  have  well  established  herds. 

Hogs. — Cooper  County  has  many  good  herds  of  hogs,  including  Duroc 
Jerseys,  Poland  Chinas,  Berkshires,  O.  I.  C's.,  Hampshires,  Mule-Foots 
and  other  breeds.  In  an  early  day,  Essex  and  other  breeds,  then  popular, 
were  to  be  found  on  many  Cooper  County  farms.  The  late  Judge  Baker 
and  Thomas  Tucker  were  among  the  early  breeders  of  pure-bred  hogs. 
To  attempt  to  give  the  names  of  all  who  are  interested  in  hog  breeding  in 
the  county  would  be  an  utter  impossibility,  but  reference  is  here  made 
to  some  of  the  well-established  herds. 

Prominent  among  the  breeders  of  Poland  Chinas  are:  Bert  Harri- 
man,  of  the  Mount  Vernon  Park  stock  farm,  near  Pilot  Grove;  Webb  L. 
Clay,  who  secured  a  part  of  the  Ellerslie  herd  of  Poland  Chinas  at  the 
time  it  was  dispersed  by  W.  B.  Wallace — the  herd  having  been  sold  at 
auction  after  Mr.  Wallace  disposed  of  the  farm  which  had  been  owned 
by  his  father,  the  late  T.  J.  Wallace. 

In  this  connection  it  might  be  said  that  some  of  the  highest-priced 
Poland  Chinas  in  the  United  States  have  been  owned  in  Cooper  County, 
prices  of  $1,000  or  more  being  not  uncommon  for  a  single  individual  while 
more  than  $5,000,  has  been  paid  for  one  hog.  Seed  stock  from  this  county 
has  gone  to  practically  every  state  in  the  Mississippi  valley  as  well  as  to 
Central  and  South  America. 

Duroc  Jerseys  have  long  been  bred  in  this  county,  S.  Y.  Thornton  hav- 
ing established  the  Rose  Hill  herd  near  Blackwater  many  years  ago.  This 
was  one  of  the  early  herds  to  be  established  west  of  the  Mississippi.  Today 
Cooper  County  has  a  large  number  of  herds  of  unusual  quality.  Among 
these  might  be  mentioned  the  Fountain  Valley  herd  of  Richard  Rothgeb ; 


the  Eminence  herd  owned  by  C.  T.  Nelson  and  containing  hogs  of  good 
individuality  and  choice  breeding. 

Berkshires  are  extensively  bred  by  T.  A.  Harris  and  Sons  at  their 
Sunnyside  Farm  near  La  Mine.  This  is  one  of  the  best  herds  of  Berk- 
shires to  be  found  in  the  United  States,  representatives  having  been 
winners  in  leading  national  and  state  shows. 

A  good  herd  of  0.  I.  C.  hogs  is  maintained  by  John  H.  NefF  at  River- 
side Farm  near  Boonville. 

Richard  Rothgeb  is  the  proprietor  of  the  Fountain  Valley  Herd  of 
Duroc  Jerseys,  which  he  started  in  the  year  1911.  Mr.  Rothgeb  has 
popularized  the  Duroc  Jersey  in  Cooper  County  and  has  succeeded  in 
developing  a  very  fine  type  of  the  breed. 

The  good  Blue  Ribbon  Herd  of  Duroc  Jersey  hogs  is  owned  by  Paul 
Winders  and  wife,  near  Boonville. 

The  late  W.  B.  Cully  established  the  Spring  Brook  Herd  of  Poland 
Chinas  in  1892,  when  he  bought  a  choice  thoroughbred  sow  from  the  herd 
of  David  Finch,  a  noted  Ohio  breeder.  From  time  to  time  additions  were 
made  to  the  herd  and  in  1906  the  entire  Cedar  Lawn  herd  of  E.  H.  Rodgers 
was  added.  In  this  purchase  was  the  first  prize  six  months  boar  at  the 
St.  Louis  Worlds  Fair,  Tecumseh  Perfection. 

One  of  the  earliest  breeders  of  Duroc  Jersey  hogs  in  all  the  Mississippi 
valley  is  S.  Y.  Thornton,  of  near  Blackwater,  proprietor  of  the  Rose  Hill 
Duroc  Jerseys.  This  herd  was  established  in  the  early  eighties.  Mr. 
Thornton  has  often  been  called  the  original  "Red  Hog  Man"  in  Missouri. 

Chris  Ohlendorf  is  breeding  Mule-Foot  hogs  on  his  farm  southeast  of 

Hampshires  are  being  bred  in  a  limited  way  by  a  number  of  farmers 
and  this  market  is  becoming  fairly  well  established  in  the  county. 

Horses. — Cooper  County  has  long  been  justly  famous  for  its  good 
horses,  especially  saddle  horses  and  light  harness  horses.  In  many  cases 
the  pioneer  brought  with  him  favorite  animals  from  Virginia  or  Kentucky, 
and  the  same  blood  lines  have  been  continued  until  the  present  time.  An 
example  of  this  may  be  found  in  the  Ashby  "Whips",  widely  known  sad- 
dle horses  bred  in  Virginia,  and  descendants  from  the  original  stock  of 
which  are  still  to  be  seen  on  the  farm  of  Chas.  P.  Tutt,  of  Bunceton. 

In  an  early  day  and  even  up  to  a  few  years  ago  the  "nodding"  running- 
walker,  the  best  real  riding  horse  the  world  has  ever  known,  was  common 
on  every  Cooper  County  road.  Some  of  these  horses  are  still  to  be  seen 
here,  but  with  the  growing  use  of  the  automobile  they  are  rapidly  disap- 


pearing.  The  five-gaited  saddle  horse,  with  his  beauty,  grace  and  marked 
show-yard  qualities,  has  here  reached  a  degree  of  perfection  not  often 
attained.  The  truth  of  this  statement  is  borne  out  at  local  fairs,  notably 
still  at  the  Bunceton  fair,  which  has  been  an  incentive  toward  the  breed- 
ing of  good  live  stock  and  especially  good  horses,  for  almost  a  quarter  of 
a  century. 

The  late  Capt.  Samuel  L.  Jewett,  famous  as  a  miller,  farmer  and 
stockman,  brought  to  Cooper  County,  what  was  known  as  the  "Gold  Bank" 
horses.  These  horses  are  said  by  older  citizens  to  have  had  much  stamina 
but  to  have  been  high  strung.  The  Glendours  and  Roebucks  were  other 
horses  which  years  ago  were  largely  bred  in  Cooper  County,  especially  in 
the  southern  part. 

Along  about  the  Civil  War  period  a  horse  known  as  Varner's  Roe- 
buck was  in  service  near  New  Lebanon  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the 
county,  where  there  was  established  a  family  of  grey  horses  from  which 
came  some  of  the  best  running  walkers  ever  owned  in  this  section.  About 
this  period  and  a  little  later  Wm.  T.  Groves,  father  of  Col.  S.  H.  Groves, 
and  of  the  other  "Groves  Boys"  was  breeding,  developing  and  training 
a  string  of  good  saddlers. 

Another  name  familiar  to  the  old  timers,  is  "The  Copper  Bottoms", 
from  which  came  horses  of  stamina  and  endurance.  More  familiar  still, 
to  the  present  generation,  at  least,  seem  the  Telegraphs.  Along  about 
this  time  came  the  great  horse,  Denmark  Chief,  brought  to  Missouri  by 
the  late  T.  J.  Wallace.  This  horse  has  some  wonderfully  good  sons  to 
his  credit,  especially  wheji  used  on  Roebuck  mares. 

About  five  years  after  the  acquisition  of  Denmark  Chief  by  Mr.  Wal- 
lace, the  late  John  F.  Rogers,  of  Boonville,  went  to  Kentucky  and  there 
purchased  Diamond  Denmark,  later  sold  to  the  Luray  Stock  Farm. 

At  this  point  it  is  well  to  briefly  review  the  story  of  Luray,  with  which 
the  names  of  Will  H.  Ewing  and  Col.  R.  L.  Harriman  are  intimately  asso- 
ciated. It  was  in  1885  or  '86  that  Messrs.  Harriman  anrl  Ewing  bought 
several  car  loads  of  horses  in  Kentucky  and  shipped  them  into  Missouri. 
A  little  later  Mr.  Ewing  went  to  Pilot  Grove,  while  "Bob"  Harriman  estab- 
lished himself  on  Luray  stock  farm,  one  mile  west  of  Bunceton.  Mr. 
Ewing  had  gotten  hold  of  the  grey  horse  Dandy  Jim  and  a  Nutwood  pacer. 
He  raced  these  horses  two  or  three  years,  then  went  to  Texas  with  them 
and  there  disposed  of  them  at  high  figures  for  those  times. 

A  year  after  the  dissolution  of  partnership  with  Mr.  Ewing,  Colonel 
Harriman  bought  a  stallion  and  a  car  load  of  brood  mares  in  Kentucky. 


The  stallion  was  a  Claybred,  Royal  Windsor,  a  large  1,200-pound  bay 
horse  with  fine  carriage  and  having  a  beautiful  mane  and  tail.  In  the 
carload  of  horses  just  referred  to  were  three  Alleys,  yearlings  and  two- 
year-olds,  which  developed  into  sensational  race  horses.  These  mares 
both  trotters  were  Miss  Fullerton  and  Josephine.  There  was  also  Pansy 
Blossom,  a  mare  by  General  Wilkes.  Col.  Harriman  trained  these  mares, 
developed  them  into  tip-top  race  horses  and  campaigned  them  for  three 
years,  during  which  time  they  won  something  like  $20,000.  Miss  Fuller- 
ton  was  the  better  of  the  three,  winning  75  per  cent,  of  all  the  races  in 
which  she  started.  At  the  conclusion  of  her  sensational  race  career  she, 
with  Josephine  was  sold  to  a  Boston  capitalist  for  $5,000. 

Profitable  as  was  the  investment  just  referred  to,  Col.  Harriman  de- 
clares that  the  best  race  horse  that  he  ever  got  hold  of  was  a  Walnut  Boy 
pacer,  Gyp  Walnut,  bought  in  two-year-old  form  for  $450  from  Dr.  Robin- 
son, of  Windsor.  Gyp  Walnut  could  make  2:10  in  three-year-old  form 
over  a  good  track,  and  was  a  steady  consistent  and  game  race  horse.  She 
piled  up  to  her  credit  in  two  seasons  a  little  more  than  $8,000.  This  sum 
was  duplicated  when  she  was  sold  in  her  four-year-old  form  to  Jerry 
O'Neal,  of  Boston. 

With  the  rare  foresight  that  has  been  his,  Col.  Harriman  early  fore- 
saw the  coming  popularity  of  the  automobile,  and  as  he  puts  it,  "Got  out 
of  the  horse  game  in  order  to  keep  from  being  run  over  by  Ford  cars." 
Before  passing  from  the  hasty  review  of  the  work  of  Messrs.  Harriman 
and  Ewing,  the  fact  should  be  mentioned  that  they  bought  King  Harold, 
of  Woodland  farm,  bringing  this  good  standard  bred  horse  by  Harold,  sire 
of  Maud  S.,  to  Cooper  County  at  an  initial  investment  of  $1,000. 

Of  the  younger  men  who  are  today  successfully  engaged  in  the  horse 
business  and  whose  work  has  been  of  lasting  benefit  to  the  county,  Trevor 
H.  Moore,  Bunceton,  R.  F.  D.  4,  is  entitled  to  high  rank.  Mr.  Moore  some 
fifteen  years  ago  bought  of  W.  S.  Waters,  who  had  come  to  Cooper  County 
from  the  good  horse  center  of  north  central  Missouri,  a  string  of  wonder- 
fully bred  horses,  including  King  Turner,  The  Royal  Cross,  Forest  King, 
Jr.,  and  Top  Squirrel,  all  out  of  Holivy  W.  1787,  a  black  Squirrel.  From 
this  rare  foundation  of  stock  Mr.  Moore  has  consistently  bred  and  de- 
veloped horses  of  merit  and  of  show  yard  quality,  some  of  his  animals 
selling  far  up  in  four  figures.  Among  the  good  horses  that  Mr.  Moore 
has  owned  might  be  mentioned,  Missouri  King  2960,  and  Forest  Rex  3873, 
the  latter  now  at  the  head  of  his  stables. 

Prominent  among  those  who  have  been  leaders  in  the  development 
of  the  horse  and  mule  industry  in  Cooper  County,  is  Ed  Patterson,  long 


a  breeder  of  tip  top  saddle  horses  and  of  jacks  and  jennets.  Among  the 
good  horses  that  Mr.  Patterson  has  owned  there  might  be  mentioned 
Bracken  King. 

Before  passing  from  the  horse  history  of  the  county  mention  should 
be  made  of  the  late  Col.  Robert  A.  McCulloch.  Back  in  "the  days  of  real 
sport",  Col.  McCulloch  owned  a  string  of  racers  of  the  kind  that  never 
failed  to  bring  the  boys  up  on  their  toes.  The  memory  of  these  game 
horses  ridden  by  negro  mounts,  is  a  happy  one  to  many  who  enjoyed  see- 
ing the  ponies  go.  The  late  John  R.  Allison,  of  near  Bunceton,  was  also 
a  breeder  of  speed  horses.  To  T.  J.  Lovell  and  his  son,  E.  F.  Lovell,  the 
latter  then  living  on  the  home  farm,  near  Prairie  Home,  belongs  the  credit 
of  having  owned  and  developed  some  of  the  best  harness  and  saddle  horses 
in  the  county.  Mr.  Lovell,  Sr.,  has  also  been  an  enthusiastic  breeder  of 
jacks  and  jennets.  On  another  farm,  only  a  short  distance  away,  the  late 
N.  A.  Gilbreath  bred  good  jacks  and  jennets.  N.  A.  George,  R.  A.  George 
and  the  late  I.  S.  Arnold  have  written  their  names  in  the  jack  and  mule 
history  of  the  county. 

In  many  instances  the  breeding  of  horses  and  of  jacks  and  jennets 
has  been  so  intimately  associated  that  to  mention  one  is  to  suggest  the 
other.  Among  other  names  prominent  in  horse  or  jack  circles,  or  in 
both,  there  should  be  mentioned  E.  H.  Rodgers,  J.  M.  Rodgers,  Green 
Martin,  Uncle  Billie  Martin,  W.  B.  Gibson,  C.  P.  Fairfax,  W.  A.  Sombart, 
Arlie  Frost,  W.  B.  Windsor,  Judge  Turley,  the  late  F.  M.  Marshall,  the  late 
Steve  M.  Smith,  L.  R.  Pedego,  John  Cartner,  and  the  late  Capt.  C.  E. 
Leonard.  Mr.  Cartner  was  one  of  the  first  men  to  own  good  jacks  in 
Cooper  County,  he  having  established  a  breeding  stable  south  of  Boonville, 
a  half  century  or  more  ago.  To  Capt.  Leonard,  however,  belongs  the 
credit  of  being  the  pioneer  jack  man  of  Cooper  County,  as  well  as  of  a 
large  part  of  the  entire  central  west.  Not  only  was  Captain  Leonard  a 
breeder  of  jacks,  but  he  was  also  an  importer.  As  a  leading  spirit  in  the 
organization  of  the  first  jack  book  association  in  America,  Mr.  Leonard, 
had  much  to  do  with  the  establishment  of  standards,  which  have  since 
become  generally  recognized  in  the  mule  world.  Mr.  Leonard  once  face- 
tiously remarked  that  it  was  he  who  put  the  black  in  jack.  By  this  he 
meant  that  color  was  at  his  insistence  made  one  of  the  standards. 

The  following  tables  supplied  by  Chris  Smith  and  covering  a  period 
of  years  show  the  prevailing  prices  on  cattle  and  hogs  on  Cooper  County 
farms  previous  to  1916.  Since  that  time  very  much  higher  prices  have 
prevailed,  cattle  passing  the  16c  mark  and  hogs  reaching  20c  per  pound 
on  the  home  market. 




cattle  sold,  not  including 


hogs  sold.  All 

hogs  raised 


heifers  and  calves: 

on  farm: 


20  head  @ 





53  head 


4.25  per 



18  head  @ 





40  head 


5.00  per 



18  head  @ 





45  head 


4.00  per 



16  head  @ 





50  head 


3.25  per ' 



27  head  @ 





55  head 


3.50  per 



20  head  @ 





60  head  @ 

4.00  per 



23  head  @ 





45  head 


5.00  per 



26  head  @ 





35  head 


4.75  per 



26  head  @ 





30  head 


5.00  per 



19  head  @ 





25  head 


4.25  per 



23  head  @ 





55  head 


3.25  per 



20  head  @ 





60  head 


3.10  per 



14  head  @ 





50  head 


3.50  per 



24  head  @ 





75  head 


3.25  per 



26  head  @ 





60  head 


4.50  per 



16  head  @ 




■  1901 

50  head 


5.00  per 



16  head  @ 





40  head 


6.50  per 



24  head  @ 





60  head 


5.25  per 



24  head  @ 





40  head 


4.75  per 



28  head  @ 





35  head 


5.25  per 



16  head  @ 





30  head 


5.75  per 



21  head  @ 





45  head 


6.00  per 



14  head  @ 





35  head 


5.50  per 



18  head  @ 





36  head 


6.00  per 



21  head  @ 





37  head 


9.00  per 



38  head  @ 





40  head 


6.50  per 



24  head  @ 





40  head 


7.00  per 



19  head  @ 





25  head 


7.25  per 



11  head  @ 





30  head 


7.75  per 



27  head  @ 





20  head 


7.75  per 


Live  Stock  Products. 

Dairy  Products: 

Dairy  cows  on  farms  reporting  dairy  products 5,142 

Dairy  cows  on  farms  reporting  milk  produced   4,898 

Milk  produced    (gallons)    1,182,479 


Milk  sold    (gallons)    32,315 

Cream  sold   (gallons)   5,042 

Butter  fat  sold  (pounds) 3,428 

Butter  produced  (pounds) 299,745 

Butter  sold  (pounds)  103,998 

Cheese  produced  (pounds)   330 

Cheese  sold  (pounds)  200 

Poultry  Produces: 

Poultry  raised 354,881 

Poultry  sold 107,172 

Eggs  produced  (dozens)   1,150,363 

Eggs  sold  (dozens)  810,004 

Honey  and  Wax: 

Honey  produced  (pounds)  16,085 

Wax  produced   (pounds)   305 

Wool,  Mohair  and  Goat  Hair: 

Wool,  fleeces  shorn 8,294 

Mohair  and  goat  hair,  fleeces  shorn 187 

Domestic  Animals  Sold  or  Slaughtered: 

Calves , 893 

Other  cattle 12,249 

Horses,  mules,  asses  and  burrows 2,772 

Swine 78,055 

Sheep  and  goats 3,306 

Sheep. — As  far  back  as  three-quarters  of  a  century,  Cooper  County 
was  noted  for  its  fine  flocks  of  sheep.  Among  the  present  day  breeders 
of  sheep  might  be  mentioned  the  following:  S.  H.  Groves,  R.  S.  Roe, 
Clayton  Glasgow,  W.  H.  Glasgow,  J.  O.  Groves,  T.  J.  Burrus,  C.  P.  Tutt 
&  Son. 

The  13th  census  taken  in  1910  gives  the  following  figures  relative  to 
live  stock  in  Cooper  County.  Cattle  were  listed  as  follows:  Dairy  cows, 
5,765 ;  other  cows,  3,251 ;  yearling  heifers,  2,660 ;  calves,  2,547 ;  yearling 
steers  and  bulls,  2,798 ;  other  steers  and  bulls,  5,482. 

Horses  were  listed  as  follows:  Mature  horses,  7,932;  yearling  colts, 
814;  spring  colts,  382;  mules  (mature),  4,572;  yearling  colts,  771;  spring 
colts,  328 ;  asses  and  burrows,  214. 


Swine  were  listed  as  follows :    Mature  hogs,  44,609 ;  spring  pigs,  29353. 

Sheep  were  listed  as  follows :  Rams,  ewes  and  wethers,  9,676 ;  spring 
lambs,  6,383 ;  goats,  802. 

Soils. — The  soil  survey  of  Cooper  County  made  by  A.  T.  Sweet  of 
the  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture,  and  E.  S.  Vanatta  and  B. 
W.  Tillman  of  the  University  of  Missouri,  presents  a  fund  of  information 
for  the  farmer  and  agriculturist  of  Cooper.  It  will  doubtless  be  read 
with  interest  by  a  large  part  of  our  population.  We  glean  from  it  the 
following : 

The  soils  of  Cooper*  County  group  themselves  naturally  into  four 
principal  divisions,  the  level  upland  soils,  the  loessial  soils,  the  residual 
soils,  and  the  alluvial  or  bottom  land  soils. 

The  origin  of  the  level  upland  soils  is  open  to  some  doubt.  The  soil 
as  it  exists  at  the  present  time  is  very  much  like  the  upland  soils  of 
northwestern  Missouri,  which  are  known  to  have  been  derived  from  glacial 
material  laid  down  either  by  water  or  wind.  The  latter  are  underlain  by 
glacial  deposits,  while  the  level  upland  soils  of  Cooper  County  have  no 
glacial  material  beneath  them.  They  lie  on  the  residuary  silts  and  clays 
derived  from  limestones  or  on  the  limestone  itself.  Typical  glacial  de- 
posits, like  those  underlying  the  northeastern  Missouri  soil,  are  not  known 
to  occur  under  the  level  upland  soils  of  central  and  southern  Cooper  County. 

The  soils  in  Cooper  County  are  also  very  much  like  certain  smoothland 
soils  in  Pettis,  Henry,  Bates,  Vernon,  and  other  counties  in  southwestern 
Missouri.  They  extend  across  the  State  line  into  southeastern  Kansas. 
These  soils  are  undoubtedly  derived  from  coal  measure  shales  and  clays. 
The  Cooper  County  soil  is  somewhat  better  soil  than  the  similar  soil 
occurring  in  these  counties,  but  its  physical  character,  the  thickness,  the 
nature  of  the  subsoil,  and  relation  to  the  underlying  rock  are  essentially 
the  same.  Its  greater  productivity  is  probably  due  to  its  better  drainage 
and  its  higher  percentage  of  humus. 

Because  of  the  absence  of  underlying  glacial  material  and  of  the 
close  similarity  between  this  soil  in  Cooper  County  and  those  in  the 
counties  named  above,  the  Cooper  County  soils  have  been  correlated  with 
the  latter  rather  than  with  the  soils  of  northeastern  Missouri,  and  are 
considered  to  have  been  derived  from  clays  and  shales  of  Coal  Measure 

The  origin  of  the  loess  is  not  clearly  understood,  but  it  is  supposed 
to  be  due,  in  part  at  least,  to  the  removal  and  deposition  of  materials 
from  previously  glaciated  areas  by  the  wind.     The  present  soils  of  this 


group  are  the  result  of  weathering  of  these  deposits.  The  residual  soils 
have  come  from  the  weathering  in  place  of  various  beds  of  rock,  prin- 
cipally limestone,  occupying  the  hill  slopes  between  the  upland  prairies 
and  the  valley  floors. 

The  alluvial  soils  are  of  recent  origin,  and  have  been  deposited  in 
the  flood  plains  of  the  streams  by  which  they  have  been  carried  to  their 
present  position. 

The  loess  soils  stretch  in  a  rather  narrow  belt  along  the  northern 
side  of  the  county.  On  the  extreme  eastern  boundary  the  loess  disappears 
as  a  typical  deposit.  A  narrow  wedge  of  it  ends  one  mile  west  of  the 
county  line  -and  north  of  the  Petite  Saline.  Thence  westward  the  belt 
widens,  but  it  does  not  attain  a  greater  width  than  two  and  one-half  miles, 
except  in  one  or  two  places. 

The  loess  soils  are  usually  recognized  by  the  somewhat  rounded  topog- 
raphy of  the  country  over  which  they  are  spread ;  by  the  light  yellowish- 
brown  color  of  the  soil;  by  its  smooth  satiny  texture;  by  the  high  per- 
pendicular bluffs,  which  shut  in  the  older  roads;  by  the  absence  of  rocks 
of  any  kind,  except  occasionally  near  the  bottom  of  the  deepest  ditches ; 
by  the  uniform  texture  of  soil  and  subsoil :  and  usually  by  the  strong, 
healthy  appearance  of  the  growing  crops. 

In  elevation  the  loess  soils  range  from  a  little  over  600  feet  above 
sea  level  on  the  lower  slopes  to  a  little  over  750  feet  along  the  crest  of 
the  ridge  which  extends  almost  continuously  from  near  Wooldridge  on 
the  east  entirely  across  the  county.  The  surface,  therefore,  has  a  range 
in  elevation  of  only  about  150  feet,  yet,  except  for  a  few  flat  areas  on  the 
higher  portions  of  the  western  end  of  this  ridge,  it  has  a  well-rounded 
billowy  topography,  which  is  in  marked  contrast  to  the  sharper  cut 
topography  of  the  residual  soils  farther  south. 

Over  a  large  portion  of  the  area  covered  by  the  loess  soils  the  same 
material  extends  entirely  over  the  surface,  covering  crests,  slopes,  and 
valleys.  The  formation  is  deepest,  however,  near  the  Missouri  River  and 
thins  out  toward' the  south,  its  southern  boundary  being  a  very  indefinite 
line.  It  also  seems  to  be  somewhat  thicker  on  the  crest  of  the  ridges 
and  at  the  foot  of  the  slopes  than  on  the  slopes,  and  as  the  southern  edge 
of  the  area  of  deposition  is  approached  it  appears  only  upon  the  ridges. 

Although  the  greater  portion  of  the  country  occupied  by  the  loess 
soil  is  quite  undulating,  limited  areas  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the 
county  are-  more  nearly  level  and  are  darker  in  color. 

The  loess  soils  in  this  area  have  been  divided  into  two  classes,  the 


undulating  lighter-colored  soil,  called  the  Knox  silt  loam,  and  the  more 
nearly  level  darker  colored  soil  called  the  Marshall  silt  loam. 

A  large  part  of  the  uplands  south  of  the  loess  soils  is  called  prairie 
and  is  distinguished  by  the  absence  of  natural  timber  growth.  The  soils 
here  are  characterized  by  an  almost  level  surface  and  by  a  black  silty 
surface  material  which  grades  into  a  gray  silt,  and  is  underlin  by  a  layer 
of  stiff  resistant  clay  several  inches  in  thickness,  which  in  turn  is  under- 
lain by  a  mottled  yellow  and  gray  silty  clay.  From  the  very  close  resem- 
blance between  the  subsoil  of  the  prairie,  as  seen  in  the  exposures  on 
eroded  slopes,  and  the  subsoil  exposed  near  the  edge  of  the  loess  sheet,  it 
would  seem  that  these  prairie  soils  were  partly  covered  along  the  northern 
side  of  the  county  by  loess. 

In  many  places  the  transition  from  the  prairie  soils  to  the  residual 
soils  is  quite  abrupt,  only  a  few  steps  intervening  between  the  black 
surface  soil  .with  heavy  clay  subsoil  and  the  reddish-yellow  chert-filled 
residual  soil;  but  throughout  the  greater  part  of  the  area  the  prairie 
soils  are  bordered  by  a  soil  differing  from  the  prairie  soil  in  being  gray 
or  yellowish-brown  at  the  surface  instead  of  black,  in  occupying  the 
slopes  of  small  streams  which  extend  back  into  the  prairie  in  places 
covering  the  narrow  ridges  between  the  small  streams,  and  in  having,  in 
most  cases,  no  well-defined  clay  layer  in  the  subsoil.  This  soil  may  be 
considered  a  modified  prairie  soil,  the  modification  in  some  places  being 
due  to  the  erosion  of  the  surface  of  the  prairie,  in  others  to  the  gradual 
movement  or  creep  of  the  soil  particles  down  the  slopes,  and  in  others  to 
a  thorough  leaching  of  the  soil  along  the  ridge  crests.  This  region  was 
formerly  timbered  to  a  considerable  extent. 

The  level  upland  soils,  then,  may  be  divided  into  the  level  black 
prairie  soil,  called  the  Oswego  silt  loam,  and  the  modified  glacial  soil, 
lighter  in  color  and  usually  without  the  heavy  layer  in  the  subsoil,  called 
the  Boone  silt  loam. 

In  the  rougher  portions  of  the  county  south  of  the  Blackwater-Petite 
Saline  line  there  is  no  possible  question  about  the  origin  of  the  soil.  It 
is  a  residula  limestone  soil,  partaking  of  the  nature  of  the  rocks  that 
underlie  it.  The  soils  in  the  sandstone-shale-clay  belt  likewise  are  residual 
soils,  derived  from  these  same  sandstones,  shales,  and  clays  and  partaking 
of  their  nature.  Along  the  river  bluffs  and  extending  southward  for  a 
few  miles  the  foundation  rock,  whether  it  be  limestone,  as  it  is  in  most 
places,  or  sandstone-shale-clay  rock,  as  it  is  in  a  few  cases,  is  covered  by 


the  loess,  a  brown  silt  deposit.  From  this  material  has  been  made  the 
soils  of  the  river  hill  belt. 

The  soils  of  the  uplands  south  of  the  Blackwater-Petite  Saline  belt 
are  derived  from  a  silt  and  clay  soil  material  that  lies  on  limestone  but 
has  not  been  derived  from  it. 

There  are  at  least  two  possible  sources  of  this  material:  (1)  It  may 
be  a  disintegrated  remnant  of  shales  and  clays  that  originally  overlaid 
this  area.  The  shales  and  clays  have  been  broken  up  by  weathering  into 
silts  and  clays,  but  the  material  has  not  been  removed  by  erosion  on 
account  of  the  protection  afforded  by  the  solid  limestone  on  which  it  lies. 
(2)  It  may  be  a  layer  of  overwash  or  outwash  glacial  material  that  was 
spread  out  over  this  region  dui-ing  glacial  times  by  streams  flowing  out 
from  the  glacier.  At  the  present  time  the  former  seems  to  be  the  most 
probable  origin  of  this  material.  The  general  soil  belts  or  areas  of  the 
county  therefore  are  (1)  residual  limestone  soils,  (2)  residual  sandstone- 
shale-clay  soils,  (3)  loess  soils,  (4)  soils  of  doubtful  origin  but  probably 
residual  soils  from  shales,  clays,  and  fine-grained  sandstones,  and  (5) 
alluvial  soils.  The  accompanying  map  shows  the  distribution  of  these  soil 
areas.  The  differentation  in  the  field  of  the  residual  soils  of  the  sandstone- 
shale-clay  belt  from  the  loess  soils  to  the  north  of  it  has  proved  to  be  a 
difficult  matter.  They  are  both  silty  soils  and  both  brown  in  color.  Where 
the  rock  does  not  underlie  the  soil  it  is  very  difficult  to  locate  the  boundary. 
The  crierion  used  was  the  percentage  of  clay  in  the  subsoil.  The  loess 
soil  has  a  low  clay  percentage.  When  the  subsoil  had  enough  clay  to  make 
it  sticky,  it  was  not  considered  as  of  loessial  origin.  The  character  of 
the  native  vegetation,  especially  the  trees,  was  used  as  a  supplementary 
criterion  in  mapping  this  difference. 

The  alluvial  soils  are  made  up  from  material  eroded  from  all  other 
soils  of  the  area,  carried  by  water  in  suspension  and  redeposited.  They 
vary  greatly  in  character,  depending  upon  the  source  from  which  derived, 
the  methods  of  deposition,  and  the  processes  they  have  undergone  since 
they  have  been  laid  down. 

The  alluvial  soils  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county  contain  much 
material  which  has  been  carried  down  from  the  eroded  edges  of  the 
prairie  and  the  gray  silt  ridges  mixed  with  material  from  the  residual 
soils.  Those  found  along  the  streams  which  drain  the  loess  are  derived 
almost  entirely  from  that  formation  and  resemble  it  closely,  while  those 
deposited   along  the   Missouri   River   have   come   from   several   different 


sources,  are  more  complex,  and  differ  essentially  in  composition  from  the 
other  alluvial  soils  of  the  county. 

Closely  related  to  the  alluvial  soils  are  the  soils  found  in  valleys  of 
small  streams  and  along  the  base  of  long  slopes,  where  the  soils,  although 
they  have  not  been  carried  in  suspension,  have  reached  their  present  posi- 
tion through  the  gradual  work  of  surface  water,  which  has  removed  the 
particles  from  the  uplands  and  the  slopes  to  the  lowlands.  This  drift  or 
creep  often  results  in  almost  flat  areas  of  dark-colored  soil,  more  or  less 
similar  to  the  true  alluvial  types,  and  where  these  areas  are  of  suflicient 
extent  they  have  been  grouped  with  the  alluvial  soils. 

The  alluvial  soils  have  been  divided  into  two  groups.  Those  derived 
from  the  loess,  glacial,  and  residual  soils  and  found  along  the  streams  of 
the  county  have  been  mapped  as  Wabash  soils,  and  those  found  along  the 
Missouri  River  have  been  classified  as  Sarpy  soils. 

The  Knox  silt  loam  is  a  light-buff  or  very  light  yellowish-brown  silt 
loam,  smooth  and  satiny  in  texture.  At  a  depth  of  about  16  inches  this 
material  passes  very  gradually  into  a  heavier  silt  loam,  in  which  the  pro- 
portion of  very  fine  sand  found  in  the  surface  soil  is  very  much  reduced 
while  the  clay  content  is  slightly  increased.  The  subsoil  is  also  more 
yellow  and  sometimes  shows  a  reddish  tinge.  It  extends  to  a  depth  of 
several  feet.  In  many  places  at  a  depth  of  four  or  five  feet  there  occurs 
a  horizontal  layer  of  material  discolored  a  reddish  brown  by  iron  cxide. 
This  layer  usually  contains  numerous  small  iron  concretions  and  in  places 
small  pipes  of  the  same  material.  Below  this  depth  the  soil  grades  into 
a  more  or  less  mottled  gray  and  yellowish  silty  clay.  Where  exposed  to 
the  direct  action  of  running  water  or  to  travel,  as  in  public  roads,  the  loess 
from  which  the  type  is  derived  wears  away  very  rapidly  and  yet  the  soil 
seems  to  be  of  such  a  texture,  the  soil  grains  of  such  a  shape,  or  else  the 
material  is  so  held  together  by  a  very  slight  cementation  that  instead  oi 
creeping  and  moving  to  form  slopes  it  stands  in  perpendicular  banks.  Aa 
it  weathers  it  also  develops  a  peculiar  system  of  perpendicular  cracks 
which,  with  horizontal  cracks  at  greater  intervals,  gives  it  a  peculiar 
columnar  structure  somewhat  resembling  basaltic  columns. 

This  soil  was  formerly  timbered  and  supported  a  heavy  growth  of 
white,  bur,  and  laurel  oak,  black  and  white  walnut,  hickory,  elm,  hack- 
berry,  wild  cherry,  ash,  honey  locust,  pawpaw,  sassafras,  wild  plum,  and 
hazel,  but  on  account  of  its  value  for  agricultural  purposes  very  few  areas, 
and  these  of  small  extent,  remain  uncleared.  When  the  land  is  first 
cleared,  owing  to  the  very  large  amount  of  leaf  mold  and  humus  at  the 
surface,  this  portion  of  the  soil  is  quite  black,  but  after  weathering  and 


leaching  for  a  few  years,  it  becomes  much  lighter  in  color,  and  in  many 
places  the  surface  when  well  leached  and  dry  is  a  light-gray  differing  but 
little  in  color  or  texture  from  the  gray  silt  ridges  of  the  Boone  silt  loam. 
As  noted  already,  the  Knox  silt  loam  occupies  the  larger  part  of  the  survey 
between  the  main  east  and  west  lines  of  the  larger  streams  of  the  county 
and  the  Missouri  River,  the  area  approximating  one-fifth  of  that  of  the 
entire  county. 

As  a  whole  the  Knox  silt  loam  is  the  best  soil  of  the  area.  It  is  a 
deep,  well-drained  soil,  yet  holds  moisture  well.  This  is  noticeable  during 
periods  of  dry  weather  when  the  crops  on  it  are  much  better  able  to 
withstand  the  drought  than  those  on  some  of  the  other  soils  of  the  area. 
In  the  fall,  too,  the  forest  trees  on  it  remain  green  much  longer  than  on 
the  more  shallow  residual  soils.  This  soil  is  warm,  friable,  easily  culti- 
vated, and  productive.  The  average  yield  of  corn  on  fields  in  the  best 
condition  is  about  48  bushels  and  of  wheat  19  bushels  per  acre. 

The  Marshall  silt  loam,  like  the  Knox  silt  loam,  is  of  loessial  origin, 
but  it  differs  from  the  latter  in  color,  topography,  and  character  of  the 
subsoil.  On  the  other  hand,  it  differs  from  the  Oswego  silt  loam,  which 
it  resembles  at  the  surface,  in  having  a  deeper  surface  soil  and  in  lacking 
in  places  the  stiff  resistant  clay  layer  found  in  the  subsoil  of  the  latter. 

The  surface  soil  of  the  Marshall  silt  loam  is  a  very  dark  gray  to 
black,  smooth,  friable  silt  loam,  which  extends  to  a  depth  of  about  20 
inches,  the  lower  part  of  the  section  usually  becoming  somewhat  lighter 
in  color.  The  subsoil  is  a  brown  mottled  silty  clay  grading  at  a  depth  of 
24  to  30  inches  into  a  yellowish  and  grayish  mottled  silty  clay,  some- 
what lighter  in  texture.  In  the  more  level  areas  a  heavy,  almost  imper- 
vious layer  of  brown  silty  clay,  six  to  10  inches  in  thickness,  forms  the 
upper  portion  of  the  subsoil,  but  in  the  more  rolling  areas  this  heavy 
layer  is  almost  or  entirely  wanting. 

The  Marshall  silt  loam  is  found  in  only  a  few  small  areas  in  Cooper 
County,  the  largest  of  these  occupying  the  more  level  land  in  the  extreme 
northwestern  portion  of  the  county.  A  few  small  bodies  also  occur  south- 
west of  the  town  of  Blackwater,  north  of  Lone  Elm,  and  in  the  vicinity 
of  Clarks  Fork. 

This  soil  is  well  supplied  with  humus  and  is  a  friable,  easily  culti- 
vated productive  soil.  Corn  yields  from  40  to  50  bushels  and  wheat  from 
13  to  18  bushels  per  acre. 

To  a  depth  of  10  inches  the  Oswego  silt  loam  is  a  smooth,  friable, 
black  or  very  dark  brown  silt  loam,  often  containing  in  the  first  few 
inches  an  appreciable  quantity  of  very  fine  sand.    Below  10  inches  the 


dark-colored  surface  soil  grades  into  a  lighter  colored  gray  silt.  The  soil 
also  becomes  slightly  heavier  in  texture  with  increased  depth,  and  at  about 
16  inches  rests  on  a  very  heavy,  tenacious,  brown  silty  clay,  which  often 
contains  numerous  small  iron  concretions.  The  line  of  contact  between 
the  soil  and  this  heavy  subsoil  is  very  sharp,  but  the  thickness  and  tenacity 
of  this  heavy  layer  varies  considerably  in  different  parts  of  the  area,  being 
thicker  and  more  resistant  on  the  more  level  and  poorly  drained  portions. 
At  a  depth  of  about  30  to  34  inches  this  heavy  subsoil  grades  into  a 
yellowish  and  gray  mottled  silty  clay  subsoil  lighter  in  texture  than  the 
soil  above  and  resembling  closely  the  subsoil  found  in  places  under  the 
loess  soils.  In  the  subsoil,  usually  in  the  lower  portion  of  the  heavy  layer, 
small  irregularly  lime  concretions  are  found,  the  quantity  in  places  being 
relatively  large. 

The  Oswego  silt  loam  is  one  of  the  extensive  soil  types  in  the  area 
and  occupies  the  higher  and  more  nearly  level  portions  of  the  area  covered 
by  the  upland  glacial  soils.  The  largest  body  of  it  occurs  east  of  Bunce- 
ton  and  south  of  Lone  Elm,  but  other  large  bodies  occur  in  the  vicinity 
of  Prairie  Home,  between  Moniteau  Creek  and  Stephens  Branch  jn  the 
east  and  Petite  Saline  on  the  west,  and  between  Petite  Saline  and  the 
Lamine.  Small  areas  also  occur  in  the  southeastern  and  in  the  south- 
western parts  of  the  county. 

Although  the  soils  of  these  areas  resemble  each  other  to  a  sufficient 
extent  to  be  classified  under  the  same  name,  there  is  considerable  varia- 
tion in  appearance  and  in  crop  value,  the  soils  west  of  a  north  and  south 
line  through  Bunceton  and  especially  those  southwest  of  Vermont  being 
dark-brown  instead  of  black  in  color,  having  a  somewhat  shallower  and 
more  resistant  subsoil,  and  as  a  whole  being  less  able  to  withstand 
droughts.  They  are  also  not  so  well  suited  for  deep  rooted  crops.  There 
are  also  variations  between  the  soils  of  areas  which  drain  toward  Moni- 
teau Creek  and  those  farther  north  which  drain  into  the  Petite  '  'inn, 
the  latter  in  most  places  being  slightly  deeper,  darker  colored,  and  re- 
sembling more  closely  the  Marshall  silt  loam. 

The  Oswego  silt  loam  is  a  corn,  timothy,  and  pasture  soil,  although 
wheat  and  oats  are  grown  on  it  to  a  considerable  extent.  Some  farmers 
are  using  portions  of  it  where  the  subsoil  is  not  too  heavy  quite  success- 
fully for  clover.  On  the  average  the  type  yields  42  bushels  of  corn  and 
15  bushels  of  wheat  per  acre. 

The  Boone  silt  loam  has  not  only  the  widest  distribution,  but  also  the 
greatest  range  in  variation  and  crop  value  of  any  soil  in  the  area.    Typi- 


cally  it  consists  of  a  yellowish-brown  or  grayish-brown  silt  loam  of  fairly 
uniform  texture,  with  a  depth  of  about  15  inches,  at  which  depth  it 
becomes  slightly  heavier  in  texture,  grading  into  the  same  mottled  yellow 
and  gray  silty  clay  subsoil  found  in  the  Oswego  silt  loam.  This  subsoil 
persists  to  a  depth  of  three  feet  or  more,  or  where  thin  rests  upon  the 
underlying  stony  material  derived  from  the  underlying  rocks.  This  ma- 
terial has  a  granular  structure  much  like  that  of  the  residual  limestone 
soils,  and  where  it  occurs  typically  no  heavy  layer  occurs  between  the  soil 
and  subsoil. 

The  Boone  silt  loam  borders  the  Oswego  silt  loam,  or  prairie  soils, 
on  all  sides,  and  may  be  considered  a  transitional  type  between  the  Os- 
wego silt  loam  and  the  lower  lying  residual  soils.  It  is  also  always  more 
or  less  mixed  with  both,  the  prairie  soils  being  washed  down  and  mixed 
with  it  and  the  underlying  residual  soils  mixed  with  it  through  the  move- 
ment of  the  soil  particles  down  the  slope,  so  that  its  boundaries  are  in 
places  very  indefinite.  In  origin  it  is  like  the  Oswego  silt  loam,  and  is  in 
reality  a  modified  form  of  that  soil,  resulting  from  the  removal  of  ma- 
terial from  the  surface.  In  areas  where  erosion  has  taken  place  the  yel- 
lowish brown  less  productive  soil  is  exposed  at  the  surface.  Boone  silt 
loam  where  the  black  prairie  soil  formerly  existed  can  be  noted  around 
the  source  and  along  the  slopes  of  many  small  streams  which  head  well 
back  into  the  prairie. 

At  the  foot  of  long  slopes  and  especially  along  the  heads  of  small 
streams  the  wash  may  accumulate,  forming  a  deep,  often  dark-colored 
soil.  Where  such  areas  are  of  sufficient  extent  they  have  been  mapped 
as  alluvial  soils,  but  where  too  small  to  be  indicated  on  the  soil  map  they 
have  been  included  with  the  Boone  silt  loam. 

Another  phase  of  this  soil  is  to  be  found  along  the  tops  of  long,  nar- 
row ridges  which  extend  from  the  prairie  out  between  the  upper  courses 
of  small  streams.  The  soil  of  these  ridges  ranges  in  color  from  an  ashy 
gray  to  cream  color  and  in  texture  from  that  of  the  loess  to  a  loose  flour- 
like silt,  probably  not  loess,  the  loess  areas  being  found  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  area  covered  by  the  type,  and  the  whiter  ridges  principally 
in  the  southern  part  of  the  county.  The  light  soil  of  these  ridges  seems 
to  be  the  result  of  thorough  leaching,  in  which  not  only  the  color  but  also 
much  of  the  fertility  of  the  soil  has  been  removed.  In  many  places  along 
the  tops  of  the  ridges  a  heavy  brown  clay  layer  has  been  developed  at  a 
depth  of  from  14  to  18  inches,  the  transition  from  the  light  silt  to  this 
layer  being  very  abrupt.    Below  the  brown  clay  occurs  the  mottled  silty 


clay,  found  under  the  remainder  of  this  soil.  These  ridges  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  area  undoubtedly  in  many  places  bear  a  thin  capping  of  loess 
and  approach  the  loess  in  crop  value,  but  those  farther  south  are  less 

A  large  part  of  the  Boone  silt  loam  was  originally  timbered  by  oak, 
post  oak  and  bur  oak  being  the  principal  growth  on  the  ridges,  which 
are  locally  called  "post  oak  ridges'  and  have  the  heavy  layer  in  the  subsoil. 

The  Boone  silt  loam  as  a  whole  is  not  so  productive  a  soil  as  the 
prairie  soil  on  the  one  side  nor  the  limestone  soils  on  the  other.  It  has 
been  one  of  the  worst  used  soils  in  the  area,  is  deficient  in  organic  matter, 
and  does  not  hold  moisture  well,  yet  is  a  soil  which  can  readily  be  built 
up  and  made  to  yield  profitable  crops. 

The  Bates  silt  loam  is  a  dark-gray  to  grayish-brown  silt  loam  with  a 
yellowish  tinge  which  becomes  quite  noticeable  where  the  soil  is  eroded. 
At  a  depth  of  six  to  10  inches  this  graduates  into  a  yellowish-gray  to 
yellowish-brown  silt  loam.  The  clay  percentage  increases  downward  until 
at  30  inches  it  becomes  plastic  and  in  places  quite  sticky.  The  lower  15 
to  20  inches  is  usually  mottled  yellow  and  gray.  Bands  of  brown  to 
reddish-brown  silt,  in  places  faintly  cemented,  in  others  having  the  iron 
somewhat  concentrated  in  nodules,  occur  rather  abundantly  from  24 
inches  downward.  They  lie  horizontal.  Layers  of  light  ashy  gray  silt 
and  silty  clay  occur  also,  showing  an  ashy  gray  color  in  the  freshly 
plowed  fields  when  it  has  been  exposed. 

This  soil  differs  from  the  Knox  silt  loam  mainly  in  its  more  yellow 
color  and  its  higher  percentage  of  clay  in  the  subsoil.  Its  color  is  also 
much  less  uniform  than  is  that  of  the  Knox.  On  plowed  hillside  fields  its 
color  varies  with  the  erosion  and  the  color  of  the  particular  layer  out- 
cropping, while  that  of  the  Knox  is  uniform. 

The  timber  growth  is  like  that  of  the  Knox,  but  contains  a  higher 
percentage  of  oaks,  especially  laurel,  pin  and  post  oak,  and  a  lower  per- 
centage of  walnut  and  elm. 

The  Bates  silt  loam  is  derived  from  Coal  Measure  shales,  clays,  and 
argillaceous  sandstones  mixed  more  or  less  with  the  material  of  the  Knox 
silt  loam.  It  occurs  in  an  east-west  belt  across  the  northern  part  of  the 
county.  Where  the  surface  is  flat  the  soil  is  essentially  the  same  as  the 
Oswego  silt  loam.  It  becomes  the  Boone  silt  loam  only  within  the  areas 
where  the  surface  has  been  eroded.  The  belt  of  its  occurrence  lies  along 
an-  east-west  pre-Coal  Measure  valley  which  was  filled  with  Coal  Measure 
material  during  Coal  Measure  time.     It  lies  deeper  than  the  same  rocks 




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on  the  uplands  to  the  north  and  south  of  it.  They  have  disappeared  from 
the  latter  areas,  but  still  exist  in  this  belt. 

The  soil  of  the  Clarkoville  silt  loam  is  a  reddish  or  yellowish-brown 
silt  loam  having  a  somewhat  granular  structure,  by  which  it  can  often 
be  distinguished  from  the  other  silt  loams  of  the  area.  Typically  it  ex- 
tends to  a  depth  of  about  15  inches,  where  it  grades  into  a  siity  clay 
usually  brighter,  often  a  brick  red,  in  color.  This  subsoil  may  persist  to 
a  depth  of  three  feet  or  more,  but  often  at  a  less  depth  rests  upon  the 
underlying  bed  of  chert  or  limestone,  that  part  of  the  subsoil  immediately 
above  the  rocks  usually  being  a  very  stiff  red  or  yellow  clay. 

This  soil  is  residual  in  origin,  having  been  derived  from  the  disinte- 
gration in  place  of  beds  of  fossiliferous  limestone,  the  principal  formations 
being  the  Burlington  and  Choteau.  These,  especially  the  Burlington,  con- 
tain much  chert,  the  disintegration  of  which  takes  place  much  less  rapidly 
than  does  that  of  the  purer  limestone,  so  that  the  soil  is  often  quite  shal- 
low, and  fragments  of  chert  are  mingled  with  the  soil  and  scattered  over 
its  surface.  Where  the  soil  is  very  shallow  and  the  chert  fragments  are 
so  thick  as  to  interfere  seriously  with  cultivation,  the  areas,  if  of  sufficient 
size  to  be  shown  on  the  soil  map,  have  been  mapped  as  the  Clarksville 
stony  loam. 

The  Clarksville  silt  loam  occurs  along  the  lower  slopes  of  all  streams 
in  the  area,  except  those  in  the  northern  part  of  the  area  which  are  cov- 
ered by  loess,  the  tributaries  of  Moniteau  Creek  and  some  of  the  tribu- 
taries of  the  upper  Lamine.  Where  the  crests  of  the  ridges  and  hilltops 
carry  no  capping  of  glacial  or  loessial  material  the  entire  surface  is  cov- 
ered by  this  soil. 

Originally  the  Clarksville  silt  loam  was  heavily  timbered  with  black 
walnut,  laurel  oak,  elm,  hickory,  and  sassafras,  and  many  splendid  groves 
of  black  walnut  are  found  on  it  at  present  in  different  parts  of  the  area. 
Where  of  good  deoth,  comparatively  free  from  chert,  and  well  handled, 
it  is  probably  the  best  wheat  soil  of  the  area.  Corn  yields  range  from 
35  to  40  bushels  and  wheat  yields  from  16  to  22  bushels  per  acre. 

The  Clarksville  stony  loam  is  agriculturally  an  unimportant  type  and 
consists  of  those  areas  in  the  Clarksville  silt  loam  in  which  the  percentage 
of  rock  at  or  near  the  surface  is  so  large  that  they  are  of  little  or  no 
value  for  farming.  Some  of  the  less  stony  portions  might  be  cleared  of 
stones  and  used  for  orchard  and  pasture,  but  in  many  cases  the  surface 
of  the  ground  is  almost  or  entirely  covered  with  fragments  of  chert.  In 


other  places  there  is  a  surface  covering  of  soil,  but  this  is  so  thin  that 
it  can  scarcely  be  cultivated.  Areas  in  which  limestone  outcrops  along 
the  bluffs  and  hill  slopes  have  been  included  with  this  soil  as  well  as  some 
of  the  stony  areas  found  along  Moniteau  Creek  and  surrounded  by  Baxter 
silt  loam. 

The  greater  portion  of  the  Clarksville  stony  loam  is  still  timbered, 
usually  with  post  and  bur  oak,  and  clumps  of  these  trees  in  areas  of  Clarks- 
ville silt  loam  usually  mark  the  stony  areas.  Many  areas  of  this  soil  on 
account  of  their  small  size  have  not  been  separated  from  the  silt  loam. 

The  surface  soil  of  the  Baxter  silt  loam  consists  of  a  light  yellowish 
brown  silt  loam  which,  at  a  depth  of  about  16  inches,  grades  into  a  silty 
granular  clay.  The  subsoil  becomes  heavier  in  texture  and  redder  in 
color  to  a  depth  of  about  two  feet,  where  it  is  mottled  in  appearance,  this 
mottling  extending  to  a  depth  of  three  feet  or  more. 

The  Baxer  silt  loam,  like  the  Clarksville  silt  loam,  is  residual  in 
origin.  It  is  derived  from  the  disintegration  of  the  less  fossiliferous  and, 
in  this  area,  more  cherty  Magnesian  limestone  which  outcrops  in  the 
southeastern  and  also  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  county.  It  differs 
but  little  in  color  or  texture  from  the  Clarksville  silt  loam,  but  on  the 
whole  is  less  productive.  The  timber  growth  consists  principally  of  white, 
bur,  and  post  oak,  the  walnut,  elm,  and  other  trees  of  the  Clarksville  soils 
being  almost  entirely  wanting.  Many  of  the  ridges  also  have  the  whitish 
appearance  of  the  post-oak  ridges  of  the  Boone  silt  loam. 

This  soil  in  places  is  three  feet  or  more  in  depth,  but  is  often  underlain 
at  a  less  depth  by  chert  fragments  or  by  limestone.  Chert  and  fragments 
of  the  soft  white  "cotton  rock"  are  often  scattered  over  the  surface  and 
through  the  soil,  making  it  unfit  for  cultivation. 

The  Wabash  silt  loam  is  an  alluvial  soil  composed  of  material  eroded 
from  the  other  soils  of  the  area,  worked  over  by  the  streams,  and  rede- 
posited  along  their  flood  plains.  In  the  northern  part  of  the  county,  along 
the  lower  course  of  the  Petite  Saline  and  the  small  streams  which  flow 
into  the  Missouri,  this  soil  has  been  derived  very  largely  from  the  loess ; 
but  in  other  parts  of  the  area  it  has  come  from  areas  occupied  by  the 
residual  soils  and  the  upland  soils  of  glacial  origin,  the  light-colored  silt 
from  the  gray  ridges  being  in  many  places  quite  noticeable. 

Although  varying  considerably  in  color,  texture,  and  structure  the 
Wabash  silt  loam,  as  occurring  in  this  area,  may  be  described  as  a  dark- 
gray  or,  when  moist,  a  black,  smooth-textured,  friable,  light  silt  loam, 
which  becomes  lighter  in  color  at  a  depth  of  about  12  inches,  but  shows  no 
change  in  texture  to  a  depth  of  two  feet  or  more.    At  this  depth  the  ma- 


terial  usually  becomes  darker  and  heavier,  retaining  these  characteristics 
to  a  depth  of  several  feet.  In  places,  however,  the  subsoil  is  underlain  by 
gravel,  unconsolidated  and  residual  material,  or  the  solid  rock.  In  many 
places  a  gray,  flourlike  silt  covers  the  surface  of  small  areas,  and  in  others 
the  gray  layer  below  the  surface  soil  is  wanting,  the  dark,  rather  heavy 
silt  loam  extending  from  the  surface  to  the  depth  of  three  feet  or  more. 
In  still  other  places  the  surface  soil  is  found  to  contain  a  relatively  high 
content  of  very  fine  sand.  Where  the  light-colored  phase  occurs  it  is,  like 
the  gray  silt  ridges  from  which  it  has  been  eroded,  somewhat  less  pro- 
ductive than  the  darker  soils.  On  the  other  hand,  where  the  very  dark, 
rather  heavy  silt  loam  extends  through  the  entire  soil  section  the  type 
is  often  poorly  drained  and  somewhat  refractory  under  cultivation.  Much 
of  the  Wabash  silt  loam  is  subject  to  annual  or  occasional  overflow,  and 
while  this  adds  to  the  richness  of  the  soil  through  the  deposition  of  silt, 
especially  when  the  material  comes  from  the  loess  or  the  residual  soils, 
these  periods  of  high  water  usually  occur  at  times  when  they  do  consid- 
erable damage  to  crops. 

Where  second  bottoms  occur  they  are  in  most  cases  above  the  reach 
of  flood  water.  The  soils  are  also  comparatively  uniform  in  texture,  well 
drained,  and  among  the  most  productive  of  the  area.  Along  the  steep 
slope  which  usually  separates  the  lower  bottom  from  these  second  bot- 
toms there  is  often  exposed  a  narrow  strip  of  red  residual  soil. 

As  a  whole,  the  Wabash  silt  loam,  although  lacking  uniformity,  is 
among  the  best  soils  of  the  county.  It  is  especially  well  a'dapted  to  alfalfa, 
owing  in  part  to  the  position  of  ground  water,  which  is  near  enough  the 
surface  for  this  deep-rooted  plant  to  reach.  Corn  yields  an  average  of  45 
bushels  and  wheat  between  14  and  20  bushels  per  acre. 

The  Wabash  clay  is  an  unimportant  type  in  this  area,  only  a  few 
small  bodies  of  it  having  been  mapped,  although  many  others  too  small 
to  be  shown  on  the  soil  map  occur  in  the  lower  poorly  drained  portions  of 
the  Wabash  silt  loam.  It  is  a  heavy,  sticky  black  clay,  which  dries  and 
cracks  at  the  surface,  the  soil  breaking  into  small,  irregular  cubelike  frag- 
ments. At  a  depth  of  about  16  inches  this  black  soil  grades  into  a  stiff, 
waxy  clay,  somewhat  lighter  in  color,  which  extends  to  a  depth  of  throe 
feet  or  more.  The  type  is  of  alluvial  origin,  being  the  result  of  deposition 
of  the  finer  soil  particles  from  very  quiet  water.  Its  formation  has  also 
in  most  places  been  influenced  by  conditions  of  very  poor  drainage. 

The  largest  area  of  this  soil  found  in  the  county  occurs  along  the 
Lamine  River  near  its  mouth,  but  other  small  areas  are  found  farther  up 
the  Lamine  Valley  and  along  Blackwater  and  Petite  Saline,  much  of  that 


near  the  town  of  Blackwater  being  somewhat  lighter  and  better  suited  for 
farming  than  the  typical  Wabash  clay.  This  soil  is  commonly  known  as 
gumbo,  and  is  cultivated  with  considerable  difficulty,  unless  handled  when 
in  just  the  proper  condition.  When  so  handled  it  produces  good  crops  of 
wheat  and  grass  and  is  used  to  some  extent  for  corn.  It  can,  however. 
be  greatly  improved  by  thorough  drainage  and  by  cultivation.  The  yields 
of  wheat  and  corn  are  somewhat  lower  than  on  the  type  just  described. 

The  Sarpy  silty  clay  is  a  yellowish  dark  brown  to  almost  black  silty 
clay,  underlain  at  a  depth  of  about  14  inches  by  a  very  fine  sandy  loam, 
light  in  color  and  extending  to  a  depth  of  three  feet  or  more.  In  places 
thin  layers  of  silt  or  silty  clay  are  encountered  in  the  subsoil,  and  in  other 
places  the  heavy  surface  soil  extends  to  a  depth  of  three  feet  or  more, 
the  subsoil  being  lighter  in  color  than  the  surface  material,  but  very 
plastic  and  puttylike.  The  light-textured  subsoil,  however,  seems  to  pre- 
vail over  the  greater  part  of  the  type. 

Only  a  small  area  of  Sarpy  silty  clay  occurs  in  Cooper  County,  this 
being  near  Wooldridge. 

This  soil  is  heavy  and  cracks  and  breaks  into  cubes  when  dry.  It  is 
thei'efore  somewhat  difficult  to  handle,  but  is  a  rich,  productive  soil  and 
well  suited  to  the  principal  crops  of  the  area,  which  yield  about  as  well 
as  on  the  Wabash  soils. 

The  Sarpy  silt  loam,  like  the  Sarpy  silty  clay,  is  of  alluvial  origin,  has 
a  level  surface,  and  is  subject  to  occasional  overflow.  It  consists  of  a 
yellowish-brown  rather  heavy  silty  soil,  though  lighter  both  in  color  and 
texture  than  the  silty  clay,  which  extends  to  a  depth  of  about  16  inches, 
where  it  is  underlain  by  a  lighter-colored  fine  sandy  loam  similar  to  the 
materials  found  under  the  silty  clay.  In  places,  hoewver,  the  heavy  sur- 
face soil  extends  to  the  depth  of  three  feet  or  more.  This  soil  is  easily 
cultivated  and  very  productive.  It  occurs  in  only  one  area  located  near 

The  Sarpy  fine  sandy  loam  consists  of  a  rather  silty  fine  sandy  loam 
with  a  depth  of  about  12  inches,  resting  on  a  fine  sand.  It  is  an  unim- 
portant type  in  this  area,  a  few  small  areas  only  having  been  outlined 
along  the  Missouri  River.  The  principal  cultivated  area  is  on  Terrapin 




The  first  newspaper  in  Cooper  County  was  established  at  Boonville 
about  the  year  1834,  and  was  called  the  "Boonville  Herald."  It  was  owned 
by  James  0.  Middleton,  and  edited  by  Benjamin  E.  Ferry,  who  was  after- 
wards county  clerk  of  Cooper  County.  In  the  year  1838,  Robert  Brent 
bought  one-half  interest  in  the  paper  from  James  Middleton,  and  on  the 
8th  of  April,  in  that  year,  they  changed  the  name  of  the  paper  to  that  of 
"The  Western  Emigrant."  March  7,  1839,  C.  W.  Todd  purchased  Brent's 
interest  in  the  paper,  and  the  paper  was  edited  about  one  year  by  Messrs. 
Middleton  and  Todd.  April  30,  1840,  C.  W.  Todd  purchased  Middlton's 
interest  in  the  paper,  and  changed  the  name  to  that  of  the  "Boonville 
Observer."  C.  W.  Todd  continued  as  sole  proprietor  of  the  paper  until 
Feb.  3,  1842,  when  he  sold  one-half  interest  in  it  to  T.  J.  Boggs.  March 
29,  1843,  F.  M.  Caldwell  and  J.  S.  Collins  purchased  the  paper  from  Todd 
&  Boggs.  They  continued  to  edit  it  in  partnership  only  until  June  7, 
1843,  when  F.  M.  Caldwell  purchased  the  interest  of  Collins,  and  became 
sole  proprietor.  Caldwell  soon  sold  one-half  interest  in  the  paper  to  Allen 
Hammond,  and  it  was  edited  under  the  firm  name  of  Caldwell  &  Hammond 
until  June  9,  1846,  when  Caldwell  sold  out  his  interest  to  Allen  Ham- 
mond. Hammond  continued  to  edit  it  alone  until  Nov.  7,  1850,  when  F. 
M.  Caldwell  returned  from  Virginia,  and  again  purchased  a  half  interest 
in  the  paper.    They  continued  to  edit  it  in  partnership  for  several  years, 


when  they  sold  the  paper  to  Augustus  W.  Simpson,  who  remained  pub- 
lisher of  it  until  it  ceased  publication  in  1861,  on  account  of  the  excitement 
incident  to  the  war.  In  politics  the  paper  was  Whig  until  the  year  1354, 
when  the  Whig  party  ceased  to  exist.  It  then  became  Democratic,  and 
remained  so  until  it  ceased  publication. 

The  next  newspaper  established  was  the  "Missouri  Register,"  pub- 
lished by  William  T.  Yoeman.  The  first  number  of  it  appeared  in  July. 
1839.  It  was  the  first  Democratic  paper  published  in  western  Missouri, 
and  was  established  mainly  to  aid  in  the  campaign  of  1840.  On  April  22, 
1841,  Yoeman  sold  one-half  interest  in  the  paper  to  Edgar  A.  Robinson, 
and  the  paper  continued  to  be  published  by  Yoeman  and  Robinson  until 
Aug.  9,  1843,  when  Ira  Van  Nortwick  purchased  it  from  them.  It  waa 
afterwards  successively  owned  by  Quisenberry,  Price,  Ward  &  Chilton, 
the  last  named  of  whom  continued  to  publish  it  until  the  great  temperance 
excitement  broke  out  in  1853.  The  paper  had  previous  to  this  time  been 
taken  up  almost  exclusively  by  political  discussions,  but  it  was  then  pur- 
chased by  a  man  named  Benjamin  F.  Buie,  who  filled  its  columns  exclu- 
sively with  discussions  in  regard  to  the  great  question  of  temperance, 
which  was  then  agitating  the  public  mind.  Buie  soon  sold  out  the  paper 
to  Allen  Hammond,  and  soon  after  this  the  paper  ceased  publication  for 
want  of  patronage. 

During  the  heat  of  the  campaign  of  1840,  the  editors  of  the  "Missouri 
Register,"  Messrs.  Ward  &  Chilton,  started  a  weekly  campaign  sheet, 
which  advocated  the  claims  of  Van  Buren  for  President.  As  soon  as  the 
campaign  was  over,  and  Van  Buren  defeated,  the  paper  ceased  publication. 
The  name  of  this  paper  was  the  "Boonville  Argus." 

"The  Coon  Hunter"  was  published  by  Ward  &  Shelton,  in  1840.  The 
next  paper  was  the  "Democratic  Union,"  established  in  the  fall  of  1844, 
and  run  by  Blair  and  Chilton.  Following  this  in  succession  in  1847,  was 
a  Whig  paper,  called  the  "Boonville  Bulletin,"  published  by  Caldwell  & 
Hammond.  On  Dec.  31,  1850,  Messrs.  Caldwell  and  Hammond,  proprie- 
tors of  the  "Boonville  Observer,"  commenced  the  publication  of  a  sheet, 
called  the  "Tri-Weekly  Observer,"  which  was  printed  three  times  a  week. 
It  was  continued  unutil  March  8,  1851.  "The  Iris,"  a  college  magazine, 
was  published  in  1851.  In  1852,  the  "Central  Missourian"  was  started, 
but  was  soon  discontinued.  It  was  succeeded  by  the  "Boonville  Missour- 
ian," in  1853,  which  occupied  the  same  office.  The  paper  was  edited  by 
A.  C.  Speer,  who  was  a  strong  advocate  of  Whig  principles,  and  also  a 
staunch  friend  of  the  temperance  cause.     "The  Ladies'  Garland"  was 


started  in  1856.  The  next  paper  was  the  "Boonville  Patriot,"  which  was 
established  by  a  man  named  John  Gill,  in  the  year  1856.  It  was  after- 
wards sold  to  F.  M.  Caldwell,  who  continued  to  publish  it  until  the  year 
1861,  when  the  materials,  presses,  etc.,  belonging  to  the  office  were  seized 
by  General  Worthington,  in  command  of  some  Federal  forces  at  Jefferson 
City,  and  taken  by  him  to  the  latter  place.  Soon  afterwards,  Lewis  H. 
Stahl  went  to  Jefferson  City,  and  with  the  assistance  of  some  of  the  most 
influential  Federals,  succeeded  in  getting  possession  of  the  material  be- 
longing to  the  office,  which  General  Worthington  had  seized,  and  brought 
them  back  to  Boonville.  Immediately  upon  his  return,  Messrs.  Caldwell 
and  Stahl  commenced  the  publication  of  the  "Boonville  Advertiser,"  the 
first  number  of  which  appeared  June  15,  1862.  After  publishing  it  for 
some  time,  they  sold  out  to  Messrs.  Drury  and  Selby,  who  published  the 
paper  for  a  year  or  two,  when  F.  M.  Caldwell  &  Company  again  got  pos- 
session of  it,  and  continued  proprietors  of  it  until  April,  1878.  The  edi- 
tors of  this  paper,  during  this  period,  have  been  J.  G.  Pangborn,  H.  A. 
Hutchinson,  George  W.  Frame,  Charles  E.  Hasbrook,  Judge  Benjamin 
Tompkins  and  S.  W.  Ravenel. 

October  25,  1875,  the  proprietors  of  the  "Boonville  Advertiser"  com- 
menced the  publication  of  a  daily  edition  of  the  same,  under  the  name  of 
the  "Boonville  Daily  Advertiser".  The  "Daily  Advertiser"  was  discontinued 
March  7,  1879.  Mr.  Ravenel  took  charge  of  the  "Advertiser"  in  March,  1878, 
as  manager  and  local  editor,  and  on  March  7,  1879,  leased  the  paper,  and 
was  until  1884  manager  and  editor.  He  was  succeeded  by  Walter  Wil- 
liams, now  the  dean  of  the  College  of  Journalism  at  the  State  University. 
He  in  turn  by  Messrs.  Stahl  with  James  R.  Allen,  editor.  Succeeding  Mr. 
Allen  as  editor  was  Lucien  Wright.  Later  the  paper  was  pui'chased  by 
the  veteran  editor  Capt.  C.  J.  Walden,  who  is  now  the  manager  and  editor 
of  the  same. 

The  "Boonville  Eagle",  a  weekly  paper,  was  established  in  Sept. 
1865,  by  Milo  Blair.  Sept.  28,  1875,  he  took  Charles  H.  Allen  into 
partnership  with  him.     In  politics  it  was  republican. 

The  "Wachter  Am  Missouri",  a  paper  published  in  the  German 
language  was  established  in  1867,  by  L.  Joachimi.  It  was  purchased  in 
1874  by  F.  W.  Ludwig,  who  changed  its  name  to  the  "Central  Missourier". 
Haller  was  the  proprietor  until  1907.  It  suspended  publication  Dec.  26th, 
of  that  year.     In  politics  it  was  republican. 

The  "Boonville  News"  was  started  October  1,  1880,  by  A.  B.  Thornton, 
who  was  afterwards  killed.     The  paper  was  continued  for  a  short  time  by 


his  wife,  Mrs.  M.  0.  Thornton,  and  her  daughters.  It  was  politically,  a 
greenback  paper. 

George  W.  Ferrell  started  the  "Boonville  Weekly  Topic",  Aug.  18, 
1877,  and  after  running  it  about  eight  months,  F.  M.  Caldwell  became 
owner.  Caldwell  published  the  paper  alone  till  Feb.  8,  1880,  when  A.  B. 
Thornton  purchased  an  interest.  September  18,  1880,  Col.  H.  A.  Hutchison 
bought  Thornton's  interest,  the  paper  was  edited  by  Hutchison,  and  pub- 
lished by  Caldwell  &  Hutchison,  Caldwell  as  business  manager.  It  was 
democratic  in  politics.  Capt.  S.  W.  Ravenel  and  William  McCarty  then 
became  the  owners  of  "The  Topic"  until  the  same  was  purchased  by  Col. 
William  Switzler,  who  changed  the  name  to  the  "Missouri  Democrat". 
Switzler  in  turn  was  succeeded  in  the  ownership  of  the  "Democrat"  by 
W.  D.  Jones,  who,  after  running  it  two  or  three  years  sold  it  to  Gordon 
Kapp.  The  Democrat  was  then  changed  to  a  daily  and  as  such  prospered 
for  a  year  or  so.  The  last  two  or  three  months  it  was  edited  and  con- 
ducted by  N.  H.  Johnson  and  Simpson  after  which  Gordon 

Kapp,  who  was  the  owner,  disposed  of  the  property.  Some  time  during 
the  80's  the  "Boonville  Tri-weekly  Star"  made  its  appearance  under  the 
management  of  Bert  Plant,  with  whom  was  associated  at  different  times  a 
number  of  writers  and  editors.  The  paper  was  of  a  sensational  character 
and  its  columns  were  open  to  various  writers.  It  flourished  for  a  while 
and  died  of  mental  exhaustion. 

The  "Western  Christian  Union"  was  started  a  number  of  years  ago 
by  the  Rev.  E.  W.  Pfaffenberger,  which  throughout  the  years  has  been  a 
pleasing,  interesting  and  beneficial  journal. 

The  "Pilot  Grove  Bee"  was  established  in  1882,  the  first  number  being 
issued  the  first  week  in  September,  by  James  Barton.  It  was  a  seven- 
column  folio,  and  democratic  in  politics.  This  plant  was  purchased  by  J. 
J.  Dickinson,  afterwards  major  of  the  6th  Missouri  regiment  in  the  Span- 
ish-American War  and  now  a  prominent  newspaper  man  in  New  York  City, 
and  the  name  was  changed  to  the  "Pilot  Grove  Record".  He  was  succeeded 
in  ownership  of  the  paper  by  Traughber  and  he  in  turn  by  D.  L.  Roe  and 
Charles  Houx,  D.  L.  Roe  eventually  becoming  the  owner.  D.  L.  Roe  after- 
wards sold  the  paper  to  W.  F.  Johnson,  who  after  conducting  it  about  two 
years  disposed  of  it  to  W.  R.  Annan.  This  paper  sometime  during  the 
years  was  changed  to  the  "Pilot  Grove  Record",  its  present  name,  and 
through  successive  changes  came  into  the  possession  of  G.  B.  Harland,  who 
is  now  the  owner  and  editor. 

In  this  history  of  the  newspapers  of  Cooper  County,  we  should  not 
omit  from  the  list  the  "Shave  Tail  Courier",  which  deserves  honorable  men- 


tion,  because  it  was  much  esteemed  by  the  old  settlers  of  that  day. 

At  an  early  day,  Napoleon  Beatty,  quite  an  original  character,  lived 
18  miles  west  of  Boonville,  in  Cooper  County,  on  what  was  called  Shave 
Tail  Creek.  In  that  vicinity  a  store  was  located,  the  predominating  articles 
of  trade  being  tobacco  and  whiskey,  the  latter  the  matutinal  drink  of  the 
old  pioneer.  Beatty  was  noted  for  his  bonhommie,  and  was  not  only  the 
recognized  fiddler  of  the  neighborhood  where  he  resided,  but  was  intensely 
fond  of  and  well  posted  in  all  the  rural  games  and  sports  of  that  day.  Dur- 
ing his  early  manhood  he  was 

"In  wrestling  nimble,  in  running  swift; 
In  shooting  steady,  in  swimming  strong. 
Well  made  to  strike,  to  leap,  to  throw  or  lift, 
And  all  the  sports  that  shepherds  are  among." 

His  fiddle  was  his  inseparable  companion,  and  when  spending  an  even- 
ing with  friends,  he  had  the  happy  faculty  of  discoursing  to  them  the  most 
delightful  music,  always  accompanying  his  instrument  with  a  unique  and 
improvised  song,  which  was  replete  with  wise  and  startling  hits  and  felicit- 
ous inuendoes,  touching  the  vulnerability  of  some  one  or  more  of  his 
entranced  and  rustic  auditors. 

Beatty  was  the  sole  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  "Shave  Tail  Courier", 
which  appeared,  at  regular  intervals,  in  manuscript  form.  The  happenings, 
the  sayings  and  the  doings  of  the  neighborhood  were  faithfully  gathered 
and  garnered  by  this  original  chronicler,  who  read  aloud  his  paper  to  his 
admirers,  in  his  own  inimitable  style.  If  there  occurred  a  dance  in  the 
locality,  a  record  of  it  was  made  in  the  "Courier".  If  a  quilting  party  or  a 
shooting  match  came  off,  the  particulars  were  given  in  the  "Courier".  If 
a  wedding  took  place,  the  event  was  mentioned  in  a  recherche  manner  in 
the  "Courier".  The  bride  was  the  special  theme  for  highest  eulogium, 
and  the  wedded  pair  elicited  the  warmest  wishes  for  their  future  happiness, 
in  fact,  the  "Courier",  like  the  good  mirror,  reflected  not  only  the  redoubt- 
able editor's  views  of  matters  and  things,  but  reflected  as  well,  on  popular 
subjects,  the  will  of  the  people. 

The  "Blackwater  News"  was  established  in  Blackwater,  Mo.,  in  the 
seventies  by  Thomas  Horn,  who  was  a  forceful  and  vigorous  writer.  It 
was  conducted  by  him  until  the  time  of  his  death  and  is  now  successfully 
managed  by  his  widow,  Mrs.  Horn. 

The  "Otterville  Mail"  of  Otterville  was  established  over  twenty  years 
ago  and  is  now  successfully  and  ably  conducted  by  G.  P.  Garland. 

The  Boonville  Publishing  Company  was  organized  in  1884  for  the  pub- 


lication  of  the  "Central  Missouri  Republican".  The  first  issue  of  this  paper 
appeared  July  1,  1884.  Some  of  the  prime  movers  and  stockholders  in  the 
enterprise  were  Eugene  Haller,  Prof.  A.  H.  Sauter,  Martin  Haller,  and 
Col.  C.  C.  Bell.  Others  were  interested  also  but  we  have  not  the  names  at 
hand.  This  journal  continued  under  various  editorial  management  until 
about  1904  when  Mitchell  and  Mitchell  became  the  owners,  who  after  con- 
ducting the  paper  a  year  or  so,  sold  it  to  John  M.  Grimes,  who  in  turn  sold 
it  to  Meadow.  In  a  short  time,  however,  Mitchell  again  became  the  pro- 
prietor and  conducted  the  paper  until  his  death.  Ferguson  and  Harte  then 
purchased  the  same  from  the  widow  of  Mr.  Mitchell  on  the  first  day  of 
February,  1915.  Ferguson  retired  from  any  connection  in  August  of  that 
year  and  Mr.  Houston  Harte  is  now  the  proprietor  and  editor  of  the  same. 
It  is  an  up-to-date,  newsy,  and  bright  paper. 

The  present  Bunceton  "Weekly  Eagle"  was  established  in  Bunceton  in 
1888  by  the  late  J.  Monroe  Norris  under  the  name  of  the  "Bunceton  Enter- 
prise". In  a  short  time  Mr.  Norris  sold  the  paper  to  Asa  W.  Pizer  and  Dr. 
J.  B.  Norman,  who  in  turn  sold  it  in  1889  or  1890  to  W.  E.  Gold,  who 
changed  the  name  to  the  "Bunceton  Weekly  Eagle".  After  publishing  the 
paper  a  short  time  Gold  sold  to  J.  L.  (Fritz)  Johnson,  who  in  turn  sold  to 
C.  L.  Cully,  who  upon  his  appointment  to  the  postmastership  in  Bunceton, 
sold  to  L.  0.  Nelson,  in  June,  1893. 

Soon  after  acquiring  the  "Eagle"  Mr.  Nelson  took  into  partnership 
with  him  his  brother,  W.  L.  Nelson,  and  the  firm  name  became  L.  0.  and 
W.  L.  Nelson  and  remained  such  until  Aug.,  1915,  when  L.  0.  Nelson  re- 
linquished the  active  management  of  the  paper  to  become  postmaster  at 
Bunceton.  Edgar  C.  Nelson,  who  had  been  connected  .with  the  "Eagle"  in 
a  reportorial  capacity  for  several  years,  became  the  active  publisher  and 
the  firm  name  became  Nelson  Bros. 

The  "Eagle"  is  the  most  widely  read  newspaper  in  Cooper  County  and 
is  known  all  over  Missouri  as  a  county  farm  and  stock  weekly.  For  many 
years  special  attention  has  been  given  to  county  farm  and  stock  news  and 
the  "Eagle"  has  had  a  wonderful  success  along  that  line.  It  is  never  less 
than  eight  pages,  all  home  print,  and  during  the  busy  season  in  the  spring 
it  often  carries  from  12  to  16  pages. 

In  politics  the  "Eagle"  has  always  been  Democratic.  It  is  one  of  the 
few  weeklies  in  Missouri  that  is  strictly  cash  in  advance  as  regards  sub- 
scriptions, and  its  readers  seem  to  appreciate  this  policy. 




Cooper  County  entered  early  in  the  history  of  the  state  in  the  banking 
business.  It  is  true  that  banking  in  Missouri  is  just  a  little  more  than 
one  hundred  years  old,  yet  the  first  banks  were  mere  efforts  and  proved 
abortive.  The  first  bank  in  the  state  was  established  in  St.  Louis  in  1816, 
about  fifty  years  after  the  place  had  been  founded.  This  bank  had  been 
chartered  in  1813,  and  called  the  Bank  of  St.  Louis,  and  in  1817,  the  Bank 
of  Missouri  was  chartered.  Neither  of  these  banks,  however,  lasted  very 
long.  The  Bank  of  St.  Louis  failed  in  1819,  and  the  Bank  of  Missouri 
went  in  the  same  way  in  1822. 

.  In  1819,  there  was  a  country-wide  panic,  caused  by  the  riotous  of 
reckless  speculation  all  over  the  country,  particularly  in  the  newer  parts. 
There  was  a  great  mania  for  buying  and  selling  property,  especially  land, 
in  the  Boonslick  country.  It  was  not  until  1821,  that  Missouri  had  another 
bank.  This  was  a  branch  of  the  United  States  bank,  and  was  established 
in  St.  Louis.  It  in  turn  had  several  branches  throughout  the  state,  but 
this  bank  was  forced  to  wind  up  its  business  in  1836,  by  reason  of  President 
Jackson's  veto  of  the  bill  to  renew  the  charter  of  the  United  States  bank. 
At  this  time,  St.  Louis  had  a  population  of  about  six  thousand  people,  and 


there  was  a  crying  need  for  a  bank,  and  in  fact,  a  number  of  banks  through- 
out the  state. 

In  1837  the  Legislature  authorized  the  opening  of  a  state  bank.  The 
Bank  of  the  State  of  Missouri  was  for  ten  years  the  only  bank  of  sort  in 
the  state,  but  in  1847,  the  Boatsmen's  Saving  Institution  was  established 
in  St.  Louis.  This  bank  still  exists  under  the  name  of  Boatsmen's  Bank. 
This  year  also  marked  the  banking  business  in  Cooper  County. 

In  1847,  the  first  bank  in  Boonville,  Mo.,  was  established  by  Dr.  William 
H.  Trigg,  and  was  located  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Main  and  Morgan 
streets.  James  Quarles  was  cashier.  Dr.  Trigg  continued  a  general  bank- 
ing business,  in  his  own  name,  until  1858.  He  then  formed  a  banking 
association,  under  the  name  of  William  H.  Trigg  &  Co.,  composed  of  some 
of  the  leading  capitalists  and  ablest  financiers  of  central  Missouri.  After  a 
prosperous  career  this  association  was  compelled  to  wind  up  its  extensive 
and  rapidly  increasing  business  on  account  of  the  troubles  into  which  the 
country  was  thrown  by  the  unfortunate  war  between  the  two  sections. 
The  cashier  of  the  Trigg  &  Co.  bank  was  John  Ainslee,  and  in  the  latter 
period  of  the  bank  liquidation,  John  T.  Pigott  and  William  M.  Johnson  were 
the  cashiers. 

The  next  banking  enterprise  in  Cooper  County  was  the  opening  at 
Boonville  of  a  branch  of  the  Bank  of  St.  Louis  in  the  year  1856.  With  this 
enterprise  were  connected  William  E.  Burr,  Joseph  L.  Stephens,  James  M. 
Nelson,  C.  W.  and  J.  Sombart,  William  Harley,  John  R.  French  and  others. 
In  1865  the  Central  National  Bank  was  established  in  which  enterprise 
were  associated  some  of  the  leading  financiers  of  Boonville  and  Cooper 
County.  During  the  life  of  Joseph  L.  Stephens  until  his  death  in  1881  this 
was  one  of  the  leading  financial  institutions  of  central  Missouri  and  con- 
tinued so  to  be  for  a  number  of  years  thereafter.  After  the  death  of 
Joseph  L.  Stephens,  the  bank  was  largely  under  the  control  and  mrnacrs- 
ment  of  W.  Speed  and  Lon  V.  Stephens  and  for  a  number  of  years  was  a 
strong  and  flourishing  financial  institution.  Oct.  28,  1916,  it  was  forcer! 
to  close  its  doors  by  the  comptroller  of  currency  and  went  into  liquidation. 
There  was  no  run  upon  the  bank  and  every  depositor  received  his  money. 
The  supposed  cause  of  the  closing  of  the  bank  was  a  series  of  bad  loans 
running  back  through  a  number  of  years.  There  is  pending  at  this  time 
a  suit  by  some  of  the  stockholders  against  certain  officers  of  the  bank,  the 
result  of  which  is  not  yet  determined.  The  closing  of  this  supposed  strong 
financial  institution  was  a  surprise  and  shock  not  only  to  the  community 
but  to  central  Missouri.     Its  management  had  been  generous  and  those 


connected  with  the  bank  had  been  liberal  and  leaders  in  every  enterprise 
in  the  community. 

There  are  at  this  time  in  Cooper  County  15  banks  and  one  Trust  Com- 
pany, all  safe  and  sound  financially  and  conducted  in  a  thorough  and  con- 
servative manner.  We  have  written  to  each  of  these  banks  for  a  brief 
history  of  the  same  and  if  perchance  it  does  not  appear  in  this  chapter  it 
is  no  fault  of  the  editor,  but  because  some  officer  of  the  bank  has  either 
neglected  to  send  the  data  or  has  been  indifferent  to  the  opportunity 
afforded.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the  banks  of  the  county :  Boon- 
ville  National  Bank,  Boonville,  Mo. ;  Commercial  Bank,  Boonville,  Mo. ;  Bank 
of  Bunceton,  Bunceton,  Mo. ;  Cooper  Co.  Bank,  Bunceton,  Mo. ;  Bank  of 
Pleasant  Green,  Pleasant  Green,  Mo.;  Prairie  Home  Bank,  Prairie  Home, 
Mo. ;  Bank  of  Woolridge,  Woolridge,  Mo. ;  Clifton  City  Bank,  Clifton  City, 
Mo. ;  Pilot  Grove  Bank,  Pilot  Grove,  Mo. ;  Citizens  Bank,  Pilot  Grove,  Mo. ; 
Farmers  Stock  Bank,  Blackwater,  Mo. ;  Bank  of  Blackwater,  Blackwater, 
Mo. ;  Bank  of  Speed,  Speed,  Mo. ;  Bank  of  Otterville,  Otterville,  Mo. ;  Farm- 
ers &  Merchants  Bank,  Otterville,  Mo. 

The  Boonville  National  Bank. — The  fact  that  Boonville  boasts  the 
largest  bank  in  the  United  States  in  cities  of  5,000  inhabitants,  or  less 
should  impress  the  observer  as  an  important  fact,  and  is  evidence  of  the 
prosperity  of  Cooper  County.  The  Boonville  National  Bank  was  opened 
for  business  Oct.  30,  1916  as  the  successor  to  the  old  Central  National 
Bank.  In  less  than  three  years  time  it  has  risen  to  a  place  of  importance 
and  standing  in  the  financial  world  of  the  Middle  West.  In  August  of 
1913  the  Farmers  Bank,  an  old  established  institution  was  absorbed  by 
the  Boonville  National,  resulting  in  a  substantial  increase  in  the  assets  and 
deposits  of  the  bank.  By  this  merger  the  large  amount  of  one  million 
dollars  was  added  to  the  deposits  of  the  Boonville  National. 

The  Citizens  Trust  Company  of  Boonville,  subsidiary  of  the  Boon- 
ville National  was  established  in  splendid  quarters  for  the  purpose  of 
handling  trust  funds  and  caring  for  the  safe  deposit  feature  of  the  bank. 
This  concern  is  capitalized  at  $100,000,  with  a  surplus  of  $25,000  and  the 
old  Farmers  Bank  Building,  remodelled,  in  which  the  Trust  Company  is 
located,  is  owned  by  the  Boonville  National.  The  same  directors  which 
control  the  bank  are  also  in  charge  of  the  Trust  Company. 

The  first  officers  of  this  bank  were  E.  E.  Amick,  president :  W.  A.  Som- 
bart,  vice-president;  W.  W.  G.  Helm,  chairman  of  board;  B.  M.  Lester, 
cashier;  R.  L.  Moore,  Jr.,  asst.  cashier.  The  first  board  of  directors  were: 
W.  W.  G.  Helm,  J.  E.  Thro,  N.  Nelson  Leonard,  Roy  D.  Williams,  H.  T. 


Zuzak,  A.  W.  Nelson,  E.  E.  Amick,  G.  W.  Jewett  and  W.  A.  Sombart. 

The  resources  of  this  bank  at  the  close  of  business  on  June  29,  1919 
had  reached  the  grand  total  of  $1,062,759.62.  The  capital  stock  of  the  bank 
was  $75,000  with  a  surplus  fund  of  $25,000.  It  was  the  only  National  Bank 
and  the  only  member  of  the  Federal  Reserve  System  in  Cooper  County. 

The  present  officers  of  the  bank  are:  A.  W.  Nelson,  chairman  of  the 
board ;  E.  E.  Amick,  president ;  F.  S.  Sauter,  vice-president ;  W.  A.  Som- 
bart, vice-president ;  B.  M.  Lester,  vice-president ;  J.  L.  Meistrell,  vice-presi- 
dent; R.  D.  Williams,  counsel;  H.  T.  Redd,  cashier;  R.  L.  Moore,  Jr.,  assist- 
ant cashier.  The  directors  are :  A.  W.  Nelson,  W.  W.  G.  Helm,  L.  T.  Sites, 
H.  F.  Blankenbaker ;  W.  A.  Sombart,  J.  E.  Thro,  J.  A.  Fischer,  N.  N.  Leon- 
ard, H.  T.  Zuzak,  R.  D.  Williams,  Julius  Oswald,  G.  W.  Jewett,  E.  E.  Amick, 
F.  S.  Sauter,  and  W.  W.  Kingsbury. 

The  capital  stock  of  the  bank  has  been  increased  to  $200,000.  The 
surplus  fund  is  now  $70,000.  The  deposits  has  attained  to  the  grand  total 
of  $2,000,000. 

The  Farmer's  Trust  Company  of  Boonville,  Mo.,  has  been  recently 
organized  with  a  capital  of  $100,000  and  a  surplus  of  $35,000.  The  officers 
are  Harry  A.  Creagan,  president;  Frank  J.  Felton,  vice-president;  Edward 
J.  Muntzel,  secretary  and  treasurer;  and  Fred  Dauwalter  chairman  of  the 
board.  The  Board  of  Directors  are  W.  A.  Whitehurse,  Fred  Dauwalter, 
Robert  P.  Burge,  Edward  J.  Muntzel,  Frank  J.  Felton,  Homer  C.  Davis, 
Harry  A.  Creagan. 

The  Farmers  Trust  Company  has  secured  the  south  room  on  the  ground 
floor  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias  building  on  Main  street,  large  and  com- 
modious quarters  for  its  banking  business.  A  large  fire-proof  vault  has 
been  built,  safety  boxes  installed  and  the  furniture  and  equipment  are 
handsome  and  elegant  and  are  unexcelled  by  that  of  any  banking  institu- 
tion in  central  Missouri. 

The  Commercial  Bank  of  Boonville,  Mo.,  was  oraganized  in  1883  and  is 
the  oldest  financial  institution  in  Cooper  County  and  one  of  the  strongest 
and  most  important  in  central  Missouri.  Charter  No.  247  providing  for 
the  organization  of  this  bank  was  obtained  by  the  following  citizens :  John 
S.  Elliot,  R.  P.  Williams  of  Fayette,  Mo.,  Col.  John  Cosgrove,  John 
Often,  William  Johnson,  C.  W.  and  Julius  Sombart,  Joseph  Combs,  Col. 
Thomas  A.  Johnston,  John  Viertel,  Jacob  F.  Gmelich,  W.  R.  Hutchinson, 
B.  E.  Nance  and  John  Lee  of  Howard  County.  These  gentlemen  were  the 
original  stockholders  of  the  bank  which  was  organized  with  a  capital  stock 


of  $50,000.  John  S.  Elliot  was  the  first  president ;  Jacob  F.  Gmelich  was 
the  first  vice-president  and  the  first  cashier  was  W.  R.  Hutchinson.  On 
January  16,  1888,  Mr.  Elliot  was  succeeded  as  president  by  Jacob  F. 
Gmelich.  Upon  Mr.  Gmelich's  election  as  state  treasurer  in  1905,  Mr. 
John  H.  Zollinger  was  elected  president  of  the  bank.  Mr.  Zollinger  served 
until  July  7,  1913  and  was  succeeded  by  the  present  incumbent  of  the 
office,  Mr.  Edward  W.  Chilton,  who  had  previously  served  as  assistant 

This  bank  has  weathered  all  financial  panics  and  is  conducted  on  a 
safe,  conservative  plan  which  commends  it  to  the  hundreds  of  patrons  who 
have  always  had  the  utmost  confidence  in  the  integrity  of  the  institution. 
The  present  capitalization  is  $50,000 ;  surplus  and  undivided  profits  exceed 
$50,000;  and  the  deposits  are  over  $500,000.  The  officers  of  the  Com- 
mercial Bank  are  as  follows :,  Edward  W.  Chilton,  president ;  W.  W.  Trigg, 
vice-president;  R.  G.  Hadelich,  cashier;  J.  A.  Smith,  bookkeeper.  The 
directors  are:  E.  W.  Chilton,  John  Cosgrove,  W.  W.  Trigg,  W.  A.  Hurt, 
H.  G.  Windsor,  T.  A.  Johnston,  R.  G.  Hadelich,  Thomas  Hogan,  and  M.  R. 

The  Bank  of  Bunceton  was  organized  Aug.  25,  1887,  with  a  paid-up 
capital  stock  of  $10,000  and  the  following  officers:  J.  H.  Goodwin,  presi- 
dent, Edward  Cramer,  vice-president;  E.  W.  Moore,  cashier;  W.  B.  Kerns, 
secretary;  and  with  the  following  directors,  J.  H.  Goodwin,  Edward  Cramer, 
E.  W.  Moore,  W.  B.  Kerns,  T.  J.  Wallace,  John  Coleman,  Geo.  A.  Carpenter, 
Wm.  Lusk,  Hugh  Rogers 

The  bank  now  has  a  paid-up  capital  of  $50,000  and  a  surplus  of  $35,000, 
with  resources  totaling  more  than  $6,000,000  The  following  are  the  pres- 
ent officers:  Dr.  A.  W.  Nelson,  president;  H.  .E.  Meeker,  vice-president; 
Snode  Moms,  vice-president ;  A.  Blomquist,  cashier ;  G.  H.  Meeker,  assist- 
ant cashier.  The  directors  are  Dr.  A.  W.  Nelson,  R.  L.  Harriman,  Snode 
Morris,  Geo.  K.  Crawford,  A.  T.  .Hockenberry,  Geo.  A.  Carpenter,  N.  N. 
Leonard,  C.  W.  Oglesby  and  H.  E.  Meeker. 

The  Cooper  County  Bank  of  Bunceton  was  incorporated  on  June  26, 
1893,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $20,000.  J.  A.  Waller  was  the  first  president 
and  W.  J.  Boschert,  cashier.  The  original  Board  of  Directors  consisted  of 
the  following:  John  S.  Vick,  Gordon  L.  Stephens,  John  A.  Wallace,  Newton 
A.  Gilbreath,  William  J.  Boschert,  Samuel  T.  Baugman,  Edward  Cramer, 
E.  H.  Rodgers,  James  A.  Lander.  The  present  capital  stock  is  $20,000,  sur- 
plus and  undivided  profit  earned,  $43,000,  total  deposits  $307,500,  total  re- 


sources  $380,000.  The  present  officers  are  W.  J.  Boschert,  president ; 
George  W.  Moms,  vice-president;  F.  C.  Betteridge,  cashier;  C.  W.  Olley, 

The  Farmer's  Stock  Bank  of  Blackwater,  Mo.  was  organized  in  1895 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $10,000.  The  first  officers  were:  G.  A.  Cramer, 
president;  Erhardt  Fischer,  vice-president;  F.  S.  Sauter,  cashier.  In 
1907  F.  S.  Sauter  tendered  his  resignation  as  cashier  of  the  above  bank 
and  C.  E.  Steele  was  elected  to  fill  this  vacancy  which  position  he  has  held 
since  the  above  date.  The  present  capital  stock  is  now  $20,000  with  an 
earned  surplus  of  $25,000  and  deposits  aggregating  $200,000.  The  present 
officers  are:  S.  Y.  Thornton,  president;  H.  C.  Griffith,  vice-president,  C.  E. 
Steele,  cashier. 

The  Bank  of  Blackwater,  Mo.  was  organized  in  1906  with  a  capital 
stock  of  $25,000.  The  officers  were:  T.  B.  Gibson,  president;  Joseph 
Fischer,  vice-president;  C.  M.  Shepherd,  cashier.  C.  M.  Shepherd  served 
three  years  as  cashier  of  the  above  bank,  and  was  succeeded  by  H.  T.  Redd, 
who  served  eight  years,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  Walter  Shouse,  the  pres- 
ent cashier.  The  bank  now  has  an  earned  surplus  of  $17,000  and  deposits 
aggregating  $150,000.  The  present  directors  are:  W.  B.  Gibson,  L.  T. 
Sites,  R.  B.  Hill,  H.  M.  Wing,  Joseph  Thompson,  C.  P.  Hudson,  T.  B.  Gib- 
son, Walter  Shouse,  Joseph  Fischer. 

The  Pilot  Grove  Bank  of  Pilot  Grove  is  the  second  oldest  bank  in 
Cooper  County,  the  Commercial  Bank  of  Boonville  being  the  oldest.  The 
Pilot  Grove  Bank  was  incorporated  June  13,  1884  and  was  organized  by 
Edward  H.  Harris,  who  was  the  president  of  the  same  and  E.  H.  Harris,  Jr., 
the  cashier,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $10,000.  This  bank  had  a  remarkable 
career  in  that  for  over  a  quarter  of  a  century  under  the  management  of  the 
Harris  not  a  dollar  was  lost  by  bad  loans.  The  capital  stock  was  increased 
from  time  to  time  and  now,  1919,  the  capital  stock  is  $20,000,  surplus 
$20,000,  undivided  profits  $6,321.26.  The  total  assets  of  the  bank  March 
4,  of  this  year,  were  $371,259.45.  The  present  officers  are  J.  H.  Thompson, 
president;  Andrew  Davin,  vice-president;  and  C.  M.  Shepherd,  cashier. 
The  directors  are  Ham  Lusk,  E.  B.  McCutchen,  B.  J.  Felton,  Jacob  Hoff,  A. 
Davin,  W.  A.  Scott,  W.  B.  Simmons,  Reuben  Thomas,  A.  C.  Harriman,  R. 
A.  Harriman,  B.  E.  Sly,  J.  A.  Thompson,  J.  L.  Painter. 

The  Bank  of  Woolridge  was  organized  in  June,  1902,  with  a  capital 
stock  of  $10,000  and  the  following  officers:  George  Vaughan,  presi- 
dent;  J.   K.   Bruce,   vice-president;   M.   A.   Smith,   cashier;   and   George 

JUNE   5.    1917,   NEAR    LONE    ELM 




Vaughan,  W.  J.  Wooldridge,  E.  I.  Smith,  Ben  Heying,  Charles  Leuger,  J. 
K.  Bruce,  and  W.  L.  Hays,  directors.  M.  A.  Smith  was  the  organizer  of 
the  bank. 

The  present  capital  stock  of  the  Bank  of  Wooldridge  is  810,000  with 
a  surplus  of  $8,000,  undivided  profits  of  $2,000,  deposits  amounting  to 
$100,000.  Corresponding  banks  are  the  National  Bank  of  Commerce  ot  St 
Louis,  Missouri;  National  Stockyards  National  Bank  of  East  St.  Louis, 
III. ;  and  the  Boonville  National  Bank  of  Boonville,  Mo. 

The  present  bank  officials,  at  the  time  of  this  writing,  are:  W  J 
Wooldridge,  president;  J.  A.  Clayton,  vice-president;  A.  F.  Nixon,  cashier '; 
and  F.  B.  Hopkins,  bookkeeper.  The  directors  are:  W.  J.  Wooldridge  a' 
F.  Nixon,  J.  A.  Clayton,  A.  D.  Renfrew,  C.  L.  Eager,  Henry  Knorp,  'and 
Carl  Lenger.  The  bank  owns  its  building,  a  frame  structure,  erected  in 
1902.  The  Bank  of  Wooldridge  is  one  of  the  strongest  financial  institu- 
tions of  Cooper  County. 

Bank  of  Pleasant  Green,  Pleasant  Green,  Mo.-The  stockholders  of 
the  Bank  of  Pleasant  Green  met  on  the  11th  day  of  April,  1905  They 
organized  by  electing  Judge  J.  D.  Starke,  chairman,  and  Dr.  John  S  Parrish 
secretary,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $10,000.  At  the  same  meeting  they 
elected  the  following  board  of  directors:  R.  E.  Ferguson,  J.  S.  Parrish  S 
L.  Rissler,  W.  B.  Rissler,  A.  J.  Read,  W.  E.  Roberts,  S.  W.  Roberts  and  J.' 
D  Starke  and  George  Stemberger.  The  board  proceeded  to  organize  by 
electing  Dr.  J.  S.  Parrish,  president;  A.  J.  Read,  vice-president;  W  B 
Rissler,  cashier;  and  S.  W.  Roberts,  secretary. 

The  bank  did  not  pay  any  dividends  until  it  had  an  accumulated  and 
certified  surplus  an  amount  equal  to  the  capital  stock,  which  was  in  the 
year  1913.  Since  then  it  has  paid  an  average  dividend  of  15  per  cent  The 
following  constitute  the  present  Board  of  Directors:     Adam  Bergmann, 

L  r\  c^  Hlte'  '•  S-  ParrlSh'  A-  J-  Read'  W-  B-  Riss1-.  Geo.  Stem- 
berger, C.  E.  Stone  and  J.  W.  Walker.  The  present  officers  are  J  S  Par- 
rish, president;  A.  J.  Read,  vice-president;  W.  B.  Rissler,  cashier,  and  J.  W 
Walker  secretary.  There  has  been  no  change  in  the  officers  since  the 
beginning  with  the  exception  that  of  secretary 

SentT1014armr  anf  M,erchants  Bank<  Nervine,  Mo.,  was  organized  in 
Sept.,  1914  with  a  capital  stock  of  $12,000.  The  first  officers  were :  H  D 
Case   president;  J.  E.  Golladay,  vice-president;  Joe  G.  Cox,  cashier      The 

WE STl -H *    ^  ^  ^  G°lladay'  J°e  G-  C°X'  James  A-  Laws 
Schupp  PP'        °-  Wilkerson'  C-  Rodenbach  and  August 



The  present  officers  are  the  following:  H.  D.  Case,  president;  J.  E. 
Golladay,  vice-president;  Allen  H.  Cox,  cashier,  and  Mattie  Belle  Hupp, 
assistant  cashier. 

The  present  directors  are  the  following:  H.  D.  Case,  J.  E.  Golladay, 
Joe  G.  Cox,  J.  S.  Bane,  W.  D.  Ross,  Charlie  Hupp,  L.  C.  Wilkerson,  C. 
Kodenbach  and  August  Schupp. 

The  capital  stock  remains  $12,000.  The  surplus  is  $5,000 ;  undivided 
profits,  $2,900;  loans  and  discounts,  $107,000.  The  total  deposits  are 
$136,000.     The  total  resources  are  over  $188,000. 




The  first  unusual  high  waters  of  the  Missouri  River,  of  which  we  have 
any  account,  was  in  1785,  and  of  the  destruction  wrought  at  that  time,  we 
know  but  little.  However,  we  know  that  there  were  no  settlements  in 
Cooper  County,  or  upon  the  north  side  of  the  river. 

In  the  spring  of  1811,  the  waters  of  the  Missouri  rose  to  an  unprece- 
dented height.  The  first  settlements  had  been  made  in  Cooper  County,  and 
in  Howard  County,  opposite  Boonville,  the  previous  year.  Hence  there 
were  no  farms  to  be  injured  or  crops  to  be  destroyed. 

We  have  no  means  of  knowing  how  high  the  water  reached  that  year. 
The  high  waters  in  the  spring  of  1826  set  the  seal  of  fate  to  Franklin. 
But  by  far  the  most  destructive  flood  that  ever  occurred  in  the  Missouri 
River  was  in  1844.  It  was  caused  as  usual  by  continuous  rainfall  on  the 
lower  river,  coming  on  top  of  the  annual  rise.  The  month  of  May  had  been 
attended  with  unusual  rains,  and  for  weeks  previous  to  the  10th  of  June, 
the  precipitation  had  been  unprecedented. 

On  the  5th  of  June,  the  water  began  to  overflow  the  banks,  and  the 
river  continued  to  rise  until  the  18th,  when  at  Jefferson  City  it  came  to 
a  stand  and  began  to  recede. 

The  entire  bottom  from  the  mouth  of  the  Kaw  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Missouri  was  completely  submerged,  and  from  bluff  to  bluff,  the  river  pre- 
sented the  appearance  of  an  inland  sea. 

The  destruction  of  property,  considering  the  small  population,  was 
enormous,  and  much  suffering  ensued. 

Again  in  1845,  and  yet  again  in  1851,  there  were  unusual  high  water, 


but  the  damage  was  slight  compared  with  the  destruction  of  1844.  The 
next  most  destructive  flood  was  in  1881.  The  second  bottoms  and  low- 
lands were  under  water,  and  considerable  damage  was  done,  especially  in 
the  lower  reaches  of  the  river.*  This  flood,  however,  was  different  from 
the  others,  that  had  preceded  it,  in  that  it  occurred  in  March  and  the  first 
part  of  April.  It  was  caused  solely  by  the  unusual  rainfall,  and  not  from 
the  melting  of  snows  in  the  Rockies. 

It  seems  the  circumstances  that  attended  the  flood  of  1903  were  sim- 
ilar to  those  attending  the  great  flood  of  1844.  On  Friday  morning,  June 
5,  at  seven  o'clock,  1903,  the  government  gauge  registered  a  stage  of  water 
in  the  river  at  Boonville,  of  30.6  feet.  This  was  just  six  feet  higher  than 
the  mark  of  1881,  and  lacked  but  about  three  feet  of  that  of  1844. 

However,  by  noon  of  that  day,  the  water  rose  to  30  feet  and  ten  inches 
above  the  low  water  mark,  and  remained  on  a  stand  until  Saturday  morn- 
ing, when  it  began  to  fall  slowly.  During  the  day,  there  was  a  fall  of 
only  two  inches,  but  it  was  enough  to  bring  gladnesss  to  the  hearts  of 
many,  and  a  feeling  of  relief  among  those  who  had  so  anxiously  watched 
for  the  good  news. 

Much  damage  was  wrought  by  the  flood  in  the  vicinity  of  Boonville. 
Houses  on  islands  and  the  lowlands  were  washed  away,  crops  destroyed, 
and  much  livestock  drowned.  Cooper  County  alone  suffered  much  from  the 
destruction  of  ruined  crops  along  the  Missouri  and  Lamine  Rivers,  and  the 
Petit  Saline  creek,  which  overflowed  its  banks  from  the  Missouri  and  did 
considerable  damage  to  the  farms  along  its  bottoms. 

The  destruction  in  the  vicinity  of  Overton  and  Woolridge  was  greater 
than  in  any  other  part  of  the  county.  The  greatest  damage  was  done,  how- 
ever, in  the  Howard  County  bottoms.  Both  up  and  down  the  river  from 
Boonville,  the  water  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  presented  the  appearance 
of  an  inland  sea.  The  water  during  the  high  stage  reached  almost  from 
bluff  to  bluff,  submerging  land  on  which  were  crops  of  growing  corn,  and 
almost  matured  crops  of  growing  wheat.  Scarcely  any  land  in  this  section 
was  above  the  stage  of  the  water.     Much  livestock  was  lost  also. 

The  greatest  losses,  though,  were  experienced  by  those  tenants,  who 
had  all  their  possessions  carried  away  and  destroyed.  Many  cases  were 
reported  in  which  tenants  lost  all  their  earthly  possessions.  Some  of  these 
were  even  thankful  to  escape  with  their  lives,  and  the  clothes  which  they 

As  it  was  impossible  at  that  time  to  approximate  the  amount  of  the 
losses  occurring  to  the  farmers  in  this  territory,  it  is  equally  impossible 
to  make  an  estimate  at  this  time. 


The  citizens  of  Boonville  responded  nobly  to  aid  the  flood  sufferers. 
Mayor  W.  G.  Pendleton  called  meetings,  and  appropriate  committees  were 
appointed  to  raise  the  necessary  funds  to  meet  the  temporary  and  im- 
mediate relief  of  the  sufferers.  Over  one  thousand  dollars  were  raised  and 
distributed  to  those  who  were  most  in  need. 

The  road  bed  of  the  M.  K.  &  T.  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  was 
greatly  damaged  and  traffic  upon  that  road  was  suspended  for  several 
days.  Probably  the  greatest  damage  done  the  farming  and  railroad  inter- 
ests in  the  Missouri  valley  below  Kansas  City,  however,  was  in  the  bottoms 
between  St.  Charles  and  the  rivers  mouth.  Here  was  a  broad  expanse  of 
territory  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation  and  dotted  over  with  residences 
and  other  buildings.  Every  vestige  of  the  promising  crop  of  wheat,  corn, 
hay,  oats,  onions,  potatoes,  etc.,  was  drowned  out  and  washed  away. 

Losses  to  the  people  in  close  proximity  to  Boonville  were  heavy  indeed, 
but  compared  with  those  of  people  in  other  parts,  they  did  not  seem  so 

Charles  A.  Sombart  had  every  reason  to  remember  the  flood  of  this 
year,  because  of  the  threatened  damage  to  his  milling  property.  He  had  a 
rectangular  solid  stone  about  six  feet  in  length  planted  at  the  northwest 
corner  of  his  warehouse,  on  which  is  indicated  by  cuts  in  the  stone,  the 
highest  point  in  the  river  June  4,  1844,  and  June  5,  1903.  The  latter  mark 
is  only  about  two  feet  and  nine  inches  below  the  mark  of  1844. 

Grand  and  mighty  old  Missouri,  blessing  and  destroying,  blessed  and 
cursed,  the  great  artery  of  the  continent!  Old  Joaquin  Miller  has  struck  a 
noble  strain  in  his  spirited  poem  to  the  "Missouri".  He  refers  to  her  as  a 
lord  of  strength,  the  yellow  line  and  mad  molder  of  the  continent,  and  con- 
cludes with  these  words : 

"Hoar  sire  of  hot,  sweet  Cuban  seas,  ' 

Gray  father  of  the  continent, 
Fierce  fashioner  of  destinies, 

Of  states  thou  hast  upreared  or  rent, 
Thou  know'st  no  limit ;  seas  turn  back, 
Bent,  broken  from  the  shaggy  shore; 
But  thou,  in  thy  resistless  track, 
Art  lord  and  master  evermore. 
Missouri,  surge  and  sing  and  sweep. 

Missouri,  master  of  the  deep, 
From  snow-reared  Rockies  to  the  sea, 
Sweep  on,  sweep  on  eternally." 


Again  in  Sept.,  1905,  the  devastating  flood  visited  Cooper  County.  The 
cause  of  this  high  water  was  similar  to  that  of  1881.  The  local  rains  were 
so  great  that  streams  flowing  into  the  Missouri  overflowed  their  banks, 
and  practically  all  the  bridges  in  Cooper  County  were  washed  away  and 
destroyed,  entailing  on  the  county  a  great  loss  in  dollars  and  disturbance 
of  traffic. 

The  county  at  that  time  faced  a  difficult  problem  because  these  bridges 
had  to  be  replaced  at  a  great  expense.  Prior  to  this  flood  the  county  court 
of  Cooper  County  had  called  an  election  for  a  bond  issue  for  the  purpose  of 
building  a  court  house.  By  reason,  however,  of  the  great  loss  to  the  county 
caused  by  the  high  water  of  the  various  streams,  the  court  saw  fit  and 
proper  to  call  off  this  election. 

While  the  need  of  a  new  court  house  was  imperative  and  patent  to  the 
voters  of  the  county,  no  agitation  in  behalf  of  the  same  was  made  until 
1911.  There  being  a  demand  on  the  part  of  the  county  votes  that  the 
city  of  Boonville  should  do  something  in  addition,  and  beyond  that  done 
by  the  rest  of  the  county,  a  proposition  was  submitted  by  the  city  council 
to  the  voters  of  Boonville  to  bond  the  city  for  $15,000  to  aid  in  the  con- 
struction of  a  court  house. 

The  election  was  held  June  5,  1911,  and  the  vote  in  favor  of  the  bonds 
was  practically  unanimous,  being  for,  724,  against,  6.  The  county  court 
upon  the  proper  petition  called  an  election  for  May  11,  1911,  submitting  to 
the  people  of  the  county  the  issue  of  a  $100,000  5-20  5  per  cent,  bonds,  from 
the  sale  of  which  to  erect  a  new  and  suitable  court  house. 

The  Commercial  Club  of  Boonville  took  charge  of  the  campaign  and 
appointed  as  managers  of  the  same  W.  D.  Pendleton,  then  mayor  of  the 
city  of  Boonville,  and  W.  F.  Johnson,  then  president  of  the  club.  The 
favorable  result  of  .this  election  was  a  great  surprise  to  many.  The  cam- 
paign was  quiet  and  no  public  meetings  were  held.  An  appeal  was  made 
to  the  intelligence  of  the  voters  which  resulted  for  the  bond  issue,  1,977; 
against  799. 

It  is  needless  to  say  that  the  result  of  this  election  caused  great  re- 
joicing, especially  in  Boonville,  where  great  crowds  gathered  on  the  street 
after  supper,  as  soon  as  the  vote  was  announced,  and  by  the  playing  of 
bands,  speech-making  and  shouting  manifested  their  satisfaction. 

As  soon  as  the  sale  of  the  bonds  were  negotiated,  the  contract  for 
building  the  new  court  house  was  let  by  competitive  bids  to  W.  J.  Cochran 
of  Boonville.  Something  over  a  year  was  consumed  in  the  erection  of  the 
present  beautiful  court  house,  the  total  cost  of  which,  including  the  addi- 


tional  site,  together  with  furniture  and  fixtures,  reached  approximately 

Tornado. — About  nine  o'clock  at  night,  on  Tuesday,  June  5,  1917,  the 
most  destructive  storm  that  had  ever  visited  Cooper  County,  swept  a  path 
150  yards  wide,  and  approximately  20  miles  long  through  the  northeast 
part  of  the  county. 

It  began  fts  destructive  course  at  Lone  Elm  store,  and  swept  in  a 
straight  northeastward  direction,  leaving  the  county  at  a  point  about  mid- 
way between  Woolridge  and  Overton,  crossing  the  Missouri  River,  and  doing 
much  damage  in  Boone  County. 

At  Lone  Elm,  a  number  of  trees  were  blown  down.  The  cattle  barn 
of  Henry  Koenig,  one  mile  east  of  Lone  Elm,  was  unroofed,  and  scores  of 
forest  trees  in  the  woodland  pasture,  where  the  annual  Lone  Elm  picnic  is 
held,  were  uprooted. 

Mrs.  Emma  Schmallf eldt's  residence,  a  nine  room  frame  building,  was 
unroofed,  with  the  exception  of  one  room,  the  walls  blown  in,  and  the 
furniture  blown  away.  A  part  of  the  barn,  a  chicken  house,  and  a  sum- 
mer kitchen  were  blown  from  their  foundations.  Two  chicken  houses 
and  a  smoke  house  were  unroofed.     A  granary  was  also  demolished. 

The  entire  east  side  of  the  residence  of  Henry  J.  Muntzel,  located  a 
few  hundred  yards  southwest  of  the  Clarks  Fork  Trinity  Luthem  Church 
was  blown  out  and  the  house  was  unroofed  on  the  east  side.  A  summer 
kitchen  was  blown  off  into  foundation,  and  a  negro  farm  hand,  Winston 
Carr,  who  was  in  the  building  suffered  two  broken  ribs.  A  windmill  was 
also  blown  down,  as  well  as  fences  and  trees.  The  wooden  cross  on  the 
steeple  of  the  large  church  building  was  blown  down,  and  the  walls  of  the 
building  were  cracked  by  the  force  of  the  wind.  A  new  barn  at  the  rear 
of  the  church  parsonage  was  completely  demolished.  The  school  building 
just  south  of  the  church  edifice  was  blown  from  its  foundations,  and  a 
number  of  monuments  in  the  cemetery  were  blown  down. 

A  cattle  barn  on  the  farm  of  Mrs.  George  Myer  was  destroyed.  The 
Walnut  Christian  Church,  a  beautiful  edifice,  which  was  erected  at  a  cost 
of  over  $6,000,  and  dedicated  July  25,  1915,  was  completely  demolished 
and  blown  northward  across  a  deep  ravine,  and  the  wreck  was  lodged  in 
a  grove  of  trees,  or  carried  out  into  an  adjoining  field.  The  floor  was 
swept  clean  of  all  the  furnishings,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  chairs  and 
the  organ,  which  was  not  damaged. 

Of  the  scores  of  monuments  in  the  church  cemetery,  only  three  were 
left  standing.     William  Wisdom,  of  Prairie  Home,  who  was  in  the  build- 


ing  at  the  time,  in  attempting  to  leave,  was  struck  down,  and  blown  from 
the  building,  without  receiving  serious  injury.  His  horse  and  buggy  was 
hitched  near  by.  The  buggy  was  completely  demolished,  but  the  horse 
escaped  uninjured. 

A  pine  timber  1x4  was  blown  through  a  tree  about  seven  inches  in 
diameter.  Large  monuments  were  blown  over  and  the  framing  of  the 
church  building  was  completely  demolished. 

The  barn  of  Jesse  Newkirk  was  blown  down,  and  his*  residence  was 
damaged.  The  tenant  house  occupied  by  the  Phipps  family,  on  the  T.  B. 
Jewett  farm  was  badly  damaged,  the  house  being  blown  off  its  foundation, 
and  several  of  the  rooms  were  wrecked.  Lon  and  George  Phipps  had  a 
narrow  escape  from  death,  when  the  roof  fell  in  on  the  bed  on  which 
they  were  sleeping. 

John  Schmolzi  and  his  family,  who  lived  two  miles  east  of  Clarks 
Fork  were  great  sufferers.  Mr.  Schmolzi  grabbed  his  baby,  and  rushed  to 
a  small  cave  in  the  yard,  and  shouted  to  his  wife  and  three  other  children 
to  follow.  However,  they  were  too  late,  and  the  house  of  logs  was  blown 
down  upon  them.  Mrs.  Schmolzi  and  her  young  son,  Willie,  fourteen 
years  old,  were  taken  from  the  ruins  of  their  humble  home,  badly  injured. 
The  mother  received  internal  injuries,  and  the  boy  sustained  a  fractured 
skull.  Every  building  on  the  Schmolzi  farm  was  demolished,  farm  ma- 
chinery was  blown  away,  the  apple  orchard  destroyed  and  the  poultry 

A  freak  of  the  storm  here  was  the  taking  of  a  corn  planter,  twisting 
it  to  pieces,  and  then  taking  the  axle  of  the  planter  with  one  wheel  still 
attached,  and  driving  it  into  the  heart  of  a  big  oak  tree  twelve  or  fifteen 
feet  from  the  ground. 

A  heavy  road  grader  was  lifted  from  the  side  of  the  road,  crumpled 
into  junk,  and  hurled  across  the  road  into  a  grove  of  trees.  Two  barns 
south  of  the  residence  of  Hogan  Freeman  were  destroyed.  One  was  a 
new  structure,  16x30,  and  the  other  was  42  feet  square,  and  housed  six 
head  of  work  stock,  all  of  which  escaped  injury.  However,  seven  head 
o  fcattle  grazing  in  a  pasture  were  killed  by  the  flying  debris  from  the 
ruined  Schmolzi  home  and  outbuildings. 

Auntinie  Overton  and  Nick  Robertson,  negro  farmers,  had  their 
houses  torn  'down.  The  residence  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  Oerly,  located 
on  the  brow  of  the  hill,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  northwest  of  Gooch  Mill  was 
completely  demolished  and  blown  away.     Mr.  Oerly  was  struck  by  falling 


timbers,  and  his  wife  was  found  lying  unconscious  in  a  pool  of  blood  sev- 
eral yards  from  the  side  of  the  house. 

The  young  son  of  Nick  Blank  was  in  the  house  at  the  time  and  escaped 

The  ground  where  the  residence  stood  was  swept  clean  of  all  debris, 
and  the  timbers  carried  for  hundreds  of  yards.  An  automobile  was  turned 
into  scrap  iron,  and  literally  scattered  over  a  forty  acre  field.  Cattle  and 
horses  were  maimed  and  killed  and  dead  poultry  was  to  be  seen  on  every 

Tom  Christman's  house,  about  a  mile  north  of  Gooch's  Mill  was 
demolished.  Allene  Oerly,  the  13-year-old  daughter  of  Will  Oerly,  a 
Woolridge  merchant,  was  killed.  All  the  family  succeeded  in  reaching  a 
cyclone  cellar  beneath  the  summer  kitchen,  when  the  storm  in  its  fury, 
picked  up  Allene  and  hurled  her  away  in  the  fury  of  the  wind.  Her  body 
was  discovered  about  75  yards  away  from  the  cellar. 

The  residence  on  the  Joe  Hickman  farm,  occupied  by  Charles  Phipps, 
was  destroyed,  but  no  one  was  injured.  Tom  Calvert's  four-room  house, 
where  were  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Calvert  and  Thomp  Clayton,  wife  and  one  child, 
was  blown  down  without  injury  to  any  of  the  occupants. 

In  the  household  of  Fred  Fluke,  Fred  Fluke  himself  was  crushed  by 
falling  timbers  and  killed,  and  other  members  of  the  family  were  badly 
injured.  The  storm  moved  the  house  of  James  Adair  from  its  foundation, 
and  broke  Mr.  Adair's  leg. 

About  half  way  between  Woolridge  and  Overton,  the  storm  struck 
the  home  of  Theodore  Morchel,  killed  two  children  and  badly  injured  the 
wife  and  mother. 

This  was  the  most  appalling  calamity  that  had  come  to  Cooper  County 
in  years,  and  the  property  loss  was  great. 




It  is  not  in  the  province  of  the  history  of  Cooper  County,  nor  within 
the  purview  of  this  short  chapter  to  attempt  a  history  of  the  great  World 
War  that  threatened  the  very  foundation  of  civilization,  and  seriously 
affected  every  nation  upon  the  face  of  the  earth. 

President  Wilson,  in  his  speech  before  Congress  on  April  6,  1918, 
used  these  eloquent  and  forceful  words  that  found  spontaneous  response 
in  the  true  patriotism  of  America: 

"Let  everything  that  we  say,  my  fellow  countrymen,  everything  that 
we  henceforth  plan  and  accomplish,  ring  true  to  this  response  till  the 
majesty  and  might  of  our  concerted  power  shall  fill  the  thought  and 
utterly  defeat  the  force  of  those  who  flout  and  misprize  what  we  honor 
and  hold  dear. 

"Germany  has  once  more  said  that  force,  and  force  alone,  shall  decide 
whether  justice  and  peace  shall  reign  in  the  affairs  of  men,  whether  right 
as  America  conceives  it,  and  dominion,  as  she  conceives,  shall  determine 
the  destinies  of  mankind. 

"There  is  therefore  but  one  response  for  us;  force,  force  to  the 
utmost,  force  without  stint  or  limit,  the  righteous  and  triumphant  force 
which  will  make  the  law  of  the  world,  and  cast  every  selfish  dominion 
down  in  the  dust." 


Cooper  County  did  generously  and  nobly  her  part  in  financing  the 
great  World  War.  According  tp  the  best  information  at  hand,  the  county 
subscribed  $2,598,481  to  the  various  war  activities.  Of  this  amount, 
almost  $100,000,  to  be  exact,  $97,131  was  actually  given  by  citizens  to 
take  care  of  the  boys  who  fought  for  freedom  and  for  right. 

The  Red  Cross  received  splendid  support,  receiving  $54,756,  as  nearly 
as  can  be  estimated.  The  Y.  M.  C,  A.,  $9,375;  Salvation  Army  Fund, 
$1,000;  United  War  Work  Fund,  $32,000.  This  vast  amount  was  given 
with  no  hope  of  return,  other  than  patriotically  aiding  in  the  war.  In  the 
Liberty  Loans,  our  people  invested  over  two  and  one-half  millions  dollars 
in  government  securities,  the  amount  being  divided  between  the  four 
drives  as  follows:  First  Liberty  Loan,  $100,000;  Second  Liberty  Loan, 
$525,000;  Third  Liberty  Loan,  $616,350;  Fourth  Liberty  Loan,  $846,000. 
Added  to  this  amount  is  $414,000  invested  in  War  Savings  Stamps. 

The  above  statement  does  not  take  into  consideration  the  various 
sums  contributed  to  other  causes  connected  with  the  war,  such  as  the 
Tobacco  Fund,  Armenian  Relief,  French  War  Orphans,  etc. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  state  here  that  Cooper  County  has  no  German 
citizens,  but  a  goodly  number  of  American  citizens  of  German  birth  or 
parentage.  As  a  class,  they  are  frugal,  saving,  prosperous  and  honest, 
withall  good  livers. 

Before  our  entrance  to  the  great  war,  most  of  them  were  in  sympathy 
with  Germany,  and  such  were  not  neutral.  Germany's  great  propaganda, 
in  which  over  $100,000,000  were  spent,  was  insidious.  The  effect  of  many 
publications  like  "The  Fatherland"-  had  little  to  say  in  favor  of  their 
government,  or  of  their  institutions,  but  in  practically  every  line  eulogized, 
praised  and  upheld  the  institutions  and  theories  of  the  German  Empire, 
in  direct  opposition  to  American  principles  and  institutions.  But  with 
the  unfurling  of  Old  Glory  from  the  housetops,  their  hearts  beat  true, 
and  they  at  once  sprang  to  action,  and  responded  as  a  class  to  every  call. 
If  there  were  reservations  in  the  minds  of  a  few,  the  number  was  indeed 
small,  and  existed  largely  in  the  minds  of  the  suspicious. 

By  reason  of  the  peculiar  situation  of  this  class  of  our  citizens,  the 
editor  feels  called  upon  to  pay  this  short  tribute.  We  are  Americans, 
regardless  of  the  route  each  has  traveled  to  become  one.  We  are  one 
in  love  of  home  and  country.  The  names  of  our  boys  who  toiled,  suffered 
and  bled  in  Flanders  field  are  confined  to  no  nationality.  Each  is  a  true 


"About  his  brow  the  laurel  and  the  bay 
Was  often  wreathed — on  this  our 
Memory  dwells — 

Upon  whose  bier  in  reverence  today 
We  lay  these  imortelles. 
His  was  a  vital,  virile,  warrior  soul ; 
If  force  were  needed,  he  exalted  force; 
Unswerving  as  the  pole  star  to  the  pole, 
He  held  his  righteous  course. 
He  smote  at  wrong,  if  he  believed  it  wrong, 
As  did  the  Knight,  with  stainless 
Accolade ; 

He  stood  for  right,  unfalteringly  strong, 
Forever  unafraid. 

With  somewhat  of  the  Savant  and  the 

He  was,  when  all  is  said  and  sung, 


The  flower  imperishable  of  his  valiant 
A  true  American." 

We  had  no  spies  to  watch  in  Cooper,  yet  following  the  precedent 
established  throughout  the  country,  A  Board  of  Defense  was  appointed, 
consisting  of  the  following  gentlemen:  Dr.  A.  W.  Nelson,  chairman; 
H.  A.  Jewett,  A.  H.  Harriman,  E.  E.  Amick,  D.  A.  McArthur,  A.  A.  Wal- 
lace, Homer  Wear,  Roy  D.  Williams  and  L.  0.  Schaumburg,  secretary. 
Their  activities  were  tame,  for  there  was  no  necessity  for  unusual  vigil- 

In  Sept.,  1918,  the  above  Council  of  Defense  of  Cooper  County,  met 
and  passed  the  following  resolutions :     *     *     * 

"WHEREAS,  a  spontaneous  sentiment  from  every  quarter  of  the 
county,  arising  from  the  patriotic  hearts  of  the  citizenship  of  Cooper 
County,  has  appealed  to  the  Cooper  County  Council  of  Defense  to  take 
action  in  the  matter  of  suppressing  the  use  of  the  German  language  in 
churches,  schools,  public  meetings  of  every  sort,  including  conversation 
over  telephone  lines,  and  also  on  the  public  streets  and  thoroughfares  of 
the  county; 


THEREFORE,  it  is  unanimously  resolved  by  the  Cooper  County 
Council  of  Defense  that  the  citizenship  of  this  county  be  and  is  hereby 
urgently  requested  to  refrain  from  communicating  in  the  language  of  our 
enemy  in  all  public  places  and  on  all  public  occasions  as  above  enumerated 
during  the  period  of  the  war. 

An  appeal  is  made  to  our  patriotic  citizenship  to  aid  with  every  means 
within  our  power  in  carrying  out  the  provisions  of  this  proclamation." 

Early  Monday  morning,  Nov.  11,  1918,  the  news  was  flashed  through- 
out the  country  that  the  armistice  had  been  signed.  Great  demonstra- 
tions were  held  throughout  the  county  and  especially  in  Boonville.  It 
was  a  gala  day  from  early  morning  till  late  at  night.  Bands  were  play- 
ing and  demonstrations  of  all  characters  were  being  carried  on  in  jubila- 
tion of  the  end  of  the  most  stupendous  tragedy  in  the  history  of  the  world. 

A  treaty  of  peace  has  been  signed  and  our  boys  are  returning  to  their 
homes.  The  material  is  not  at  hand  to  give  more  than  the  names  of  those 
who  gave  their  services  to  their  country.  We  are  not  able  to  give  the 
pi-omotions  or  special  deeds  of  valor  of  our  boys,  for  any  attempt  so  to  do, 
with  the  meager  information  at  hand  would  be  unjust  to  many.  The 
ladies  of  Boonville  have  also  prepared  a  list,  and  upon  comparing  their 
list  with  ours,  we  find  that  they  have  apparently  omitted  a  number  of 
names  which  appear  upon  our  list,  and  upon  the  other  hand,  we  find  that 
they  have  names  that  we  have  not  secured.  We  therefore  give  first  the 
list  that  we  have  secured,  and  after  that,  we  give  those  that  appear  upon 
the  list  secured  by  the  ladies,  which  do  not  appear  upon  ours.  We  do  not 
vouch  for  the  correctness  of  either. 

Arnold,  Earl ;  Anderson,  Douglas ;  Allison,  Earl  M. ;  Alpers,  Wm.  H. ; 
Ausemus,  C.  E. ;  Armstrong,  John ;  Amick,  Eugene  Earl ;  Albin,  Jesse 
Vigel;  Alpers,  John  Wm.;  Anderson,  Hy. 

Burger,  Wm.  Arthur;  Boswell,  Merritt  H. ;  Boswell,  Henry;  Boggs, 
Thos.  J. ;  Brown,  Oliver  Carl ;  Brent,  Earl  F. ;  Barnes,  Paul ;  Burnham, 
Connie;  Bell,  Jas.  V.;  Burke,  Jaine  Martin;  Banty,  Earl  James;  Beatty, 
Jas. ;  Brown,  Louis  Alvin ;  Bradley,  Arthur  L. ;  Bower,  Clark  E. ;  Brock- 
man,  John;  Bowmer,  Newton;  Bishup,  Oscar;  Bowmer,  Jas.  R. ;  Butts, 
Orville  Ray;  Brandt,  Leon  Norrite;  Brooks,  John  H. ;  Buckley,  Carl  A.; 
Berry,  Franklin  ;  Bonham,  Alfred ;  Brown,  Ervine  W. ;  Bottom,  Lawrence ; 
Banks,  Coleman  C. ;  Buchanan,  Frank  G. ;  Brengarth,  Henry  L. ;  Brown- 
field,  Veit;  Burrell,  Ben  E. ;  Bauman,  Lee  Ernest;  Burger,  Wallace  Walker; 
Bradley,  Frank  R. ;  Bryan,  Lloyd ;  Blackstone,  Mack  L. ;  Baker,  Henry  J. ; 
Baugh,  Harry;  Burd,   Charlie;  Baker,   Wm.   Elmer;  Berry,   Harry  Lon; 


Bell,  Stanley  Ira;  Baker,  Auburn  C;  Burger,  Joseph  A.;  Butler,  Elaske; 
Bruce,  Amos ;  Byler,  Robert  H. ;  Buckner,  Hallie ;  Burrus,  John  Milton ; 
Byler,  Garland ;  Brewster,  Harry  E. ;  Barnert,  Edgar  L. ;  Brown,  Harvey 
E. ;  Binkley,  Jas. ;  Baldwin,  Ira  C. ;  Blalock,  Jas.  T. 

Carl,  Edward  G.  J. ;  Cave,  John ;  Coleman,  Calvin ;  Cramar,  Ray ;  Con- 
way, Raborn  Lee;  Coleman,  Jas.  H. ;  Croft,  Geo.  W. ;  Coleman,  Wayt  J.; 
Clawson,  John ;  Conway,  John  Richard ;  Conway,  Jas.  F. ;  Chase,  John  H. ; 
Cornwell,  Clarence;  Copas,  Wm.  F.;  Crawford,  Willie;  Clawson,  Jas.; 
Crawford,  John  H. ;  Crump,  Sherman ;  Coats,  Wilbur ;  Cordry,  Omer  E. ; 
Chamberlin,  Leonadus ;  Crockett,  Jas.  F. ;  Coleman,  Nelson ;  Campbell, 
Roy;  Clay,  Charlie;  Cassell,  Charlie;  Cooper,  Linn;  Cardin,  Dudley  B.; 
Clark,  Leonadus  M. ;  Cochran,  William  J. ;  Cramar,  Chas.  D. ;  Coleman, 
Chas.  C. ;  Cardin,  Chas.  E. ;  Cox,  Allen ;  Clark,  John  B. ;  Corum,  Martene 
W. ;  Conway,  John  Robert ;  Cash,  H.  M. ;  Coleman,  Chas.  W. ;  Corder,  F.  F. ; 
Cary,  H.  E. ;  Cramar,  E.  D. ;  Callegari,  E. ;  Cole,  F.  L. ;  Chenault,  Clarence 
D.;  Cosgrove,  D.  W. 

Diel,  Wm.  0.;  Duncan,  Herbert;  Dohn,  J.  E. ;  Diel,  Raymond  F. ; 
Davis.  Samuel ;  Dunfield,  Jos. ;  Dief  endorf ,  John ;  Davis,  Porter  E. ;  Dick. 
John  Henry ;  Derondinger,  Emil  E. ;  Deurmeyr,  Harry ;  Diehl,  Wm. ; 
Draff  en,  Lot  Elbert;  Davison,  Harry;  Drew,  McKinley;  Douglass,  Ray- 
mond; Davis,  Lewis  C. ;  Diggs.  Arthur  E. ;  Decker,  Ray  H. ;  Dick,  Lewis 
Wm. ;  Devine,  Michael  Thos. ;  Davis,  Harland  H. ;  Davis,  Walter;  Drew, 
Isaac;  Diemler,  Lewis  G. ;  Daniels,  Roy  Oliver;  Dumolt,  Urban  A.;  Dix. 
Pearlie  Lee;  Davis,  J.  E. ;  Driver,  Wm.  Henry. 

Earley,  Arnold  J.;  Evans,  Herman  B. ;  Evans,  Loney ;  Embry,  Sidney 
E. ;  Enloe,  Lewis  M. ;  Eubank,  Louis  A. ;  Eichman,  Milton  R. ;  Eades  Cha*. 
H. ;  Edwards.  Robert  S.;  Ernst,  Otto  W. ;  Enquist,  Geo.  S. ;  Embry.  Roy 
H. ;  Edson,  Henry;  Embry,  Virgil  F.;  Evans,  Benj.  F.;  Edwards,  Riley 
Bird ;  Ellis,  Clay  W. 

Fry,  John  R. ;  Felton,  Leo  H. ;  Fetters,  Ben ;  Farris,  Nuckols ;  Frandes, 
Wm.  Carl ;  Fowler,  Tyre  B. ;  Fry,  Elmer  Leon ;  Fairchild,  Wm.  W. ;  Fried- 
erich,  Herman  B. ;  Friedrich,  Carl;  Fry,  Jesse  A.;  Friedrich,  Jacob  W. ; 
Felton,  Francis  Richard;  Fairfax,  Lon ;  Friedrich,  Edward  C;  Folkerts. 
Lewis  J. 

Griffin,  Victor  R. ;  Gargus,  Geo.  F.;  Grose,  Vanmeeter;  Gooseberry, 
Ernest;  Gantner,  Walter  E.:  Gravell,  Jos.  Lewis;  Golden,  Addie;  Groves, 
Oscar  B.;  Gronstedt,  Wm.;  Givens.  Bryan  B.;  Gillum,  Geo.  C;  Gilson,  Ira 
E. ;  Gantner,  Urban  A. ;  Gerke,  John ;  Givens,  Clarence  A. ;  Gunn,  J.  P. ; 
Givens,  Clay  Carl;  Green,  John  W.;  Golden,  Hickman;  Goode,  Mack  J.; 


Green,  Julian  Bact ;  Gantner,  Earl  Jerome ;  Good,  Isaac  N. ;  Grazier,  Sher- 
man; Gerling,  Jos.  J.;  Gilbreath,  Hugh  K. ;  Geiger,  Lawrence;  Gavisk, 
Morgan;  Gronstedt,  Martin;  Griffin,  Harry  B.;  Gibson,  Robert  Lercy;  Gil- 
more,  Finis  Glen;  Gensler,  Thomas;  Grotinger,  Ferdinand;  Geiger,  John 
Wilbur ;  Gump,  Roy.  Jord ;  Gantner,  Jos. ;  Grose,  Jas.  W. ;  Gray,  Olaff ;  Gar- 
land, Homer;  Gibson,  Wm.  M. 

Hirst,  John  R. ;  Hepler,  Jesse  J. ;  Harris,  W.  B. ;  Hogan,  Lenwood ; 
Hopkins,  Chas.  W. ;  Holmes,  Wm. ;  Haller,  Richard  W. ;  Heisler,  Herman 
V. ;  Hogan,  Alfred ;  Henderson,  Chas.  C. ;  Hoellerich,  Aug. ;  Harris,  Loy  E. ; 
Holliday,  Arthur  L. ;  Hutchinson,  P.  T. ;  Haley,  Joel ;  Hull,  Wm.  S. ;  Haley, 
W.  L. ;  Holmes,  Barney ;  Hilden,  Herman  P. ;  Hutchinson,  Robt.  M. ;  Harte, 
Houston ;  Harris,  Chas.  D. ;  Harris,  Edgar  W. ;  Hogan.  Oliver  A. ;  Huth, 
Wilbur  L. ;  Hausser,  Albert ;  Houcker,  Geo.  F. ;  Hupp,  Chas.  J. ;  Huff,  Ray- 
mond P.  L. ;  Hogan,  Jas.  Otey;  Harned,  Walter  P.;  Hardiman,  Wm.; 
Howard.  Claud ;  Holliday,  Ernest ;  Hale,  Frank  O. ;  Hoff ,  Edward  L. ;  Hec- 
tor, Herbert  A. ;  Hedgpeth,  Robt.  Geo. ;  Huckaby,  Samuel  T. ;  Hotsenpiller, 
Irl  H. ;  Hopkins,  Jesse;  Helmreich,  Elbert  E. ;  Hunt,  Robert  V.;  Hams, 
Terry  E. ;  Hill,  Jasper  L. ;  Hickam,  Chas.  S. ;  Hurt,  Ewing;  Hammonds, 
Ernest ;  Hale,  John  P. ;  Harris,  Marion  C. ;  Hurt,  Porter  Marion ;  Haunsen, 
Aaron  W. ;  Haller,  S.  John ;  Harris,  Wm.  J. ;  Huckaby,  Pearl ;  Hain,  Geo. 
John ;  Howard,  Joe ;  Harlan,  Geo.  C. ;  Hupp,  Isaac  Gill ;  Holliday,  Virgil ; 
Hedrick,  Lon  M. ;  Hoberecht,  Ray. 

Irvin,  John  T. 

Johnson,  Leslie  Smith;  Jones,  Brent;  Jones,  Chas.  Elmer;  Jegglin, 
Wm.  A.;  Johnson,  Johnny;  Jenry,  Wm.  H. ;  Jones,  Richard  C;  Jenry,  Job" 
M. ;  Johnson,  Ellis;  Jackson,  Walter;  Johnson,  Robt.  Perry;  Jegglin, 
Ulmont;  Jenkins,  Phillip;  Jones,  Roy  E. ;  Johnson,  Andrew  D. ;  Johnson. 
Clyde  Gail ;  Jones,  Roy  Lindsay ;  Johns,  Wm.  Kelly ;  Jaeger,  Albert,  Jr. 

Knabe,  Herman  H. ;  Kallian,  Chas. ;  Kraus,  Frederick  A. ;  Kirschman, 
Lester  L. ;  Klenklen,  Wm.  T. ;  Knorp,  John  G. ;  Krohn,  Frederick  H. ;  Kos- 
field,  Herman  Henry ;  Kaiser,  Wm.  Theodore ;  Kimlin,  Fred  A. ;  Kaiser,  Geo. 
F. ;  Kibler,  Wm.  Walter;  Kistenmacher,  Karl;  King,  Lawson  Lander; 
Knipp,  Peter  J.,  Jr. ;  Klenklen,  Victor  S. ;  Klein,  Elmer  Henry ;  King,  Judd ; 
Kinney,  Dorsey ;  Koontz,  Frank  L. ;  Kahle,  Herman  F. ;  Kinney,  Jewel  M. ; 
Korte,  Homer  E. 

Langlotz,  Verner  C. ;  Long,  John  T. ;  Loesing,  Geo.  Henry ;  Layne, 
John  W. ;  Long,  Chas.  Clifford ;  Langkep,  Walter ;  Lusk,  Marshall  B. ;  Lyle, 
Chas.  F. ;  Lovick,  Wm.  A. ;  Lewis,  Edward ;  Lance,  Geo. ;  Lacy,  Geo.  Whit ; 
Lawson,  Barney  E. ;  Lee,  Wm.;  Lawson,  Roy;  Lewis,  Harry;  Leuckert,. 


C.  D. ;  Langkop,  Edward  Chas. ;  Logan.  Urbie  Jas. ;  Lamm,  Oscar  Irving; 
Lee,  Nelson;  Lamm,  Jas.  Forrest;  Lee,  Harrison  G. 

Miller,  Roy  F. ;  Miles,  Homer ;  McKinley,  Lenwood ;  Mersey,  Elmer  E. ; 
Moore,  Jeff  T. ;  Miles,  Eugene ;  Mersey,  Wm.  H. ;  Minor,  Hogan ;  Mayer, 
Chas.  H.;  Meller,  Thos.  E. ;  Manning,  Floyd  H. ;  Miller,  Geo.  L. ;  Mallory, 
Gilbert;  Mcllveny,  John;  Meredith,  Wm.  Owen;  Moore,  LeRoy ;  Meredith, 
Geo.  H. ;  Morris,  Clay ;  Moore,  Hilliard  H. ;  Miller,  H.  J. ;  Miller,  John  L. ; 
Madison,  Ernest;  Myer.  Henry  Robert;  Morris,  Warren  Cole;  McDonnell, 
Paul  Brooks;  McCleary,  James;  Meyer,  August;  Mochel,  Wm.  F. ;  Moehle, 
Geo.  E. ;  McDowell,  Sid  ;  Marshall,  Rudolph  ;  Minor,  J.  W. ;  Morrison,  Paul ; 
Moore,  Hugh  Shelborn ;  Miller,  Archie ;  Montgomery,  Wm. ;  Meyers.  For- 
rest; Mize,  Richard  B. ;  Meisenheimer,  R.  D. ;  Muessig,  Robert;  Myers, 
Fred  Wm.,  Jr.;  Morrow,  Silas  A. 

Needy,  Forrest;  Nichols,  Willis;  Nookerman,  John  A.;  Nelson,  Wm. ; 
Neef,  Henry  Carl ;  Nelson,  Ruben  C. ;  Niederwimmer,  H. ;  Nelson,  Wm. ; 
Newbauer,  Emil;  Neale,  Monroe,  Lee. 

Oerly,  Frank  J.;  Ohlendorf,  Henry  F. ;  Odneal,  Hugh  B.;  Oak,  Walter 
S. ;  Odil,  Jan  Anderson ;  Odom,  Radford  F. ;  O'Neal,  Samuel  Amos ;  Odneal, 
J.  Geo.  Poindexter;  Owings,  William  T. ;  Orendorf,  Robert  Lee;  Oak,  W.  W. 

Pepper,  Herman ;  Peeples,  Harold ;  Palmer,  Frank  D. ;  Pare,  Oscar  H. ; 
Piatt,  Wm.  B. ;  Paxton,  John  H. ;  Phillips,  Paul  W. ;  Plater,  Calvin ;  Porter, 
Willie;  Poindexter,  Alfred;  Pulley,  Clarence;  Parkhurst,  Geo.  A.;  Pearson, 
Carl  C;  Powers,  Elmore;  Philpott,  James  E. ;  Phipps,  Geo.  Wm. ;  Parrish, 
James ;  Poindexter,  Arthur  L. ;  Phipps,  Marion  Lee ;  Patterson,  Jas.  W. ; 
Poindexter,  John  William;  Pulley,  Leonard  B. ;  Putnam,  Thos.  B.;  Park- 
hurst, Fred  A.;  Potter,  A.  Zabe  H. ;  Poindexter,  Chas.  F. ;  Poole,  Ellis': 
Poertner,  Ernest  J. ;  Powell,  Earl ;  Pethan,  Oscar  W.  H. ;  Perry,  Elmer  J. ; 
Phillip,  Noah;  Potter,  Lilburn  A.;  Perry,  Hiram;  Porter,  Chas. 

Quint,  Wm.;  Quinley,  Henry  Vernon;  Quigley,  Wm.  Oliver;  Quint, 

Read,  Chas.;  Ronan,  Lee  Albert;  Reavis,  Henry  F. ;  Rassmussen, 
Arthur;  Rawlins,  Howard  M. ;  Roth,  Louis  G.;  Richey,  Charlie;  Redmon. 
Chas.;  Richey,  Alphus  N. ;  Runkle,  Wm.  K.;  Ross,  James  A.;  Reynolds, 
H.  W. ;  Richardson,  Clarence ;  Reynolds,  Geo.  S. ;  Robinson,  Press ;  Richter, 
John  H. ;  Robinson,  Carter;  Rucker,  Ray;  Roberts,  Roy  Daniel;  Redd,  Roy ; 
Rentschler,  Samuel  D. ;  Ries,  Herman ;  Reed,  John  Wm. ;  Rolfe.  Sidney  R. ; 
Riggs,  Geo.  E.;  Roberts,  Cecil  C. ;  Riggs,  Oscar;  Rau,  Frank  Joseph. 

Schuster,  Wilbur  J.;  Smith,  Edgar  E. ;  Schilb,  Francis  Oscar;  Stretz, 
Wilbur  F.;  Sims,  Roy  B.;  Spillers,  Guy  E. :  Simms,  John  W. ;  Schmidt, 


Edward  Joseph;  Simmers,  Luther;  Sanders,  Thos.  P.;  Stegner,  Lloyd  E.; 
-Stephens,  Ralph ;  Smith,  Walter  R. ;  Schupp,  Wm. ;  Stacy,  King  George ; 
Sevier,  Walker ;  Smith,  P.  L. ;  Schupp,  R. ;  Stephens,  Lon  V. ;  Sanders,  Jas. ; 
Stuart,  Jesse  E. ;  Stephens,  Clyde;  Smalley,  Joe  B. ;  Soph,  Raymond; 
Sharp,  John  W. ;  Smallwood,  Joe ;  Schwartz,  Joseph  H. ;  Stephens,  Joseph 
L. ;  Scott,  Willie  M. ;  Skith,  Henry  A. ;  Shaw,  Robert  J. ;  Schoen,  Frank  S. ; 
Shackleford,  John;  Schlup,  Ovey;  Simmons,  Chas.  C. ;  Salmon,  Thos.  J.; 
Straub,  John  F. ;  Sweeny,  David,  Jr.;  Smith,  Russell  B.;  Schultz,  Frank; 
Steinmetz,  Samuel  T. ;  Smith,  Thomas  B. ;  Schwartz,  John  C. ;  Sanders, 
Lester  J.;  Simms,  Morrison  C. ;  Schneibner,  Carl  F. ;  Schmidt,  Harry  L. ; 
Stephens,  Whitney  A.;  Sullins,  Elsa  Victor;  Schrader,  Wm.  H. ;  Selck, 
Hilliard ;  Schilb,  Alva  E. ;  Snyder,  Lee  F. ;  Stretz,  Norbert ;  Stephens,  Reid ; 
Sparks,  Daniel ;  Sombart,  Harry  E. ;  Sieckmann,  Wilhelm ;  Schupp,  Con- 
rad; Smith,  Arthur;  Schupp,  Fritz;  Sutton,  Lewis  H. ;  Scholle,  Albro; 
Snider,  Alex ;  Sanders,  Timothy ;  Strickf  adden,  Geo. ;  Simon,  Russell ; 
Schilb,  Enslie  Irvin;  Stapleton,  Winston;  Schlotzhauer,  Hallie  C:  Sim- 
mons, Roy  E. ;  Shinn,  Henry;  Schoen,  Charles;  Sites,  William  Lee;  Smith, 
Douglass ;  Stephens,  Walter ;  Smith,  J.  A. ;  Schwartz,  Jacob  John ;  Simms, 
Thomas  A.;  Simpson,  Sylvester;  Stephens,  James;  Speaker,  Neal  F. ; 
Shafer,  William  0.;  Shemwell,  George;  Stockard,  Frank  L. ;  Smith, 
Edward  B. 

Thompson,  Herman ;  Turley,  John  C. ;  Trester,  John ;  Toler,  Frank  G. ; 
Toley,  William  B. ;  Taylor,  Julius;  Thompson,  Clem  Arnold;  Toler,  Joseph 
A.;  Toennis,  John  Gustave;  Theiss,  Lawrence;  Thomas,  Lewis;  Turner, 
William  C. ;  Todd,  Frank;  Turner,  Henry;  Tolbert,  Floyd  A.;  Twenter, 
Albert  H. ;  Tuirtcis,  Paungistis ;  Taliaferro,  Louis  G. ;  Tompkins,  John 
Cheatham ;  Thomas,  George  M. ;  Tuttle,  Joseph  Morton ;  Thoma,  Frank  J. ; 
Teele,  Burke;  Thompson,  Joseph;  Templemire,  Edward;  Trester,  Harry 
Peter;  Tumy,  William  H. ;  Thomas,  John  L. ;  Terrell,  Arthur. 

Utz,  Winfield  Roy. 

Varnum,  F.  R.;  Vieth,  August  William;  Vamer,  Robert  E. ;  Verts, 
Joseph  L. ;  Verts,  Harry  Lee;  Verts,  Chalos  Isaac;  Varnum,  George  W. ; 
Vaugn,  Roy  R. 

Westerman,  Ernest;  Wolfe,  Lewis  E. ;  Wiemholt,  Fred  A.;  Williams, 
Lawrence;  Whitlow,  Henry  C;  Windsor,  Wilbur  C;  Wright,  Harry; 
Woodhouse,  Henry;  Willson,  Willis;  Wallace,  Roscoe  A.;  Woodhouse, 
Albert ;  Walterscheid,  Peter  M. ;  Williams,  Howard ;  Wolfe,  Oral  W. ;  Wil- 
liams, Grover  C. ;  Windsor,  Edward  H. ;  Williams,  Charles ;  Wilhite,  John 


F. ;  Wide],  John  B. ;  Watkins,  Theodore ;  Wright,  Clarence ;  Wall,  William 
Arthur;  Wilson,  Charles  W. ;  Wolfe,  William  M. ;  Weyland,  Morgan  L. ; 
Windsor,  John  II. ;  Williams,  Roy ;  Williams,  Edwin  A. ;  Wendleton,  John 
E. ;  Williams,  Charles  A. ;  Witt,  Jeroid  Lee ;  Wisner,  John  B. ;  Whitlow, 
Elliot  W. ;  Windsor,  John  Leonard ;  Wassman,  Orion  F. ;  Wilhite,  Elea  S. ; 
Wallje,  Ernest  B. ;  White,  Arthur  F. ;  White,  Walter  C. 

Yeager,  Frederick  W.  L. ;  Young,  Rudolph  H. 

Zimmerman,  Robert. 

The  following  names  we  give  as  those  that  appear  upon  the  list  that  . 
was  prepared  by  the  ladies  of  Boonville  that  do  not  appear  upon  the  above 
list  prepared  by  us. 

Biltz,  Rolla ;  Blank,  Albert ;  Bonen,  Leo  Albert ;  Brandes,  William 
Carl;  Bryan,  Charles  Virgil;  Burke,  John  Joseph;  Barr,  David  Albert; 
Bamby,  Earl  James. 

Cash,  Horace  Miller;  Campbell,  Arthur  Harrie;  Cannon,  James  Nel- 
son; Cramer,  Ernest  Dewitt;  Cole,  Charles  Betteridge;  Collegan,  Ernest. 

Deimber,  Albert. 

Gooseberry,  Ernest;  Gabriel,  Samuel  Emery. 

Hutchison,  William  Thomas;  Huffman,  Paul  Bush. 

Kreeger,  Heo.  H. ;  Kelly.  Dr.  R.  Q. 

Larrimore,  William  H. 

Meeker,  Hiram;  Meagher,  Leo.  James;  McElroy,  Charles  Willey; 
Matheny,  William. 

Pfeiffer,  John. 

Reed,  Nolan  Potter;  Reynolds,  Virgil  Lee. 

Stegner,  Joseph  William;  Skinner,  Elvie  Elmer;  Stewart,  Wilbur; 
Schmitt,  Urban  Frank;  Stephens,  Robert;  Smith,  Samuel. 

Tuff,  Henry  G. 

Wilson,  Fred  W. ;  Watson,  George;  Williams,  Douglas  Kyril ;  Waller, 

Company  B,  Third  Regiment  Infantry,  N.  G.,  Boonville,  Mo.,  was 
called  into  Federal  service  March  25,  1917,  and  drafted  into  Federal  service 
August  5,  1917  and  consolidated  with  Co.  B,  6th  Mo.  Infantry  and  desig- 
nated Co.  B,  140th  Infantry. 

Captain,  Carl  F.  Scheibner;  1st  Lieutenant,  Warren  T.  Davis;  2d 
Lieutenant,  William  F.  Short;  1st  Sergeant,  Merl  Joseph  Barnert;  Mess 
Sergeant,  Juneious  C.  Davis;  Suply  Sergeant,  Carl  A.  Miller;  Sergeants, 
John  P.  Logan,  Jr.,  Forest  E.  Callahan;  Corporals,  William  Lachneij, 
Joseph  C.  White,  Ewell  K.  Walden;  Cooks,  Morrison  C.  Simms,  George 


Langhans;  Buglers,  Monte  C.  Coulter,  Edward  T.  Willard ;  Privates, 
Robert  Annly,  Stephen  Y.  Bagby,  Daniel  Becker,  Wayne  R.  Berry,  Rolla 
Biltz,  Burke  E.  Bledsoe,  Rolla  T.  Bottom,  John  W.  Buchanan,  Arthur  L. 
Campbell,  Frank  W.  Cash,  John  Cauthon,  John  Cochran,  Charles  B.  Cor- 
nett,  Wyatt  Cramer,  Oscar  Crum,  Jesse  H.  Davis,  Oscar  J.  Dewell,  James 
L.  Donohew,  John  C.  Edwards,  Jewell  Fenical,  Paul  R.  Goode,  Monte  H. 
Haller,  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  George  Hayes,  James  J.  Haley,  Roy  P.  Haley, 
Tom  A.  Hickcox,  Harry  R.  Holmer,  Henry  J.  Hilscamp,  Ewing  Hurt, 
Charles  H.  Huber,  Cecil  Jenkins,  Eugene  E.  Johnston,  Eugene  F.  Kleasner, 
James  L.  Kreeger,  George  Leininger,  Edgar  C.  Lohse,  Sylvanus  W.  Malott, 
Andrew  L.  Mayfield,  John  H.  McMellon,  Emett  H.  McRoberts,  Carl  W. 
Mock,  Sam  A.  Mock,  Charles  S.  Moore,  Kemper  Moore,  Riley  W.  Murphy, 
Claude  L.  Muncy,  Walker  Oswald,  Raymond  R.  Partee,  Phillip  Peeples, 
David  H.  Pfeifer,  Otto  E.  Poertner,  George  Potter,  Robert  C.  Renfrow, 
Earl  W.  Russell,  Albert  Schell,  William  Scotten,  Rodney  E.  Simmons,  Web- 
ster Joseph  Simmons,  Ernest  N.  Simpson,  Fred  Sims,  Jo  B.  Smalley, 
Ernest  F.  Spaete,  Robert  H.  Stephens,  Jesse  0.  Stillwell,  Curtis  Stiner, 
Stanley  M.  Thatcher,  William  R.  Thomas,  Ralph  A.  Tuckley,  Robert  Von 
Oertzen,  Dewey  F.  Wells,  Lon  H.  Weyland,  James  White,  Roger  E.  White, 
Richard  N.  Windsor,  Grady  T.  Wood,  William  H.  Yontz. 

Casualty  List. — Through  the  kindness  of  Floyd  C.  Shoemaker,  sec- 
retary of  the  State  Historical  Society  of  Missouri,  we  herein  give  the 
casualty  list  of  the  Cooper  County  boys.  Mr.  Shoemaker,  at  considerable 
trouble,  has  compiled  this  list  and  it  is  barely  possible  that  it  does  not 
contain  all  the  casualties,  yet  in  the  main  it  is  correct: 

Annley,  Robert,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Barnes,  Lucien  Nelson,  private,  Blackwater,  wounded  slightly. 

Berry,  Wayne  R.,  private,  Speed,  wounded    (degree  undetermined). 

Bietz,  Rolland,  private,  Bunceton,  wounded  slightly. 

Blackstone,  McLawrence,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  died  of  disease  (U. 
S.  A.). 

Coleman,  Wayt  J.,  private,  Woodridge,  wounded  slightly. 

Coulter,  Monte  C,  corporal,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Cramar,  Ray,  private,  Blackwater,  wounded  severely. 

Dickinson,  Jonathan  0.,  lieutenant,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Diel,  Raymond  Felix,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  wounded  (degree  unde- 

Diel,  O.  William,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  died  of  disease   (U.  S.  A.). 

Dishion,  Pierce  J.,  private,  Bunceton,  wounded  slightly. 


Duncan,  Herbert,  private,  Overton,  wounded  slightly. 

Embry,  Sidney  E.,  private,  Cooper  County,  killed  in  action. 

Fairfax,  Lon  S.,  private,  Otterville,  died  of  disease. 

Fowler,  Tyre  Boon,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  (degree  undeter- 

Haller,  Richard  William,  private,  Boonville,  died  of  disease. 

Harlan,  George  Clark  (navy),  died  of  disease. 

Harris,  William,  lieutenant,  Boonville.  wounded  (degree  undeter- 

Johns,  William  Kelley,  private,  Boonville,  killed  in  action. 

Johnson,  Everett  Hale,  Blackwater,  killed  in  action. 

Junkerman,  Albert  F.,  private,  Blackwater,  died  of  disease. 

Klien,  George  J.,  private,  Blackwater,  missing  in  action. 

Knabe,  Henry  Herman,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  (degree  unde- 

Knoep,  Elmer  T.,  private,  Prairie  Home,  wounded  severely. 

Kreeger,   George   H.,   corporal,   Boonville,   prisoner,   wounded. 

Langkop,  Walter  T.,  private,  Bunceton,  died  of  disease. 

Logan,  John  P.,  sergeant,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Long,  Charles  C,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  wounded  slightly. 

Malott,  Sylvanus  W.,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  wounded  slightly. 

Mayer,  Charles  H.,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

McAllister,  Arthur  T.,  private,  Boonville,  died  of  wounds. 

Meyer,  Henry  R.,  recruit,  Prairie  Home,  died  of  disease   (U.  S.  A.). 

Miller,  Carl  A.,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Miller,  George  True,  private,  LaMine,  wounded  (degree  undeter- 

Miller,  John  L.,  private,  Speed,  wounded  slightly. 

Miller,  Roy  F.  (navy),  Boonville,  died  of  disease  (U.  S.  A.). 

Mock,  Samuel  A.,  lieutenant,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Odneal,  Hugh  B.,  private,  Prairie  Home,  wounded  severely. 

Ohlendorf,  Henry  E.,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Poertner,  Otto  Ernest,  private,  Boonville,  killed  in  action. 

Robey,  William  M.,  private,  LaMine,  wounded  severely. 

Ross,  James  Alfred,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Sanders,  Thomas  P.,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Salmon,  Thomas  J.,  private,  Otterville,  wounded  severely. 

Sears,  Ernest  Cecil,  private  (marine),  Blackwater,  wounded  severely. 



Simmons,  Charles  C,  corporal,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Simmons,  Henry  T.,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Simmons,  Rodney  E.,  private,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Simmons,  Webster  J.,  sergeant,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Smith,  Edward  B.,  private,  Cooper  County,  missing  in  action. 

Smith,  Perry  D.,  private,  Blackwater,  died  of  disease. 

Speaker,  Neal  F.,  sergeant,  Otterville,  wounded  (degree  undetermined). 

Spray,  Walker,  corporal,  Boonville,  wounded  slightly. 

Stephens,  Clyde  P.,  private,  Bunceton,  wounded  slightly. 

Stephens,  Robert,  corporal,  Bunceton,  wounded  severely. 

Stock,  August  W.,  corporal,  Overton,  wounded  slightly. 

Stoner,  Curtis,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  wounded  (degree  undetermined). 

Straub,  John  Franklin,  bugler,  Pleasant  Green,  wounded  (undeter- 
mined) . 

Taylor,  George  Estel,  private,  Boonville,  died  of  disease. 

Thoma,  Leonard  E.,  mechanic,  Boonville,  died  of  wounds. 

Thomas,  William,  private,  Pilot  Grove,  wounded  severely. 

Vaughn,  Harley  P.,  corporal,  Boonville,  wounded  severely. 

Watson,  George  W.,  mechanic,  Blackwater,  wounded  severely. 

Whitton,  Henry  C,  private,  Blackwater,  wounded  severely. 

Wilson,  Arthur  C,  private  (marine),  Pleasant  Green,  wounded  se- 

Zoeller,  Frank  S.,  corporal,  Pilot  Grove,  wounded  (degree  undeter- 

Summary. — From  "Statistical  Summary  of  the  War  with  Germany" 
prepared  by  Col.  Leonard  P.  Ayres  authorized  by  the  War  Department  is 
extracted  the  following,  which,  of  course,  is  of  interest  to  our  readers: 

Among  each  100  Americans  five  took  up  arms  in  defense  of  the 

During  the  Civil  War  10  out  of  every  100  inhabitants  of  the  North- 
ern States  served  as  soldiers  or  sailors.  In  that  struggle  2,400,000  men 
sei-ved  in  the  Northern  army  and  the  navy. 

Between  April  6,  1917,  and  Nov.  11,  1918,  when  the  armistice  went 
into  effect  4,800,000  men  constituted  our  land  and  naval  forces.  Yet 
a  force  proportional  to  that  put  forth  by  the  North  during  the  Civil 
War  would  have  produced  nearly  10,000,000  American  fighting  men. 

The  British  sent  to  France  in  their  first  year  of  the  war  more  men 
than  did  the  United  States   in  the  first  twelve  months.     On  the  other 


hand,  it  took  England  three  years  to  reach  a  strength  of  2,000,000  men 
in  France,  while  the  United  States  was  able  to  place  that  number  across 
the  seas  in  one-half  that  time. 

The  organization  of  an  immense  army  as  that  of  the  United  States, 
its  equipment  and  transportation  across  the  ocean  has  never  been  equaled 
in  the  history  of  the  world. 

Two  out  of  every  three  American  soldiers  who  reached  France  took 
part  in  battle.  The  number  that  reached  France  was  2,084,000  and  of 
these  1,300,000  were  engaged  at  the  front. 

American  divisions  were  in  battle  for  200  days  and  engaged  in  13 
major  operations  from  the  middle  of  August  until  the  armistice. 

The  American  divisions  held  during  the  greater  part  of  the  time  a 
front  longer  than  that  held  by  the  British  in  October.  The  American 
divisions  held  101  miles  of  line  or  23  per  cent  of  the  entire  western  front. 

In  the  battle  of  Saint  Milhiel  550,000  Americans  were  engaged,  as 
compared  with  100,000  on  the  North  side  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg. 

The  artillery  fired  more  than  1,000,000  shells  in  four  hours,  which 
is  the  most  intense  concentration  of  artillery  fire  recorded  in  the  history 
of  the  world. 

The  Meuse-Argonne  battle  lasted  47  days,  during  which  1,200,000 
American  troops  were  engaged. 

During  the  period  of  hostilities  two  out  of  every  100  American  sol- 
diers were  killed  or  died  of  disease.  The  total  battle  death  of  all  nations 
in  this  war  was  greater  than  the  total  of  all  the  deaths  of  all  the  wars 
in  the  previous  100  years. 

For  every  man  killed  in  battle  seven  were  wounded. 

Five  out  of  every  six  men  sent  to  hospitals  on  account  of  wounds 
were  cured  and  returned  to  duty. 

In  the  expeditionary  forces  battle  deaths  were  twice  as  many  as 
death  from  disease. 

The  number  of  American  lives  lost  was  122,500,  of  which  about 
10,000  were  in  the  navy  and  the  rest  in  the  army  and  marines  attached 
to  it. 

The  war  cost  of  America  was  $21,850,000,000,  or  approximately 
$1,000,000  an  hour.  The  greatest  number  of  men  sent  over  seas  in  a 
single  month  was  306,000  and  the  largest  returned  home  in  a  single 
month  at  the  time  of  the  report  was  333,000. 


The  supplies  shipped  from  the  United  States  to  France  was  7,500,000 
tons  in  nineteen  months. 

The  registration  of  men  for  the  draft  was  24,234,021  and  of  these 
2,810,296  were  inducted  into  service.  The  largest  number  inducted  into 
the  service  in  a  single  month  was  400,000. 




Mexican  Border  Trouble. — Company  B,  3rd  Infantry,  National  Guard 
of  Missouri,  was  called  with  other  National  Guard  units  for  service  on  the 
Mexican  border  on  June  18,  1916.  Capt.  R.  A.  Johnston,  who  was  in  com- 
mand, left  Boonville  with  sitxy-seven  men  for  the  mobilization  camp  at 
the  government  reservation  near  Nevada,  Mo. 

The  departure  of  this  organization  caused  much  sorrow  among  the 
relatives  and  friends  of  the  men.  The  citizens  turned  out  in  masse, 
escorted  the  company  to  the  train,  and  gave  the  men  a  rousing  send-off. 
After  being  in  camp  at  Nevada  a  few  days  the  citizens  sent  a  committee 
headed  by  the  Mayor  and  presented  the  company  a  beautiful  silk  United 
States  standard. 

On  June  30,  1916,  the  men  were  examined  physically  and  formally 
mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  There  were  now  near 
ninety  men  in  the  company  as  Lt.  Carl  F.  Scheibner  had  been  left  in  Boon- 
ville when  the  company  departed  and  had  gathered  in  several  recruits. 
Also  several  men  recruited  in  other  places  had  been  assigned  to  Com- 
pany B. 

The  physical  examination  was  most  rigid  and  several  were  disqualified 
and  sent  back  home,  among  them  the  captain  of  Company  B. 

The  list  of  those  accepted  and  mustered  in  the  service  of  the  United 
States  follows: 

Company  B,  3d  Infantry,  Missouri  National  Guard.     Called  into  Fed- 


eral  service  June  18,  1916.     Mustered  into  Federal  service  June  30,  1916. 

Captain,  Rea  A.  Johnston ;  1st  Lt.,  William  F.  Short ;  2nd  Lt.,  Carl  F. 
Scheibner;  1st  Sgt,  John  S.  Cobb;  Mess  Sgt.,  Carl  A.  Miller;  Sgts.,  War- 
ren T.  Davis,  Martene  Corum,  John  Parker  Logan,  Juneious  C.  Davis,  Wil- 
liam Bell.  Corps.:  Forrest  Callahan,  Fred  A.  Kimlin,  Charles  Henry 
Huber,  James  A.  Ross,  Merl  J.  Barnert.  Cooks:  Morrison  C.  Sims,  Paul 
R.  Goode.  Artificer:  George  Potter.  Buglers:  Ralph  Brumbaugh,  Monte 
Coulter.  Privates :  Bailey,  Curtis  F. ;  Bottom,  Rolla  T. ;  Campbell,  James 
W. ;  Cauthon,  John;  Cochran,  John;  Cordes,  Dewey  E. ;  Culp,  Henry; 
Deuel,  Oscar  J. ;  Finn,  William  W. ;  Fowler,  Ira  0. ;  Haley,  James  J. ;  Haller, 
Manfred  H. ;  Howard,  Wallace  E. ;  Hutchison,  Presley  T. ;  Johnston, 
Eugene  E. ;  Kane,  John  D. ;  Kidwell,  John  H. ;  King,  Judd ;  Kohn,  William 
P. ;  Kratzer,  Leroy ;  Kreeger,  James ;  Lachner,  William  G. ;  Langhans, 
George ;  Lohse,  Edgar  C. ;  Long,  William ;  McAllister,  William ;  McRoberts, 
Emmett  F. ;  Mock,  Samuel  A.;  Moore,  Charles  S. ;  Pack,  Hardie;  Paxton, 
John;  Peeples,  Phillip;  Potter,  Henry  V.;  Potter,  John  R.,  Jr.;  Renfrow, 
Robert  C. ;  Schroeder,  Albert  W. ;  Shea,  John  E.,  Jr. ;  Sim,  Fred ;  Simmons, 
Webster  J. ;  Smalley,  Joe  B. ;  Spaete,  Ernest  F. ;  Stillwell,  Jesse  0. ;  Sum- 
merskill,  Marshal  J. ;  Tezon,  William ;  Von  Oertzen,  Robert ;  Walden,  Ewell 
K. ;  Webster,  James  H. ;  White,  Roger  E. ;  White,  Joseph  C. ;  Wilhite,  James 
F. ;  Wilmesher,  Herman ;  Yontz,  William  H. 

Organizations  of  Civil  War  Veterans. — A  Grand  Army  Post  was 
organized  in  Boonville,  on  Aug.  19,  1885  with  seventeen  members  and 
with  the  following  officers :  Col.  Joseph  A.  Eppestein,  Commander ;  Judge 
T.  M.  Rice,  Senior  Vice-Commander;  Capt.  George  Meller,  Junior  Vice- 
Commander;  P.  H.  McNulty,  Quartermaster;  Dr.  John  B.  Holman,  Sur- 
geon; Sylvester  Young,  Chaplain;  W.  C.  Culverhouse,  Officer  of  the  Day; 
James  Mitchell,  Officer  of  the  Guard;  Franklin  Swap,  Adjutant;  R.  W. 
Whitlow,  Sergeant-Major ;  and  W.  W.  Taliaferro,  Quartermaster  Sergeant. 
Capt.  E.  J.  Smith,  of  Sedalia,  Mo.,  was  the  special  mustering  officer  on 
the  occasion.  This  organization  was  named  John  A.  Hayn  Post  No.  240, 
Grand  Army  of  the  Republic.  The  Boonville  battle  having  been  the  first 
land  battle  of  the  Civil  War,  and  John  A.  Hayn  having  lost  his  life  in  that 
battle,  this  post  was  properly  named  in  his  honor,  he  being  the  first  soldier 
who  gave  his  life  for  the  Union  in  a  land  engagement. 

Judge  T.  M.  Rice  was  elected  Commander  of  the  Post  on  Dec.  21, 
1888,  and  appointed  R.  W.  Whitlow,  Adjutant  of  the  Post,  who  has  since 
continuously  served  as  Adjutant  of  the  Post  and  holds  that  office  at  this 


time.  Mr.  Whitlow  is  now  the  only  surviving  member  in  good  standing 
of  the  charter  membership. 

In  all  this  post  has  had  234  members.  Its  present  membership  con- 
sists of  only  27  as  follows:  Joseph  Leiber,  Commander;  R.  W.  Whitlow, 
Adjutant;  C.  C.  Bell,  Chaplain;  Peter  Trester,  Officer  of  the  Day;  John  W. 
Rudolph,  George  W.  Rudolph,  Mathew  R.  McDowell,  Walter  Bai-ron,  George 
W.  Drennen,  James  P.  Tally,  John  F.  Wassmann ;  William  T.  Tally,  Officer 
of  the  Guard;  Joseph  Memmel,  Charles  R.  Cartner;  F.  J.  Boiler,  quarter- 
master; Gottlieb  Baumann,  George  W.  Piper,  Junior  Vice-Commander; 
John  F.  Dilthey,  Senior  Vice-Commander;  Daniel  Muntzel,  August  Steg- 
ner,  Sergeant ;  Henry  Hoppe,  George  A.  Jacobs,  James  H.  Wilkinson,  Henry 
Roesler,  Gilbert  L.  Wilson,  Martin  L.  Weekly,  E.  H.  Rodgers. 

The  George  B.  Harper  Camp  No.  714  United  Veterans  of  the  Con- 
federacy was  organized  in  the  city  of  Boonville,  Aug.  17,  1895,  with  the 
following  roster  of  attending  veterans: 

Robert  McCulloch,  B.  F.  Bedwell,  J.  L.  Campbell,  A.  M.  George,  F.  M. 
Davis,  J.  C.  Berry,  Jan  Halley,  H.  Allen,  James  Powell,  E.  I.  Smith,  J.  H. 
B.  Street,  T.  B.  Simmons,  Amos  O'Neal,  R.  A.  Kirkbride,  W.  E.  Toler,  0. 
F.  Arnold,  W.  W.  Trent,  J.  E.  Fairchild,  J.  W.  Williams,  Isaac  Henry,  J. 
M.  Givens,  A.  W.  McFarland,  Eph  Simmons,  A.  L.  Zollinger,  John  M. 
Boyles,  J.  H.  Zollinger,  R.  E.  Howlett,  W.  H.  Eades,  J.  A.  Howard,  A.  G. 
Dinwiddie,  John  Heplin,  Dr.  H.  H.  Miller. 

Gen  Robert  McCulloch  was  elected  Commander  of  the  camp.  He  ap- 
pointed the  following  gentlemen  to  constitute  the  staff  for  the  eastern 
district  for  Missouri: 

Maj.  Harry  Hill,  Adjutant  General,  St.  Louis;  Maj.  James  F.  Edwards. 
Inspecting  General,  Forestell ;  Maj.  Edmund  Casey,  Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral, Potosi,  Washington  County;  Maj.  John  S.  Mellon,  Commissary-Gen- 
eral, St.  Louis;  Capt.  R.  E.  Howlett,  Surgeon-General,  Otterville,  Mo.; 
Capt.  A.  L.  Zollinger,  Aid-de-Camp,  Otterville,  Mo.;  Capt.  W.  W.  Trent, 
Asst.  Adjutant-General,  Boonville,  Mo. 

In  1904  the  Gen.  Dick  Taylor  consolidated  with  the  George  B.  Harper 
Camp  under  the  name  of  the  latter. 

The  last  meeting  of  this  camp  of  which  we  find  any  record  was  held 
at  Otterville,  Mo.,  on  Aug.  10,  1915.  At  the  present  time  Dr.  R.  E.  Howlett 
is  Commander-in-Chief;  James  Speed,  Second  Commander;  R.  T.  Draffen, 
Third  Commander;  and  the  following  appointive  officers,  C.  N.  Zollinger, 
Adjutant;  Arch  George,  Quartermaster;  W.  G.  Streit,  Commissary.  Some 
of  the  younger  officers  are  sons  of  veterans. 

The  Blue  and  the  Gray  have  given  way  to  the  khaki,  one  color,  one 


Union  and  a  united  love  of  country.     The  ranks  of  the  old  veterans  are 
sadly  thinning.     Alas,  alas,  the  fleeting  years  go  swiftly  by ! 

Horace  in  one  of  his  odes,  says: 

"Alas,  Postumus,  Postumus,  the  fleeting  years  glide  by, 
Nor  can  piety  bring  delay  to  wrinkles,  importunate  old  age, 
And  invisible  death." 

The  modern  poet,  in  his  liberal  translation  has  evolved  the  following 
touching  lines. 

"Ah,  Postumus,  the  years,  the  fleeting  years 
Still  onwards,  onwards  glide; 
Nor  mortal  virtue  may 
Time's  wrinkling  fingers  stay, 
Nor  Age's  sure  advance,  nor  Death's  all-conquering  stride." 

Otterville  Train  Robbery.— On  the  night  of  the  13th  of  July,  1876,  a 
passenger  train  on  the  Missouri  Pacific  Railroad,  was  robbed  about  one 
mile  east  of  Otterville,  in  Otterville  township,  by  a  band  of  eight  men. 
Their  names  were  Frank  and  Jesse  James,  Cole  and  John  Younger,  Bill 
Chadwell,  Clell  Miller,  Charley  Pitts  and  Hobbs  Kerry. 

After  opening  the  safe  of  the  United  States  Express  Company  and 
the  safe  of  the  Adams  Express  Company,  the  robbers  proceeded  the  same 
night  to  a  point  on  Flat  Creek,  where  they  divided  the  treasure,  which 
consisted  of  about  $22,000  in  money,  and  other  valuables,  such  as  jewelry, 
bonds,  coupons,  and  exchange,  which  were  being  carried  east  by  the 
express  companies.  They,  however,  took  nothing  with  them  but  the 
money.  At  the  point  above  named,  on  Flat  Creek,  Hobbs  Kerry,  one  of 
the  band,  separated  from  his  companions.  Hiding  his  saddle  and  bridle 
in  the  woods,  he  turned  his  horse  loose  on  the  prairie  and  walking  to 
Windsor,  took  the  Missouri,  Kansas  and  Texas  train  to  his  home  at  Gran  by, 
Mo.,  where  some  weeks  after  he  was  arrested.  He  confessed  the  crime 
and  guided  the  officers  of  the  law  to  the  place  where  the  robbers  had 
divided  the  money,  and  where  was  found  much  of  the  jewelry  and  other 
valuables  taken  by  them,  being  such  property  as  they  could  not  well  use, 
and  were  afraid  to  have  on  their  persons. 

At  the  November  term,  1876,  of  the  Cooper  Circuit  Court,  Hobbs 
Kerry  was  indicted,  and  at  the  April  term,  in  1877,  Kerry  was  tried,  con- 


victed  and  sentenced  to  four  years'   imprisonment   in  the  penitentiary. 
James  H.  Johnston,  prosecuted,  and  John  R.  Walker,  defended. 

Immediately  after  the  train  robbery  at  Otterville,  the  robbers  were 
joined  by  one  of  the  Younger  brothers,  the  youngest,  who  supplied  the 
place  of  Kerry,  and  all  proceeded  to  Northfield,  Minn.,  where  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  7th  day  of  Sept.,  1876,  in  the  attempt  to  rob  the  bank  at  that 
place,  Bill  Chadwell,  Clell  Miller  and  Charlie  Pitts,  were  killed  outright 
and  the  three  Youngers  were  wounded,  captured,  convicted  and  sentenced 
to  the  Minnesota  penitentiary.  The  James  brothers  made  their  escape  and 
were  engaged  in  many  robberies  subsequent  to  that  time.  Jesse  James 
was  killed  by  the  Ford  boys  (Bob  and  Charley),  on  the  3d  of  April,  1882. 
Frank  James,  afterwards,  and  in  Sept.,  1882,  surrendered  himself  to  Gov- 
ernor Crittenden,  of  Missouri,  in  the  executive  office,  in  Jefferson  City. 
He  quietly  walked  into  the  governor's  office,  announced  who  he  was,  un- 
buckled his  belt,  containing  his  pistols  and  cartridges,  and  handing  them 
to  the  governor,  surrendered. 

Sheriff  Cramer  Murdered. — On  the  night  of  March  21,  1890,  an  inci- 
dent occurred  which  evolved  a  train  of  events  culminating  in  the  murder 
of  a  noble  officer,  and  a  hangman's  noose  for  the  murderer.  A  man  who 
gave  his  name  when  arrested  as  William  E.  West,  and  his  comanion  named 
Temple  were  ejected  from  a  freight  train  at  Otterville,  on  the  night  of 
March  21,  1890. 

Upon  being  ejected,  West,  who  after  proved  to  be  Turlington,  shot  at 
the  brakeman  and  when  he  arrived  at  Sedalia,  he  was  arrested,  and  served 
a  term  in  jail  for  carrying  concealed  weapons.  When  his  time  had  ex- 
pired, he  was  brought  to  Cooper  County  on  a  charge  of  felonious  assault 
with  a  deadly  weapon,  the  shooting  at  the  brakeman  having  occurred  in 
Cooper  County. 

Turlington's  personality  was  pleasing,  rather  than  forbidding,  an:'. 
he  gave  no  appearance  of  being  the  hardened  character  and  criminal 
he  was.  It  was  at  this  time  that  the  warm  heart  of  Thomas  C.  Cranmer 
went  out  in  sympathy  to  his  prisoner,  and  it  was  upon  his  insistent  request 
that  the  firm  of  Cosgrove  &  Johnson,  both  warm  friends  of  Sheriff  Cran- 
mer, undertook  the  defense  of  Turlington.  By  reason  of  their  efforts 
and  the  intercession  of  Cranmer  Turlington  pleaded  guilty  and  received  a 
small  jail  sentence. 

On  Satui-day  evening,  June  14,  1890,  after  supper  had  been  given  the 
prisoners,  Sheriff  Cranmer  entered  the  jail  and  stood  at  the  door  of  the 
lower  cell  where  Turlington  was  confined,  while  a  trusty  removed  the 


dishes.  He  was  standing  with  his  left  hand  resting  on  the  door,  when 
Turlington  suddenly  appeared  and  said,  "Come  on,  throw  up  your  hands." 
Mr.  Cranmer  steped  back  and  drew  his  pistol.  West  sprang  through  the 
door  and  fired.  The  bullet  passed  through  Cranmer's  left  arm,  just  above 
the  wrist,  entered  the  left  side  of  the  abdomen,  passed  through  and  struck 
the  left  kidney,  and  lodged  in  his  back,  just  beneath  the  skin.  Almost 
at  the  same  time,  Cranmer  drew  his  pistol  and  fired  at  Turlington  and 
shot  at  him  a  second  time  before  Turlington  got  out  the  door. 

Cranmer,  although  mortally  wounded,  deliberately  turned,  closed, 
locked  the  jail  door  and  went  into  the  residence  part  of  the  jail  and  re- 
ported to  his  wife  that  he  had  been  shot.  Immediately  the  alarm  was 
given  and  pursuit  was  instituted.  Quite  a  number  of  citizens,  among 
whom  were  Joe  Green,  John  Thro,  Alex  Frost,  William  Koenig,  Frank 
Stover  succeeded  in  locating  Turlington,  but  as  they  were  unarmed,  and 
he  still  carried  his  large  pistol,  surrounded  him  and  sent  word  for  arms. 
Marshall  W.  W.  Taliaferro  and  policeman  Frank  Stretz  were  soon  on  the 
ground,  well  armed  and  at  their  command,  the  prisoner  surrendered  and 
was  returned  to  jail.     He  was  out  of  prison  less  than  an  hour. 

When  the  dying  sheriff  heard  of  the  capture,  with  a  characteristic 
desire  to  see  the  law  respected,  he  requested  that  no  violence  should  be 
done  his  assailant  and  that  he  should  be  dealt  with  according  to  the  laws 
of  the  land. 

Death  closed  the  eyes  of  Sheriff  Cranmer  at  about  seven-thirty  o'clock 
Sunday  morning.  The  news  that  Mr.  Cranmer  was  dead  spread  quickly. 
Men  gathered  in  groups  on  Main  street  and  discussed  the  terrible  and  sad 
affair.  The  indignation  so  generally  felt  through  the  night  was  more 
bitter  than  ever,  and  the  feeling  that  justice  should  be  meted  out  to  the 
murderer  at  once  became  intense. 

About  noon,  great  crowds  of  friends  of  Cranmer  from  different  sec- 
tions of  the  county  were  gathered  at  the  Central  National  Bank  corner 
and  as  they  looked  toward  the  jail,' their  faces  were  stamped  with  anger 
and  the  talk  was  of  taking  the  prisoner  out  to  his  death. 

At  this  time  the  Rev.  Doctor  Broaddus  ascended  the  bank  steps  and 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  crowd  for  a  short  time.  He  spoke  feelingly 
of  he  sorrowing  family  of  the  deceased  and  pronounced  pleasant  encom- 
iums upon  the  character  of  Cranmer.  He  told  how  the  widow  and  children 
had  been  left  in  straitened  circumstances  and  that  as  the  husband  and 
the  father  had  been  slain,  while  in  the  services  of  the  community,  if  the 
people  there  assembled  desired  to  do  something  in  memory  of  a  worthy 


officer,  it  became  them  best  to  raise  funds  for  the  assistance  of  the  family, 
rather  than  wreak  their  vengeance  upon  one  whom  the  law  would  punish. 

His  appeal  was  eloquent  and  touched  a  responsive  chord  in  the  hearts 
of  his  hearers  and  had  much  to  do  with  curbing  the  feeling  of  those  who 
might  have  eventuated  into  a  mob. 

While  Turlington  was  confined  in  the  jail  at  Sedalia,  he  met  and 
became  acquainted  with  West  Hensley,  of  Sedalia,  a  youth  of  some 
eighteen  or  nineteen  years.  Turlington  promised  him  that  if  he  would 
secure  for  him  and  bring  to  Boonville,  a  pistol,  he  would  pay  him  three 
hundred  dollars,  and  after  he  had  escaped  from  jail,  would  take  him  into 
the  business  of  robbing  and  stealing.  And  thus  playing  upon  the  imag- 
ination of  Hensley,  he  elicited  his  interest.  Hensley  came  to  Boonville 
the  Friday  before  the  murder  and  slipped  the  pistol  to  Turlington,  using 
a  ladder  to  reach  the  window  in  the  upper  tier  of  cells,  through  which  he 
passed  the  pistol.  Hensley  was  convicted  for  his  part  in  the  crime  and 
sentenced  to  the  penitentiary. 

On  Monday  night,  after  the  tragedy,  Turlington  confessed  that  his 
name  was  not  William  E.  West,  but  John  0.  Turlington,  and  that  his  part- 
ner's name  was  Temple.  He  also  confessed  of  having  robbed  a  passenger 
train  at  Prior  Creek,  I.  T.,  assisted  by  Temple.  Temple  was  at  the  time 
serving  a  term  in  the  Arkansas  penitentiary.  Turlington  had  served 
several  terms  in  jail  and  two  penitentiaries  and  when  arrested  in  this 
county,  was  eluding  the  officers  of  the  Tennessee  State  Prison. 

Turlington  was  convicted  of  murder  in  the  first  degree  and  the  penalty 
of  death  was  assessed  against  him.  His  case  came  up  for  trial  at  the 
July  term,  1890,  of  the  Circuit  Court,  and  on  the  25th  of  that  month,  the 
jury  found  him  guilty  of  murder  in  the  first  degree  and  he  was  sentenced 
to  be  hanged  Sept.  11,  1890.  His  case  was  appealed  to  the  Supreme  Court. 
That  court  on  the  27th  da  yof  January,  sustained  the  decision  of  the  lower 
court,  and  Friday  morning,  March  16,  1891,  was  the  time  for  his  execution. 

While  his  case  was  before  the  Supreme  Court,  on  the  night  of  Octo- 
ber 31,  he  made  his  escape  from  the  jail  under  peculiar  circumstances, 
while  two  guards  were  on  duty.  He  placed  a  dummy  in  his  bed  and  by 
this  means  deceived  those  who  were  guarding  him.  He  was  recaptured 
in  Caseyville,  Ky.,  and  once  more  returned  to  Boonville. 

Sheriff  A.  Hombeck,  who  succeeded  the  dead  sheriff,  kept  his  prisoner 
in  a  cell  day  and  night,  but  had  no  guards.  This  plan  worked  well  until 
on  the  morning  of  Dec.  26,  1890,  when  the  sheriff  found  that  his  prisoner 
had  once  more  escaped.     He  cut  out  the  top  of  his  cell  and  went  through 


the  trap  door  of  the  roof  and  by  the  aid  of  a  rope,  descended  to  the  ground. 
He  stole  the  sheriffs  horse  and  was  once  more  at  liberty.  He  was  re- 
captured the  same  night  at  Otterville  by  Messrs.  George  Potter  and  John 
Hayner.  This  was  his  third  and  last  escape  from  the  Boonville  jail.  He 
was  hanged  in  the  jail  yard. 

Thus  ended  the  career  of  a  desperate  man  that  had  brought  death 
and  sorrow  to  the  county  and  had  tested  the  loyalty  of  our  citizenship  to 
law  and  order. 

A.  B.  Thornton  Killed.— On  Saturday,  Nov.  17,  1881,  Thomas  H.  B. 
McDearmon,  shot  and  instantly  killed  A.  B.  Thornton,  editor  of  the  "Boon- 
ville News".     We  copy  from  the  "Advertiser"  of  Nov.  25,  1881: 

"On  Saturday  afternoon  last,  about  4:30,  our  city  was  suddenly 
thrown  into  a  state  of  excitement  seldom  before  witnessed  here.  The 
cause  of  the  excitement  was  the  hearing  of  many  of  rapid  pistol  firing 
up  Main  street,  and  the  quickly  following  report  that  "Tom  McDearmon 
had  killed  Thornton,"  which  report  grated  only  the  truth  on  the  ears  of 
the  unwilling  hearers,  for  Marshal  McDearmon  had,  at  a  moment  when 
maddened  with  indignation  at  the  publishing  of  a  very  severe  articie  on 
him  by  the  editor  of  the  "News"  sought  out  and  shot  and  instantly  killed 
Dr.  Thornton.  Some  weeks  ago,  Mr.  McDearmon  and  Dr.  Thornton  had 
a  dispute  and  difficulty  over  the  settlement  of  an  ice  bill,  which  was  fol- 
lowed by  the  publication  of  a  severe  article  on  McDearmon  in  the  "News". 
Mr.  McDearmon,  though  very  much  aggravated,  listened  to  his  friends 
and  took  no  notice  of  it  and  since  then  there  has  been  no  very  kind  feel- 
ings between  the  two." 

The  shooting  was  the  outcome  of  a  series  of  articles  which  Thornton 
had  published  in  his  paper  derogatory  to  the  official  conduct  of  McDearmon. 

McDearmon  had  a  preliminary  examination  and  was  bound  over  to 
answer  an  indictment  at  the  succeeding  term  of  the  Circuit  Court.  He 
was  prosecuted  by  John  R.  Walker,  county  attorney,  and  defended  by  Cos- 
grove  and  Johnston.  The  case  was  taken  to  Boone  County,  on  a  change 
of  venue,  and  there  tried  at  the  March  term  in  1882. 

The  case  was  quite  an  exciting  one,  there  being  much  interest  taken 
in  the  proceedings  and  in  the  result.     McDearmon  was  acquitted. 

The  Prohibition  Question.— Again  in  July,  1887,  the  vital  question, 
"Wet  or  Dry",  or  "Saloon  or  no  Saloon",  was  raised  in  Boonville.  This 
campaign  was  in  sharp  contrast  to  that  of  1853,  to  which  we  have  already 
referred.  Deep  interest  was  taken  in  the  campaign,  but  the  appeal  to  the 
voters  was  rational  and  free  from  malice  and  passion.     It  was  conducted 


by  the  citizens  of  Boonville  and  no  imported  talent  was  brought  into  the 
city  to  arouse  to  riotous  feelings  those  who  could  be  so  affected.  The 
ministers  of  the  city  were  active,  and  those  in  favor  of  the  saloons  wer<? 
equally  so.  The  remarkable  feature  of  this  campaign  was  that  no  hard 
feelings  were  engendered  and  after  the  result  of  the  election  was  made 
known,  friends  were  yet  friends,  and  neighbors  still  neighbors.  The  spirit 
of  live  and  charity  prevailed.  At  this  time  there  were  probably  twelve 
or  fifteen  saloons  in  Boonville,  and  the  temperance  wave  was  not  nearly 
so  strong  and  great  as  it  has  been  in  recent  years.  Yet  the  saloons  pre- 
dominated only  by  a  majority  of  105,  the  vote  for  the  saloons  being  428 
and  against  323. 

The  "Wet  and  Dry"  issue  was  not  again  raised  in  Boonville  until  the 
year  1915.  At  this  time  a  large  tabernacle,  at  the  cost  of  between  two 
and  three  thousand  dollars,  was  erected  in  the  city  and  Rev.  Charles  T. 
Wheeler  was  secured  to  conduct  therein  a  revival.  Mr.  Wheeler  was  an 
experienced  dry  leader  and  the  meeting  was  soon  turned  into  an  organ- 
ization to  direct  the  campaign  for  the  "drys".  He  was  a  forceful  and 
strong  speaker  and  in  his  arguments  used  plain  and  not  always  pleasant 

Great  crowds  attended  the  meetings,  both  from  the  city  and  from  the 
surrounding  country.  The  support  of  the  preachers  and  various  congre- 
gations were  elicited  and  secured.  Day  by  day  the  excitement  increased 
and  the  feeling  was  intensified.  On  a  proper  petition,  an  election  was 
called  in  the  city  of  Boonville  for  Dec.  3,  1915.  Those  who  advocated 
the  saloons  or  the  saloon  organization  brought  into  the  city  speakers  from 
a  distance,  who  held  their  meetings  in  the  opera  house,  which  on  each 
occasion  was  crowded  and  packed.  Yet  on  the  occasion  of  each  of  these 
meetings  the  tabernacle  of  the  Drys  was  equally  thronged.  A  week  or 
so  before  the  day  of  the  election  the  Drys  in  squads  of  fives  or  sixes 
patrolled  the  streets  and  alleys  of  the  city  during  the  late  hours  of  the 
night  and  the  early  hours  of  the  morning. 

Just  before  the  election  at  night  a  monster  and  spectacular  parade 
was  organized  by  the  Drys  in  which  participated  men,  women,  boys  and 
girls,  both  from  the  surrounding  country  and  the  city.  They  were  garbed 
in  sheets  fashioned  around  them  with  a  red  cross  showing  in  front.  Many 
men  were  horseback  and  a  great  number  of  automobiles,  loaded  to  their 
capacity,  made  up  part  of  this  parade,  all  of  which  intensified  and 
strengthened  the  feelings  of  the  respective  parties  to  the  issue. 

The  result  of  this  election  of  December  3,  was  721  for,  405  against, 
the  majority  in  favor  of  licensing  saloons  being  316. 


The  Drys,  however,  not  being  discouraged,  by  proper  petition  called 
for  an  election  on  the  same  issue  in  the  county,  excluding  Boonville.  This 
campaign  was  orderly  and  well  conducted  and  no  special  bitterness  was 
aroused  in  the  country.  The  election  was  held  on  Feb.  10,  1916,  which 
resulted  as  follows:  Against,  1,756,  for,  1,445,  showing  that  outside  of 
Boonville,  the  majority  against  the  licensing  of  saloons  was  311. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  time  will  soon  heal  the  wounds  caused  by  the 
campaign  of  1915,  that  the  years  will  not  be  many  before  those  who  were 
deeply  interested  in  the  exciting  controversy  can  look  back  upon  it  as  an 
experience  of  the  past  and  its  incidents  not  to  be  held  with  prejudice 
against  those  with  whom  they  differed  and  with  whom  they  now  mingle 
and  associate  from  day  to  day.  It  is  the  common  experience  of  mankind 
that  when  ones  interest  becomes  too  deeply  intensified  and  feeling  runs 
riot  the  tongue  becomes  an  unruly  member  and  even  he  who  has'  been 
known  as  well  balanced  may  do  and  say  things  that  in  cooler  moments  he 
would  not  care  to  say  and  do.  It  is  therefore  well  to  draw  the  veil  of 
charity  over  the  faults  and  foibles  of  our  neighbors,  who  perchance  may 
have  given  way  to  the  enthusiasm  and  excitement  of  the  moment. 

The  statu  quo  with  reference  to  saloons  continued  until  June  30,  1919. 
Saturday,  June  28th  and  Monday,  30th,  were  active,  busy  days  in  Boon- 
ville, especially  at  nights  when  the  streets  were  hardly  long  enough  nor 
broad  enough  to  accommodate  the  numerous  automobiles  from  far  and 
near.  On  these  days  some  of  the  erstwhile  dry  leaders  as  well  as  the 
occasional  Wet  advocates  and  practitioners  were  protecting  themselves 
from  the  drouth  to  come.  The  saloons  did  an  enormous  business.  On 
both  days  the  crowd  was  good-natured  and  there  was  neither  rejoicing 
or  shedding  or  tears.  Monday  night  marked  the  last  night  of  the  saloons 
under  the  act  of  Congress  closing  them  during  the  period  of  war  and  until 
the  demobilization  of  the  army.  National  prohibition  goes  into  effect  in 
Jan.,  1920,  but  even  before  the  constitutional  amendment  of  prohibition 
was  ratified  by  the  states  three-fourths  of  the  United  States  was  already 
dry  territory.  Of  the  48  states,  32  were  "bone-dry"  without  any  federal 
law,  and  local  option  had  dried  up  practically  three-fourths  of  the  remain- 
ing territory.  Whether  or  not  the  saloons  will  be  permitted  to  open 
before  Jan.,  1920,  the  future  historian  must  record. 




Hon.  Jacob  Friedrich  Gmelich. — Success  is  measured  by  the  degree 
of  an  individual's  accomplishments  during  his  lifetime,  what  he  does  in 
his  own  behalf  and  in  behalf  of  his  fellow  men  are  taken  as  true  crite- 
rions  of  the  measure  of  his  success.  If  this  be  true,  the  late  Hon.  Jacob 
F.  Gmelich,  for  many  years  an  influential  figure  in  Cooper  County  and 
Missouri,  was  a  successful  citizen  in  every  sense.  Coming  to  America 
from  a  foreign  land  in  his  boyhood  days,  making  of  himself  a  skilled  arti- 
san, becoming  a  shrewd  and  successful  business  man,  engaging  in  politics, 
and  evincing  ability  as  a  statesman,  he  held  two  of  the  highest  offices 
within  the  gift  of  the  people  of  Missouri  when  at  the  zenith  of  his  inter- 
esting career. 

Mr.  Gmelich  was  born  July  23,  1839,  and  died  Feb.  21,  1914.  At  the 
age  of  12  years  he  accompanied  his  parents,  Jacob  and  Barbara  (Walter) 
Gmelich,  to  America.  After  remaining  in  Ohio  a  short  time,  the  family 
located  at  Peru,  111.,  where  Mr.  Gmelich  was  reared  and  educated,  learn- 
ing the  trade  of  watchmaker  and  jeweler.  He  spent  two  years  in  Chi- 
cago, employed  at  his  trade ;  then  spent  one  and  a  half  years  in  St.  Louis ; 
was  married  in  1861,  and  in  May  of  that  year  he  located  in  Boonville. 
During  the  previous  year  he  had  made  a  trip  to  Boonville  and  purchased 
the  stock  and  good  will  of  a  small  jewelry  store.  During  the  Civil  War 
he  was  a  member  of  the  Missouri  State  Guards,  and  participated  in  the 
Battle  of  Boonville.  When  Shelby's  raiders  captured  Boonville,  his  store 
was  looted,  but  Mr.  Gmelich  induced  the  commanding  officer  to  give  him 
a  receipt  for  the  watches  belonging  to  his  patrons  which  were  taken  away 
by  the  Confederates.  His  store  was  closed  for  six  weeks  while  he  was 
away  on  soldier  duty.  In  1864,  he  went  to  St.  Louis,  made  a  visit  to 
Peru,  111.,  and  then  remained  in  St.  Louis  until  the  close  of  the  Civil  War 
in  1865.  A  brother,  Gottlieb  Gmelich,  was  a  soldier  in  the  Union  Army. 
After  the  war,  Mr.  Gmelich  built  up  an  extensive  business  in  Boonville 
and  the  surrounding  country,  and  amassed  considerable  wealth.  He  pur- 
chased a  three-story  brick  residence  on  High  Street,  where  the  family 
lived  for  28  years  prior  to  taking  up